Play Video
1
War news from China
War news from China's armies in southeast Asia,1944
::2013/11/19::
Play Video
2
WW2 - Japanese Invasion of China | The Second Sino-Japanese War | 1937-45 | World War II Documentary
WW2 - Japanese Invasion of China | The Second Sino-Japanese War | 1937-45 | World War II Documentary
::2013/10/15::
Play Video
3
WW2 - Payoff in the Pacific | PART 2 | War with Japan | 1944-1945 | Combat Scenes | WWII Documentary
WW2 - Payoff in the Pacific | PART 2 | War with Japan | 1944-1945 | Combat Scenes | WWII Documentary
::2013/09/21::
Play Video
4
US P-40 Warhawks bomb Japanese positions in Battle of Myitkina during Burma campa...HD Stock Footage
US P-40 Warhawks bomb Japanese positions in Battle of Myitkina during Burma campa...HD Stock Footage
::2014/05/19::
Play Video
5
China Builds Airfields For B-29 Bombers (1944)
China Builds Airfields For B-29 Bombers (1944)
::2011/08/29::
Play Video
6
Commando Duck: Donald Duck Against the Japanese | 1944 | WW2 Animated Propaganda Film by Walt Disney
Commando Duck: Donald Duck Against the Japanese | 1944 | WW2 Animated Propaganda Film by Walt Disney
::2013/11/25::
Play Video
7
WAR NEWS FROM CHINA
WAR NEWS FROM CHINA'S ARMIES IN SOUTHEAST ASIA [ETC.]
::2011/03/27::
Play Video
8
Dramatic Sniper Footage - War Action in Burmese Jungle (1944)
Dramatic Sniper Footage - War Action in Burmese Jungle (1944)
::2011/08/30::
Play Video
9
I Was There - Guam A Cameraman
I Was There - Guam A Cameraman's Narrative (1944)
::2014/04/13::
Play Video
10
BURMA WW2, THE WAR YEARS 1944
BURMA WW2, THE WAR YEARS 1944
::2011/05/17::
Play Video
11
Watch Bombers Used in Second world war 1939-45
Watch Bombers Used in Second world war 1939-45
::2014/03/01::
Play Video
12
CBU ree-nacment . Reconstitution théâtre d
CBU ree-nacment . Reconstitution théâtre d'opération asiatique 1944
::2013/06/12::
Play Video
13
The Sablenk - Jogja Noise Bombing 2013 (Part 1)
The Sablenk - Jogja Noise Bombing 2013 (Part 1)
::2013/11/18::
Play Video
14
Southeast Asia War Gallery Video
Southeast Asia War Gallery Video
::2014/05/02::
Play Video
15
WW2 film of Hawker Hurricanes in SE Asia
WW2 film of Hawker Hurricanes in SE Asia
::2013/05/06::
Play Video
16
Bloody War with the Japanese Invaders - The Philippines Hell_WWII Documentary on the Pacific Theatre
Bloody War with the Japanese Invaders - The Philippines Hell_WWII Documentary on the Pacific Theatre
::2013/05/05::
Play Video
17
Confrontation between Vietnam and China overshadows summit
Confrontation between Vietnam and China overshadows summit
::2014/05/13::
Play Video
18
WW2: Operation Matterhorn - B-29
WW2: Operation Matterhorn - B-29's In China, Burma & India Theater Of Operations (1944)
::2014/03/09::
Play Video
19
Lord Louis Mountbatten meets and talks enlisted men of 51st Brigade of 25th India...HD Stock Footage
Lord Louis Mountbatten meets and talks enlisted men of 51st Brigade of 25th India...HD Stock Footage
::2014/03/10::
Play Video
20
Invasion Scenes - Far East (1944)
Invasion Scenes - Far East (1944)
::2014/04/13::
Play Video
21
B-29 Operation Matterhorn CBI Theater Of Operations WWII
B-29 Operation Matterhorn CBI Theater Of Operations WWII
::2007/07/19::
Play Video
22
1942 The Taking of Singapore - Japanese Footage Only
1942 The Taking of Singapore - Japanese Footage Only
::2013/03/31::
Play Video
23
Great South East Asian war
Great South East Asian war
::2013/04/07::
Play Video
24
Donald Duck Cartoons Full Episodes - Commando Duck 1944
Donald Duck Cartoons Full Episodes - Commando Duck 1944
::2014/02/25::
Play Video
25
Pearl Harbour bombing IN COLOR FULL Documentary
Pearl Harbour bombing IN COLOR FULL Documentary
::2014/07/06::
Play Video
26
2012 R16 South East Asia Finals l Locking Solo Battle
2012 R16 South East Asia Finals l Locking Solo Battle
::2014/03/20::
Play Video
27
Watch Bombers in Flight Rare Pics Collection - Rare Video - Second World War Videos -
Watch Bombers in Flight Rare Pics Collection - Rare Video - Second World War Videos -
::2014/03/01::
Play Video
28
FAC (Forward Air Control) F-100 Supports U.S. Army 1967 USAF 4min
FAC (Forward Air Control) F-100 Supports U.S. Army 1967 USAF 4min
::2012/03/08::
Play Video
29
War Pictorial News, 1944: Holland (landings and bombings)
War Pictorial News, 1944: Holland (landings and bombings)
::2010/10/05::
Play Video
30
Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia navies prevent South China Sea pirate attack
Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia navies prevent South China Sea pirate attack
::2014/07/15::
Play Video
31
Deadly attack on Thai protest camp in Bangkok
Deadly attack on Thai protest camp in Bangkok
::2014/05/15::
Play Video
32
Flying snakes of Southeast Asia Летающие райские змеи Юго-Восточной Азии
Flying snakes of Southeast Asia Летающие райские змеи Юго-Восточной Азии
::2014/03/06::
Play Video
33
WW2 in Italy - Battle of Anzio | 1944 | Italian Campaign: Operation Shingle | WWII Documentary Film
WW2 in Italy - Battle of Anzio | 1944 | Italian Campaign: Operation Shingle | WWII Documentary Film
::2013/11/24::
Play Video
34
The first action of the B-52   The Southeast Asia
The first action of the B-52 The Southeast Asia
::2013/11/19::
Play Video
35
Delong Pier Construction at Cam Ranh Bay 1966 US Army, Vietnam War
Delong Pier Construction at Cam Ranh Bay 1966 US Army, Vietnam War
::2014/07/11::
Play Video
36
World War II Bombers - Rare Picture Collection - Watch This Rare Video
World War II Bombers - Rare Picture Collection - Watch This Rare Video
::2014/03/01::
Play Video
37
World War II Flight Carrying Bombers - Watch the Rare Pics Video
World War II Flight Carrying Bombers - Watch the Rare Pics Video
::2014/03/01::
Play Video
38
Second World II Videos - Watch Bombers in Flight Rare Pics Collection - Rare Video
Second World II Videos - Watch Bombers in Flight Rare Pics Collection - Rare Video
::2014/03/01::
Play Video
39
VOA news for Monday, May 12th, 2014
VOA news for Monday, May 12th, 2014
::2014/05/12::
Play Video
40
RAF South East Asia Command
RAF South East Asia Command
::2013/04/05::
Play Video
41
History Of The Cold War ( Full History Documentary )
History Of The Cold War ( Full History Documentary )
::2014/01/17::
Play Video
42
December 7 2013 Breaking News Remembering Pearl Harbor Japan  attacks USA WWII - Next WWIII when?
December 7 2013 Breaking News Remembering Pearl Harbor Japan attacks USA WWII - Next WWIII when?
::2013/12/07::
Play Video
43
THE AIR FORCE STORY CHAPTER 18 PRELUDE TO INVASION JANUARY - JUNE 1944 2448
THE AIR FORCE STORY CHAPTER 18 PRELUDE TO INVASION JANUARY - JUNE 1944 2448
::2013/01/04::
Play Video
44
Officers In Meeting, Far East (1945)
Officers In Meeting, Far East (1945)
::2014/04/13::
Play Video
45
US Troops in India Supplied by Air Drops 1943 OWI Newsreel World War II Burma Campaign
US Troops in India Supplied by Air Drops 1943 OWI Newsreel World War II Burma Campaign
::2014/03/25::
Play Video
46
US officials  trying to lower the sino japanese tension east asia Diaoyu island  militarism
US officials trying to lower the sino japanese tension east asia Diaoyu island militarism
::2014/04/28::
Play Video
47
World War II • Burma Campaign // ВМВ • Бирманская кампания
World War II • Burma Campaign // ВМВ • Бирманская кампания
::2014/03/18::
Play Video
48
World War II Fighter Planes with Weapons - Watch latest video
World War II Fighter Planes with Weapons - Watch latest video
::2014/03/01::
Play Video
49
Dogfight-Japanese divine wind vs. american planes
Dogfight-Japanese divine wind vs. american planes
::2013/06/04::
Play Video
50
The Nanking Massacre: Facts, Pictures, WW2, Documentary Photos, Book, Women (1997)
The Nanking Massacre: Facts, Pictures, WW2, Documentary Photos, Book, Women (1997)
::2014/01/25::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
A man wearing military uniform looking towards a pile of damaged metal and concrete objects
A Royal Air Force motor transport driver surveys damage caused by Allied bombing at Singapore docks, September 1945.

From 1944 to 1945, during the final stage of World War II, the Allies undertook the strategic bombing of South-East Asia. The main victims of Allied air raids were Japanese-occupied Thailand and Indochina.

Royal Navy operations[edit]

By 1944, the German Navy no longer presented a major threat and the Royal Navy was able to transfer major units to the Far East. This would fulfil a British wish to become involved in the Pacific War. First, however, experience was required of large-scale naval air operations and of United States procedures. To this end and to degrade Japanese capabilities, attacks were made on Indonesian oil installations, some in concert with the American carrier, USS Saratoga.

  • Cockpit – BEF Sabang Raid 44/04/19
  • Transom – BEF Surabaya Raid 44/05/17
  • BEF Port Blair, Andaman Is. Raid 44/06/19
  • Crimson – BEF Sabang Raid 44/07/25 – Sommerville Force
  • Mullet – Nicobar Islands Bombardment
  • Outflank – BEIF Pangkalan Brandan Raid 44/11/20
  • Lentil – Pankalan Brandon Raid 45/01/04
  • Meridian – Palembang Raid 45/01/25
  • Sunfish – Sabang Bombardment 45/04/08–18
  • Bishop – BEIF Covering Operation for Rangoon Landing x Penang 45/05/15

Indochina bombing campaign[edit]

Because colonial French Indochina remained loyal to the Vichy government and made numerous concessions to Japan, including allow Japanese troops, ships and airplanes to be stationed in Cochinchina, the Allies targeted industrial and military facilities in neutral Indochina beginning in 1942. In this the Allies were aided by a young French naval officer, Robet Meynier,[1] who, beginning in May 1943, organised a network of informants in the bureaucracy of French Indochina. Before the collapse of the network in mid-1944 it managed to provide information on bombing targets, Japanese troops whereabouts and fortifications.[2] In August 1942, the United States Fourteenth Air Force based in southern China undertook the first air raids in Indochina. In September 1943, the United States picked up the pace of the bombing, hitting the harbour of Haiphong repeatedly. By the end of 1944 the Japanese were entirely avoiding Haiphong. In late 1943 the Americans began raiding the phosphate mines at Lao Cai and Cao Bang.[2] In all of this the air force had the help of "GBT", a multi-ethnic (and possibly Freemason) network of spies and informants working outside control of either Vichy of the Free French.[3] In September 1944 the Americans dropped leaflets in French and Vietnamese showing pictures of the liberation of Paris, and quoting various jovial war correspondents from Europe.[4]

Coal mined in the Hon Gai region around Haiphong, was shipped south along the coast, either by train or by junk, to be converted into charcoal gas, which was necessary to replace dwindling gasoline and petroleum supplies. The Allies targeted these shipments, putting a stop to them by the end of the year (1944). Besides charcoal gas, the Japanese in Indochina relied on ethanol, usually produced from rice, and on butanol as fuel for motor vehicles and aircraft, respectively. Two butanol distilleries at Cholon became the targets of airstrikes in February 1944,[5] and the ethanol distilleries of Nam Dinh and Thanh Hoa were hit several times into March.[2] By the summer, the United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was reporting increased alcohol production in the north, in Tonkin, even as the famine was spreading.[5] In April–May, American bombers hit the spinning and weaving mills of Haiphong and Nam Dinh, although the villagers continued cloth production on hand looms in nearby villages.[6] In May the US Air Force began sending B-24 Liberators on night runs over Saigon, hitting mainly port facilities and railyards, but also some residential neighbourhoods. On 16 May an attack killed 213 native civilians and injured another 843. Detailed target maps of Saigon were produced based on information obtained in April–June 1944.[2] On 7 February 1945, a B-29 Superfortress, flying from Calcutta through cloud cover, and dropping bombs by radar, mistakenly hit a hospital and a French barracks in Saigon. Thirty Europeans and 150 natives were killed, hundreds more injured, and not one Japanese harmed.[2]

The British intelligence mission Force 136 air-dropped several Free French operatives into Indochina in early 1945. They provided detailed information on targets to British headquarters in India and China, who transmitted them to the Americans. The French operatives were reluctant to provide information on French or Vietnamese targets, and their most important contribution was relating ship movements along the coast. American carrier aircraft sank twenty-four vessels and damaged another thirteen in January 1945.[2] An OSS report of 19 March 1945 contains eight pages of shipping information from one anonymous French official who had contacts from Saigon in the south to Qui Nhon in the north.[2] Another Frenchman, a civilian ship pilot working for the Japanese on the Saigon river, sent shipping informatino to the Americans until March, and even continued with Japanese until the war's end without being discovered.[7]

"By July 1945, American aircraft roamed Indochina at will, bombing and strafing trains, small postal and passenger boats, government buildings, and storage facilities of any description."[2]

As the famine spread, on 8 March 1945, General Eugène Mordant of the Corps Léger d'Intervention radioed the Free French government in Paris asking them to pressure the United States to halt bombing operations against the ports north of Vinh, in a vain effort to forestall further food shortages.[8] The Fourteenth Air Force could not render tactical air cover to the French and Indochinese defending Lang Son from a hostile Japanese takeover on 9–10 March.[9] After the citadel capitulated on 12 March, bombers of the Fourteenth did strike it, inadvertently killing several hundred native Vietnamese riflemen who were being interned there by the Japanese.[10] Between 12 and 28 March, the Americans flew thirty-four bombing, strafing and reconnaissance missions over Vietnam, although the commanding general, Claire Chennault, refused to air-drop weapons in light of the confusing situation on the ground. He did, however, drop medicines.[11]

The American bombing campaign gained intensity afer the surrender of Germany and victory in Europe. On 4 July 1945 in Nam Dinh province American airplanes hit the steam launch Nam Hai, killing two and hospitalising twenty-seven (with two dying en route); five others were missing. A few days later Haiphong was struck, sinking a dredge and a floating dock. The Japanese moved their ships up the Mekong river from Saigon and Cap St Jacques (now Vung Tau).[2] The United States also dropped leaflets in French, Vietnamese and Japanese, and some were bilingual. They warned people to stay away from railroads, bridges and ferries, and cautioned them against helping the Japanese to repair bomb damage: "Our airplanes will come again, and if you are near the target you will probably be killed by association."[12] After the victory over Japan, on 19 August the denizens of Hanoi broke into the streets and removed the black coverings of the street lamps.[13]

Thailand bombing campaign[edit]

Bombing of Rama VI Bridge

Although Thailand declared war on both the United States and the United Kingdom, the former chose to treat the declaration as made under duress on account of the Japanese invasion and hence null. The British accepted the declaration and considered Thailand an enemy. According to a report of December 1945, the Allies dropped 18,583 bombs on Thailand, resulting in the death of 8,711 people and the destruction of 9,616 buildings, 617 trucks, 73 locomotives and 173 other vehicles. A further 1,194 buildings were damaged.[14] The prime target of the campaign was Bangkok, the Thai capital. Rural areas were almost entirely unaffected.[15]

In October 1944 the British reported that they were receiving "high grade intelligence" from Thailand concerning bombing targets and the results of their bombing raids.[16] The United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) had a mission in Thailand supporting the Free Thai movement. Frequent messages were sent by OSS officers on the ground to South East Asia Command (SEAC) imploring more discriminate target selection in Thailand, but the OSS had little influence on the air force.[17]

A strafing run of 5 March 1945 on the Bangkok Noi railway station in Thonburi resulted in 78 civilian fatalities and damage to the house of the Thai politician Pridi Banomyong, an important American ally.[18] On 22 March a train carrying Thai soldiers was hit outside of Paknampo, although Free Thai allies had urged that the railway line not be targeted because the troops being transferred might be useful in the north in the event of a Thai–Japanese break.[18] Another "indiscriminate bombing and strafing" of a railroad killed 400 civilians and 50 Thai soldiers on 2 April.[17] On 7 April, American airplanes attacked Don Muang airfield, destroying several craft of the Thai Air Force, including two that had just landed with the commander of the Phayap Army, the Thai force then occupying part of Burma.[17] During this raid, three Americans—Captain Abrahams, Lieutenant Mackenzie and Lieutenant Wimer—had to bail out of their aircraft and were captured by the Thais.[17]

On 14 April 1945, the American and British B-24 Liberators raided Bangkok from 3:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m., knocking out the Samsen power plant and damaging the city's only other one. Bangkok was left mostly without power or running water, and 200 civilians were killed.[19] On 18 April, the Allies raided Bangkok again, striking the wharves of the Borneo Company, two of which burned for at least two more days.[20] On 10 July eight B-24s of the Royal Air Force killed 90 and injured 400 in a raid on Bangkok.[21] On 13 July Pridi Banomyong requested a halt to Allied bombing, urging leaflet drops instead. On 14 July, the Bangkok terminus railway station was bombed.[14] On 29 July the Royal Air Force bombed the Bangkok Noi railway station, although they missed the station itself and one bomb landed on the campus of Thammasat University.[22] Thammasat—which had held foreign internees until its evacuation after the 5 March bombing[23]—was not the only university affected: Chulalongkorn University had to suspend classes by January 1945 on account of the bombing.[24] A SEAC report of 27 July concluded that an interruption to the bombing campaign prompted by Free Thai complaints only encouraged the Japanese, who knew about Allied contact with Thai elements, to pressure the Thais in request a halt to the bombing.[22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ David G. Marr, Vietnam 1945: The Quest for Power (University of California Press, 1995), 271 n. 117. Meynier was married to a daughter of the Vietnamese mandarin Hoang Trong Phu. Several French and British agents died attempting to free her from a German prison camp to participate in the espionage network.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Marr, Vietnam, 271–74.
  3. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 272 n. 119. This network was named for its three leaders: Laurence Gordon, a Canadian, who headed up Texaco's operations in Haiphong before the war; Harry Bernard, a British tobacco dealer; and Frank Tan, a Chinese–American entrepreneur. The network was also aided by a French priest with a wide array of connexions in the Catholic mission in Indochina.
  4. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 274 n. 135.
  5. ^ a b Marr, Vietnam, 34.
  6. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 32.
  7. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 274 n. 132. This pilot, a political leftist, was referred to as Monsieur Canac by Ho Huu Tuong in an interview in 1967, a nickname perhaps derived from the Kanak people of the South Pacific.
  8. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 100.
  9. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 241. When General Chennault of the Fourteenth Air Force requested permission from China Burma India Theater headquarters to bomb Japanese positions around Lang Son on 9 March, he received the order "Give them hell". In the end, Japanese and French positions were too close together for a safe bombing.
  10. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 60.
  11. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 242.
  12. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 274 and n. 135. On 20 July the Americans dropped leaflets in Vietnamese and Japanese in Hung Yen province. Cf. also Fig. 20 on p. 275, which shows a Vietnamese/French leaflet that refers to the locals as Các ba.n Viê.t-Nam ("Vietnamese friends").
  13. ^ Marr, Vietnam, 401.
  14. ^ a b E. Bruce Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War: The Free Thai, OSS, and SOE During World War II (Cambridge University Press, 2005), 354 n. 68.
  15. ^ Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 431.
  16. ^ Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 258.
  17. ^ a b c d Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 301–02 and n. 47.
  18. ^ a b Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 296.
  19. ^ Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 304–05 with photograph on 306.
  20. ^ Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 307.
  21. ^ Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 354.
  22. ^ a b Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 355.
  23. ^ Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 352.
  24. ^ Reynolds, Thailand's Secret War, 293.

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014