1
The biggest human botfly compilation ever! Top 10!
The biggest human botfly compilation ever! Top 10!
DATE: 2014/04/04::
2
monster botfly larvae in eye, nose, arms, back. They are everywhere on the body
monster botfly larvae in eye, nose, arms, back. They are everywhere on the body
DATE: 2014/02/15::
3
Huge Botfly Maggot Removed from Head
Huge Botfly Maggot Removed from Head
DATE: 2014/08/25::
4
Bot Fly
Bot Fly
DATE: 2006/12/24::
5
3 bot fly for the price of one
3 bot fly for the price of one
DATE: 2009/08/08::
6
Monster Botfly, Larva , Worm removal animals compilation video 2015
Monster Botfly, Larva , Worm removal animals compilation video 2015
DATE: 2015/01/27::
7
The Botfly Diaries
The Botfly Diaries
DATE: 2012/05/28::
8
INTENSE BOT FLY Removal
INTENSE BOT FLY Removal
DATE: 2013/03/07::
9
Bot Fly removal BRAVE KITTENS - WARNING graphic
Bot Fly removal BRAVE KITTENS - WARNING graphic
DATE: 2012/08/25::
10
The Botfly
The Botfly
DATE: 2010/01/28::
11
Monkey killers
Monkey killers
DATE: 2012/11/09::
12
Endless BOTFLY Extractions from people & animals
Endless BOTFLY Extractions from people & animals
DATE: 2012/06/30::
13
Shocking Disgusting BotFly Extraction Removal on the Chin
Shocking Disgusting BotFly Extraction Removal on the Chin
DATE: 2014/11/08::
14
Huge Botfly Maggot Removed from humans skin - botfly extraction parasite
Huge Botfly Maggot Removed from humans skin - botfly extraction parasite
DATE: 2015/02/01::
15
Removing Botfly in the Lips
Removing Botfly in the Lips
DATE: 2015/03/14::
16
Botfly larvae being removed from bunny!!
Botfly larvae being removed from bunny!!
DATE: 2014/07/19::
17
Squirrel with bot fly.
Squirrel with bot fly.
DATE: 2014/09/23::
18
Monsters Inside Me: Botfly Invasion
Monsters Inside Me: Botfly Invasion
DATE: 2009/07/17::
19
Botfly Larvae Removed from Womans Breast with Tweezers
Botfly Larvae Removed from Womans Breast with Tweezers
DATE: 2014/11/14::
20
Expert removal of a botfly larva (beef worm)
Expert removal of a botfly larva (beef worm)
DATE: 2014/03/27::
21
Botfly removal from kittens face
Botfly removal from kittens face
DATE: 2014/11/08::
22
The Botfly in my Head
The Botfly in my Head
DATE: 2009/09/01::
23
Many mangoworms and Botfly Extractions from people & animals - spotty mango worms
Many mangoworms and Botfly Extractions from people & animals - spotty mango worms
DATE: 2015/01/21::
24
The biggest human botfly compilation ever! Top 10!
The biggest human botfly compilation ever! Top 10!
DATE: 2014/06/27::
25
INTENSE BOT FLY Removal
INTENSE BOT FLY Removal
DATE: 2014/07/19::
26
Cueterebra (bot fly)
Cueterebra (bot fly)
DATE: 2011/06/11::
27
WARNING: actual medical treatment shown! Howler monkey being treated for botfly larvas
WARNING: actual medical treatment shown! Howler monkey being treated for botfly larvas
DATE: 2012/01/21::
28
Two Botflies Extracted from Man
Two Botflies Extracted from Man's Arm: The Birth of Joey and Little Dick
DATE: 2009/06/03::
29
Botfly Removal
Botfly Removal
DATE: 2013/12/16::
30
Brutal Botfly Infestation (WARNING BLOOD) - Monsters Inside Me, by Paul Rosolie
Brutal Botfly Infestation (WARNING BLOOD) - Monsters Inside Me, by Paul Rosolie
DATE: 2014/04/11::
31
Human Bot-Fly removed from eyelid
Human Bot-Fly removed from eyelid
DATE: 2008/10/15::
32
News Today - Insect researcher donates body to become
News Today - Insect researcher donates body to become 'The Human Bot Fly' WARNING: GRAPHIC CONTENT
DATE: 2015/01/16::
33
botfly removal from foot
botfly removal from foot
DATE: 2015/03/08::
34
World
World's Weirdest - Larva Removed from a Girl's Scalp
DATE: 2013/01/18::
35
Birth of A Botfly Maggot: A Curious Adventure with "Doctor Bugs"
Birth of A Botfly Maggot: A Curious Adventure with "Doctor Bugs"
DATE: 2010/12/11::
36
10 Botflies Removed From Dog
10 Botflies Removed From Dog's Snout
DATE: 2009/08/05::
37
Issues - Flippen Real World - "Botfly" - Season 2 - (Ep.3)
Issues - Flippen Real World - "Botfly" - Season 2 - (Ep.3)
DATE: 2014/11/11::
38
Botfly maggot removed from head
Botfly maggot removed from head
DATE: 2015/03/06::
39
Botfly removal on the back of her neck - bot fly larvae in women | Mangoworms And Botfly
Botfly removal on the back of her neck - bot fly larvae in women | Mangoworms And Botfly
DATE: 2015/02/15::
40
Kenny Rodgers Botfly
Kenny Rodgers Botfly
DATE: 2007/01/16::
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Man Squeezes Botfly from Hand
Man Squeezes Botfly from Hand
DATE: 2010/12/13::
42
Bot Fly Larvae Baby Terror
Bot Fly Larvae Baby Terror
DATE: 2013/10/15::
43
Unbelievable Bot Fly Facts!
Unbelievable Bot Fly Facts!
DATE: 2014/05/16::
44
Botfly larvae extracted from neck of child
Botfly larvae extracted from neck of child
DATE: 2007/01/26::
45
'BotFly' - Audio - Virus Recordings
DATE: 2013/10/27::
46
botfly larva in my ankle - days 38-39 update - final update!
botfly larva in my ankle - days 38-39 update - final update!
DATE: 2011/04/04::
47
botfly indonesia
botfly indonesia
DATE: 2015/03/08::
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The biggest human skin botfly compilation ever - botfly removal from hand | Mangoworms And Botfly
The biggest human skin botfly compilation ever - botfly removal from hand | Mangoworms And Botfly
DATE: 2015/01/28::
49
Botfly pops out of leg
Botfly pops out of leg
DATE: 2011/07/11::
50
Bot fly larvae in kitten
Bot fly larvae in kitten's eye
DATE: 2010/07/30::
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Botfly
Horse Botfly Imago.png
Horse botfly (Gasterophilus intestinalis)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Diptera
Section: Schizophora
Subsection: Calyptratae
Superfamily: Oestroidea
Family: Oestridae
Subfamilies

The Oestridae are a family of flies variously known as bot flies, warble flies, heel flies, gadflies, and similar names. Their larvae are internal parasites of mammals, some species growing in the host's flesh and others within the gut. The human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, is the only species of bot fly known to parasitize humans routinely, though other species of fly do cause myiasis in humans.

General[edit]

Deer bot fly (Cephenemyia stimulator)

A botfly,[1] also written bot fly,[2] bott fly[3] or bot-fly[4] in various combinations, is any fly in the family Oestridae. Their lifecycles vary greatly according to species, but the larvae of all species are internal parasites of mammals. Largely according to species, they also are known variously as warble flies, heel flies, and gadflies. The larvae of some species grow in the flesh of their hosts, while others grow within the hosts' alimentary tracts.

The word "bot" in this sense means a maggot.[4] A warble is a skin lump or callus such as might be caused by an ill-fitting harness, or by the presence of a warble fly maggot under the skin. The human botfly, Dermatobia hominis, is the only species of bot fly whose larvae ordinarily parasitise humans, though flies in some other families episodically cause human myiasis, and are sometimes more harmful.

Family Oestridae[edit]

The Oestridae now are generally defined as including the former families Oestridae, Cuterebridae, Gasterophilidae, and Hypodermatidae as subfamilies.

The Oestridae, in turn, are a family within the superfamily Oestroidea, together with the families Calliphoridae, Rhinophoridae, Sarcophagidae, and Tachinidae.

Of families of flies causing myiasis, the Oestridae include the highest proportion of species whose larvae live as obligate parasites within the bodies of mammals. Roughly 150 species are known worldwide.[5] Most other species of flies implicated in myiasis are members of related families, such as blowflies and screwworm flies in the Calliphoridae.

Infestation[edit]

Larval stage of Gasterophilus intestinalis

Botflies deposit eggs on a host, or sometimes use an intermediate vector such as the common housefly, mosquitoes, and even a species of tick (Dermatobia hominis). The smaller fly is firmly held by the botfly female and rotated to a position where the botfly attaches some 30 eggs to the body under the wings. Larvae from these eggs, stimulated by the warmth and proximity of a large mammal host, drop onto its skin and burrow underneath.[6] Intermediate vectors are often used since a number of animal hosts recognise the approach of a botfly and flee.[7]

Eggs are deposited on animal skin directly, or the larvae hatch and drop from the eggs attached to the intermediate vector: the body heat of the host animal induces hatching upon contact or immediate proximity. Some forms of botfly also occur in the digestive tract after ingestion by licking.

Ox warble fly (Hypoderma bovis)

Myiasis can be caused by larvae burrowing into the skin (or tissue lining) of the host animal. Mature larvae drop from the host and complete the pupal stage in soil. They do not kill the host animal, thus are true parasites.

The equine botfly presents seasonal difficulties to equestrian caretakers, as it lays eggs on the insides of horses' front legs, on the cannon bone and knees, and sometimes on the throat or nose, depending on the species. These eggs, which look like small, yellow drops of paint, must be carefully removed during the laying season (late summer and early fall) to prevent infestation in the horse. When a horse rubs its nose on its legs, the eggs are transferred to the mouth, and from there to the intestines, where the larvae grow and attach themselves to the stomach lining or the small intestine. The attachment of the larvae to the tissue produces a mild irritation which results in erosions and ulcerations at this site.[8] Removal of the eggs (which adhere to the host's hair) is difficult, since the bone and tendons are directly under the skin on the cannon bones: eggs must be removed with a sharp knife (often a razor blade) or rough sand paper, and caught before they reach the ground. The larvae remain attached and develop for 10–12 months before they are passed out in the feces. Occasionally, horse owners will report seeing the botfly larvae in horse manure. These larvae are cylindrical in shape and are reddish orange in color. In one to two months, adult botflies emerge from the developing larvae and the cycle repeats.[8] Bots can be controlled with several types of dewormers, including dichlorvos, ivermectin, and trichlorfon.

In cattle, the lesions caused by these flies can become infected by Mannheimia granulomatis, a bacterium that causes lechiguana, characterized by rapid-growing, hard lumps beneath the skin of the animal. Without antibiotics, an affected animal will die within three to 11 months.[9][10]

The human botfly occasionally uses humans to host its larvae. The larva, because of its spines, can pose an extremely painful subepidermal condition. One removal method is to use the tree sap of the matatorsalo, found in Costa Rica, which is reputed to kill the larva, yet leave its body in the skin.[11] Additionally, one can attempt to seal the breathing hole of the larva with nail polish or vaseline; after a day, with a licenced medical professional, the breathing hole is enlarged and the larva is removed via forceps. Squeezing the larvae out is not recommended, as it can cause the larvae to rupture; their bodily fluids have been known to cause severe anaphylactic shock.[12] Use of adhesive tape can work, but carries additional risk of infection because portions of the larva's breathing tube can be broken off by the tape and make the remainder of the body difficult to remove.

Dissected head of a deer showing botfly larvae

Consumption of maggots by humans[edit]

In cold climates supporting reindeer or caribou-reliant populations, large quantities of Hypoderma tarandi (warble fly) maggots are available to human populations during the butchery of animals.[13]

The sixth episode of season one of the television series "Beyond Survival" entitled "The Inuit - Survivors of the Future" features survival expert Les Stroud and two Inuit guides hunting caribou on the northern coast of Baffin Island near Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada. Upon skinning and butchering of one of the animals, numerous larvae (presumably Hypoderma tarandi although not explicitly stated) are apparent on the inside of the caribou pelt. Stroud and his two Inuit guides eat (albeit somewhat reluctantly) one larva each, with Stroud commenting that the larva "tastes like milk" and was historically commonly consumed by the Inuit people.[14]

Copious art dating back to the Pleistocene in Europe confirms their consumption in premodern times as well.[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Inc. Merriam-Webster (2011). Webster's American English dictionary. Springfield, MA: Federal Street Press. ISBN 978-1-59695-114-3. 
  2. ^ Mullen, Gary; Durden, Lance, eds. (2009). Medical and veterinary entomology. Amsterdam, NL: Academic. ISBN 978-0-12-372500-4. 
  3. ^ Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Western Australia, Volume 9, Pub: Western Australia. Dept. of Agriculture, 1904, p 17
  4. ^ a b Brown, Lesley (1993). The New shorter Oxford English dictionary on historical principles. Oxford [Eng.]: Clarendon. ISBN 0-19-861271-0. 
  5. ^ Pape, Thomas (April 2001). "Phylogeny of Oestridae (Insecta: Diptera)". Systematic Entomology 26 (2): 133–171. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3113.2001.00143.x. 
  6. ^ Dunleavy, Stephen (producer) (2005-10-20). Life In The Undergrowth: Intimate Relations (Programme synopses). BBC. Retrieved 2008-12-17. 
  7. ^ Drees, B.M.; Jackman, John (1999). "Horse Bot Fly". Field Guide to Texas Insects. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  8. ^ a b Ondrak, Julie. "Ask The Vet: Treating Bot Infestations In Horses". lambriarvet.com. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  9. ^ Piper, Ross (2007). "Human Botfly". Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 192–194. ISBN 0-313-33922-8. OCLC 191846476. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  10. ^ Riet-Correa, F.; S. L. Ladeira, G. B. Andrade and G. R. Carter (December 2000). "Lechiguana (focal proliferative fibrogranulomatous panniculitis) in cattle". Veterinary Research Communications 24 (8): 557–572. doi:10.1023/A:1006444019819. PMID 11305747. 
  11. ^ Pariser, Harry S (2006). Explore Costa Rica. Manatee Press. ISBN 1-893643-55-7. 
  12. ^ http://www.capcvet.org/capc-recommendations/cuterebriasis/
  13. ^ Felt, E.P. (1918). "Caribo warble grubs edible". Journal of Economic Entomology 11: 482. 
  14. ^ http://lesstroud.ca/beyondsurvival/ep6.php
  15. ^ Guthrie, Russell Dale (2005). The Nature of Paleolithic Art. University of Chicago Press. pp. 6–. ISBN 978-0-226-31126-5. Retrieved 7 May 2013. 

External links[edit]

On the UF / IFAS Featured Creatures Web site
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