Play Video
1
How Do You "Do" Bokeh?
How Do You "Do" Bokeh?
::2012/02/03::
Play Video
2
Amazing bokeh photo technique
Amazing bokeh photo technique
::2012/12/25::
Play Video
3
Bokeh on a budget - kit lens demo
Bokeh on a budget - kit lens demo
::2013/01/01::
Play Video
4
Bokeh Photography Tutorial
Bokeh Photography Tutorial
::2010/12/16::
Play Video
5
Creating Bokeh: A Lighting Tutorial
Creating Bokeh: A Lighting Tutorial
::2013/01/11::
Play Video
6
Canon 50mm f1.0 - Bokeh Porn
Canon 50mm f1.0 - Bokeh Porn
::2014/01/30::
Play Video
7
The Canon Lens Wars Ultimate Bokeh Showdown!
The Canon Lens Wars Ultimate Bokeh Showdown!
::2014/02/19::
Play Video
8
Amazing bokeh photo technique
Amazing bokeh photo technique
::2013/07/05::
Play Video
9
Guide on how to make funny "Bokeh Shapes"
Guide on how to make funny "Bokeh Shapes"
::2011/02/22::
Play Video
10
Battle of the Bokeh: Nikon 85mm f/1.4 D vs Sigma 85mm f/1.4
Battle of the Bokeh: Nikon 85mm f/1.4 D vs Sigma 85mm f/1.4
::2010/10/27::
Play Video
11
King of BOKEH - 4 great Nikon lenses
King of BOKEH - 4 great Nikon lenses
::2012/04/28::
Play Video
12
Create a BOKEH Effect in Photoshop! | IceflowStudios
Create a BOKEH Effect in Photoshop! | IceflowStudios
::2013/10/03::
Play Video
13
Foto Basics - FOTOS mit unscharfem Hintergrund (Bokeh) Fotografieren - Marcusfotos.de
Foto Basics - FOTOS mit unscharfem Hintergrund (Bokeh) Fotografieren - Marcusfotos.de
::2013/01/12::
Play Video
14
Especial dia dos namorados - Bokeh com formato de coração.
Especial dia dos namorados - Bokeh com formato de coração.
::2013/06/12::
Play Video
15
Cambiar la forma del bokeh de la cámara con filtros de cartón
Cambiar la forma del bokeh de la cámara con filtros de cartón
::2012/12/16::
Play Video
16
Cách chụp ảnh Bokeh, Bokeh Photography
Cách chụp ảnh Bokeh, Bokeh Photography
::2013/04/28::
Play Video
17
Canon 50mm f/1.2 L vs Leica Noctilux f/0.95 (Battle of Bokeh)
Canon 50mm f/1.2 L vs Leica Noctilux f/0.95 (Battle of Bokeh)
::2011/04/13::
Play Video
18
How to Make Custom Bokeh Shapes
How to Make Custom Bokeh Shapes
::2010/08/18::
Play Video
19
Dicas de Fotografia - DIY - BOKEH Personalizado
Dicas de Fotografia - DIY - BOKEH Personalizado
::2013/09/28::
Play Video
20
How to Create Bokeh Effect in Studio
How to Create Bokeh Effect in Studio
::2013/01/30::
Play Video
21
Trick photography, Bokeh
Trick photography, Bokeh
::2012/09/21::
Play Video
22
Create Bokeh! - Photoshop
Create Bokeh! - Photoshop
::2014/04/04::
Play Video
23
Aperture & Bokeh - Kit Lens vs a Prime Lens
Aperture & Bokeh - Kit Lens vs a Prime Lens
::2013/11/12::
Play Video
24
Qu
Qu'est ce que le BOKEH - cours photo gratuit
::2013/07/22::
Play Video
25
Lezioni di fotografia sempliciotta: il bokeh
Lezioni di fotografia sempliciotta: il bokeh
::2010/05/03::
Play Video
26
Intermediário Aula 17 - Bokeh - Fundo desfocado - Como fazer - Sit Kong Sang
Intermediário Aula 17 - Bokeh - Fundo desfocado - Como fazer - Sit Kong Sang
::2013/02/24::
Play Video
27
Photoshopping Digital Bokeh Tutorial (@PhotoGuides)
Photoshopping Digital Bokeh Tutorial (@PhotoGuides)
::2010/02/23::
Play Video
28
Fotografía Creativa - Efecto Bokeh Personalizado
Fotografía Creativa - Efecto Bokeh Personalizado
::2012/12/11::
Play Video
29
Photo : comment faire un bokeh en 5 minutes !
Photo : comment faire un bokeh en 5 minutes !
::2012/12/21::
Play Video
30
DIY BOKEH SCHABLONEN BASTEL TUTORIAL MIT DEN SPACE FROGS
DIY BOKEH SCHABLONEN BASTEL TUTORIAL MIT DEN SPACE FROGS
::2012/12/09::
Play Video
31
Bokeh Photography
Bokeh Photography
::2013/09/05::
Play Video
32
4 Tips to Get Great Bokeh Effect with a Kit Lens
4 Tips to Get Great Bokeh Effect with a Kit Lens
::2013/12/30::
Play Video
33
18-55mm kit lens - BOKEH on a budget
18-55mm kit lens - BOKEH on a budget
::2013/01/08::
Play Video
34
Photoshop: How to Make a BOKEH Background & Text Effect
Photoshop: How to Make a BOKEH Background & Text Effect
::2014/01/02::
Play Video
35
Battle of the Bokeh - Canon, Nikon Sigma 35mm f/1.4
Battle of the Bokeh - Canon, Nikon Sigma 35mm f/1.4
::2013/02/02::
Play Video
36
The Brenizer Method: Bokeh Panorama
The Brenizer Method: Bokeh Panorama
::2011/05/18::
Play Video
37
Bokeh Photography Effect
Bokeh Photography Effect
::2011/06/03::
Play Video
38
Nokia Pro Camera Tutorial   Focus and Bokeh
Nokia Pro Camera Tutorial Focus and Bokeh
::2013/09/29::
Play Video
39
Depth of Field - Bokeh
Depth of Field - Bokeh
::2010/06/07::
Play Video
40
Bokeh & Art (Samsung NX Lens)
Bokeh & Art (Samsung NX Lens)
::2012/02/08::
Play Video
41
Battle of the Bokeh: Nikkor 50mm f/1.8D vs Canon 50mm f/1.8 II
Battle of the Bokeh: Nikkor 50mm f/1.8D vs Canon 50mm f/1.8 II
::2010/07/13::
Play Video
42
Fotoğraf Çekim Teknikleri- Bokeh Nasıl Yapılır
Fotoğraf Çekim Teknikleri- Bokeh Nasıl Yapılır
::2013/10/09::
Play Video
43
How to lasercut custom bokeh filters if you don
How to lasercut custom bokeh filters if you don't own a lasercutter
::2013/04/29::
Play Video
44
23 HD Bokeh Overlays/Sparkles [Download]
23 HD Bokeh Overlays/Sparkles [Download]
::2013/01/29::
Play Video
45
Como fazer Fundo Desfocado com bolinhas ? (EFEITO BOKEH)
Como fazer Fundo Desfocado com bolinhas ? (EFEITO BOKEH)
::2013/01/21::
Play Video
46
Uzyskiwanie ciekawego efektu bokeh
Uzyskiwanie ciekawego efektu bokeh
::2012/01/10::
Play Video
47
Tutorial - Como Fazer o Efeito
Tutorial - Como Fazer o Efeito '' Bokeh '' ( bolinhas transparentes ) no PHOTOSCAPE
::2012/06/07::
Play Video
48
DSLR Tutorial: Bokeh
DSLR Tutorial: Bokeh
::2011/06/24::
Play Video
49
Bokeh Showdown! Series introduction
Bokeh Showdown! Series introduction
::2012/04/22::
Play Video
50
How to: Shaped Bokeh
How to: Shaped Bokeh
::2012/01/15::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Coarse bokeh on a photo shot with an 85 mm lens and 70 mm entrance pupil diameter, which corresponds to f/1.2

In photography, bokeh (Originally /ˈbkɛ/,[1] /ˈbk/ BOH-kay — also sometimes pronounced as /ˈbkə/ BOH-kə,[2] Japanese: [boke]) is the blur,[3][4] or the aesthetic quality of the blur,[5][6][7] in out-of-focus areas of an image. Bokeh has been defined as "the way the lens renders out-of-focus points of light".[8] Differences in lens aberrations and aperture shape cause some lens designs to blur the image in a way that is pleasing to the eye, while others produce blurring that is unpleasant or distracting—"good" and "bad" bokeh, respectively.[3] Bokeh occurs for parts of the scene that lie outside the depth of field. Photographers sometimes deliberately use a shallow focus technique to create images with prominent out-of-focus regions.

Bokeh is often most visible around small background highlights, such as specular reflections and light sources, which is why it is often associated with such areas.[3] However, bokeh is not limited to highlights; blur occurs in all out-of-focus regions of the image.

Origin[edit]

The term comes from the Japanese word boke (暈け or ボケ), which means "blur" or "haze", or boke-aji (ボケ味), the "blur quality". The Japanese term boke is also used in the sense of a mental haze or senility.[9] The term bokashi (暈かし) is related, meaning intentional blurring or gradation.

The English spelling bokeh was popularized in 1997 in Photo Techniques magazine, when Mike Johnston, the editor at the time, commissioned three papers on the topic for the March/April 1997 issue; he altered the spelling to suggest the correct pronunciation to English speakers, saying "it is properly pronounced with bo as in bone and ke as in Kenneth, with equal stress on either syllable".[4] The spellings bokeh and boke have both been in use at least since 1996, when Merklinger had suggested "or Bokeh if you prefer."[10] The term bokeh has appeared in photography books at least since 1998.[5] It is sometimes pronounced /ˈbkə/ (boke-uh).[2]

Bokeh and lens design[edit]

The depth of field is the region where the size of the circle of confusion is less than the resolution of the human eye.
An extremely shallow depth of field, a common effect in macrophotography, emphasizes bokeh.
200 mm lens at f/2.
An example of the bokeh produced by the Canon 85 mm prime f/1.8 lens. The polygonal shapes are due to the 8-bladed aperture diaphragm being slightly closed. At its full aperture (f/1.8) these shapes would be smooth and not polygonal.
The bokeh produced by a catadioptric lens (also called a mirror lens).
Catadioptric lens bokeh seen in more detail.

Though difficult to quantify, some lenses have subjectively more pleasing out-of-focus areas. "Good" bokeh is especially important for macro lenses and long telephoto lenses, because they're typically used in situations that produce shallow depth of field. Good bokeh is also important for medium telephoto lenses (typically 85–150 mm on 35 mm format). When used in portrait photography (for their "natural" perspective), the photographer usually wants a shallow depth of field, so that the subject stands out sharply against a blurred background.

Bokeh characteristics may be quantified by examining the image's circle of confusion. In out-of-focus areas, each point of light becomes an image of the aperture, generally a more or less round disc. Depending how a lens is corrected for spherical aberration, the disc may be uniformly illuminated, brighter near the edge, or brighter near the center. Lenses that are poorly corrected for spherical aberration will show one kind of disc for out-of-focus points in front of the plane of focus, and a different kind for points behind. This may actually be desirable, as blur circles that are dimmer near the edges produce less-defined shapes which blend smoothly with the surrounding image.

An example of the creative application of bokeh.

The shape of the aperture has an influence on the subjective quality of bokeh as well. For conventional lens designs (with bladed apertures), when a lens is stopped down smaller than its maximum aperture size (minimum f-number), out-of-focus points are blurred into the polygonal shape formed by the aperture blades. This is most apparent when a lens produces hard-edged bokeh. For this reason, some lenses have many aperture blades and/or blades with curved edges to make the aperture more closely approximate a circle rather than a polygon. Minolta has been on the forefront of promoting and introducing lenses with near-ideal circular apertures since 1987, but most other manufacturers now offer lenses with shape-optimized diaphragms, at least for the domain of portraiture photography. In contrast, a catadioptric telephoto lens renders bokehs resembling doughnuts, because its secondary mirror blocks the central part of the aperture opening. Recently, photographers have exploited the shape of the bokeh by creating a simple mask out of card with shapes such as hearts or stars, that the photographer wishes the bokeh to be, and placing it over the lens.[11]

Leica lenses, especially vintage ones, are often claimed to excel in bokeh quality because they used to have 11, 12, or 15 blades. Because of this, the lenses don't need to reach high apertures to get better circles (instead of polygons). In the past, high aperture lenses (f/2, f/2.8) were very expensive due to their complex mathematical design and manufacturing know-how, at a time when all computations and glass making were done by hand. And Leica could reach a good bokeh at f/4.5. Today it is much easier to make f/1.8 lens, and a 9-bladed lens at f/1.8 is enough for an 85mm lens to achieve a great bokeh.

Some lens manufacturers including Nikon,[12] Minolta, and Sony make lenses designed with specific controls to change the rendering of the out-of-focus areas.

The Nikon 105 mm DC-Nikkor and 135 mm DC-Nikkor lenses (DC stands for "Defocus Control") have a control ring that permits the over-correction or under-correction of spherical aberration to change the bokeh in front of and behind the focal plane.

The Minolta/Sony STF 135mm f/2.8 [T4.5] (with STF standing for smooth trans focus) is a lens specifically designed to produce pleasing bokeh. Is possible to choose between two diaphragms: one with 9 and another with 10 blades. An apodization filter is used to soften the aperture edges which results in a smooth defocused area with gradually fading circles. Those qualities make it the only lens of this kind currently on the market.

The 'Sigma YS System Focusing' 135mm f/2.8 also has an extra manually-moved component, intended to compensate for aberration at close-focus distances. It can be re-purposed for defocus control. [13]

Emulation[edit]

No bokeh or blur Synthetic bokeh Gaussian blur

Bokeh can be simulated by convolving the image with a kernel that corresponds to the image of an out-of-focus point source taken with a real camera. Unlike conventional convolution, this convolution has a kernel that depends on the distance of each image point and – at least in principle – has to include image points that are occluded by objects in the foreground.[14] Also, bokeh is not just any blur. To a first approximation, defocus blur is convolution by a uniform disk, a more computationally intensive operation than the "standard" Gaussian blur; the former produces sharp circles around highlights whereas the latter is a much softer effect. Diffraction may alter the effective shape of the blur. Some graphics editors have a filter to do this, usually called "Lens Blur."[15]

An alternative mechanical mechanism has been proposed for generating bokeh in small aperture cameras such as compacts or cellphone cameras, called image destabilisation,[16][17] in which both the lens and sensor are moved in order to maintain focus at one focal plane, while defocusing nearby ones. This effect currently generates blur in only one axis.

Some advanced digital cameras have bokeh features which take several images with different apertures and focuses and then manually compose them afterward to one image. More advanced systems of bokeh use a hardware system of 2 sensors, one sensor to take photo as usual while other ones record depth information. Bokeh effect and refocusing can then be applied to an image after the photo is taken.[18]

To realize that bokeh optical effect needs big diameter lens with big diameter aperture which it cannot be applied in mobile phone and tablet, Android 4.4 Kit-kat has Android Camera App for Lens Blur with algorithm to simulate large diameter lens and big aperture.[19]

Other applications[edit]

In 2009,[20] a research group at MIT Media Lab showed that the bokeh effect can be used to make imperceptibly small barcodes, or bokodes. By using barcodes as small as 3 mm with a small lens over them, if the barcode is viewed out of focus through an ordinary camera focused at infinity, the resulting image is large enough to scan the information in the barcode.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bokeh in Pictures". Luminous-landscape.com. 2004-04-04. Retrieved 2011-11-15. 
  2. ^ a b Wes McDermott (2009). Real World Modo: The Authorized Guide: In the Trenches with Modo. Focal Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-240-81199-4. 
  3. ^ a b c Harold Davis (2008). Practical Artistry: Light & Exposure for Digital Photographers. O'Reilly Media. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-596-52988-8. 
  4. ^ a b Johnston, Mike (April 4, 2004). "The Sunday Morning Photographer, 2004: Bokeh in Pictures". The Luminous Landscape. Retrieved July 3, 2009. 
  5. ^ a b Gerry Kopelow (1998). How to photograph buildings and interiors (2nd ed.). Princeton Architectural Press. pp. 118–119. ISBN 978-1-56898-097-3. 
  6. ^ Roger Hicks and Christopher Nisperos (2000). Hollywood Portraits: Classic Shots and How to Take Them. Amphoto Books. p. 132. ISBN 978-0-8174-4020-6. 
  7. ^ Tom Ang (2002). Dictionary of Photography and Digital Imaging: The Essential Reference for the Modern Photographer. Watson–Guptill. ISBN 0-8174-3789-4. 
  8. ^ "PhotoWords/Lens". PhotoGuide Japan. 
  9. ^ John W. Traphagan (2000). Taming oblivion: aging bodies and the fear of senility in Japan. SUNY Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-7914-4499-3. 
  10. ^ Merklinger, Harold. "Understanding Boke". The Luminous Landscape. Retrieved July 3, 2009. 
  11. ^ Karsten Stroemvig. "DIY — Create your own Bokeh". 
  12. ^ http://www.europe-nikon.com/en_GB/product/nikkor-lenses/auto-focus-lenses/fx/single-focal-length/af-dc-nikkor-135mm-f-2d (Nikon 135mm f/2 DC)
  13. ^ Markus Keinath. "Cheap DC Nikkor Substitute". 
  14. ^ Potmesil, M.; Chakravarty, I. (1982), Synthetic Image Generation with a Lens and Aperture Camera Model, ACM Transactions on Graphics 1 (2 (1982)), ACM, pp. 85–108, doi:10.1145/357299.357300, ISSN 0730-0301 
  15. ^ Adobe Photoshop CS3 Livedocs. "Add lens blur". [dead link]
  16. ^ Giles, Jim. "Next-generation cameras bring photography tricks to the masses". New Scientist (Subscription required). Retrieved 2011-04-04. 
  17. ^ Ankit Mohan and Douglas Lanman and Shinsaku Hiura and Ramesh Raskar. "Image Destabilization: Programmable Defocus using Lens and Sensor Motion". 
  18. ^ Lars Rehm (March 25, 2014). "HTC launches One M8 with new 'Duo Camera'". 
  19. ^ "Google Releases Android Camera App". April 18, 2014. 
  20. ^ Fildes, Jonathan (2009-07-27). "Technology | Barcode replacement shown off". BBC News. Retrieved 2012-02-19. 
  21. ^ Mohan, A., Woo, G, Hiura, S, Smithwick, Q, Raskar, R. Bokode: Imperceptible Visual Tags for Camera Based Interaction from a Distance. ACM SIGGRAPH 2009.

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014