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Breckinridge Long
Breckinridge Long
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: Rebecca Branske
Breckinridge Long
Breckinridge Long
Published: 2016/02/29
Channel: Rebecca Branske
1/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
1/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
Published: 2010/05/06
Channel: KenyanBornObama
4/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
4/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
Published: 2010/05/06
Channel: KenyanBornObama
1/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
1/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: KenyanBornObama
3/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
3/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
Published: 2010/05/06
Channel: KenyanBornObama
2/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
2/4 Birtherism originated nearly 100 years ago ~ Breckinridge Long w/ PROOF Obama is ineligible!
Published: 2010/05/06
Channel: KenyanBornObama
Long winding road to Breckinridge
Long winding road to Breckinridge
Published: 2012/04/02
Channel: DoubleODude
Breckinridge
Breckinridge
Published: 2017/02/18
Channel: Ed Tallents
@ The 313: From worst to first in Breckenridge
@ The 313: From worst to first in Breckenridge
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: FOX SportsDetroit
Long Years Ago
Long Years Ago
Published: 2012/03/19
Channel: CHRISFNBLKMN
breckinridge cabin tour
breckinridge cabin tour
Published: 2017/09/02
Channel: elissa deheart
After Dark with the Breckenridge Grooming Crew
After Dark with the Breckenridge Grooming Crew
Published: 2010/11/23
Channel: Snow.com
Good News by Ocean Park Standoff sung by Breckinridge Elementary
Good News by Ocean Park Standoff sung by Breckinridge Elementary
Published: 2017/04/01
Channel: Marcus Patrick
Dirtbike Hill Climbing & Trails - Breckenridge
Dirtbike Hill Climbing & Trails - Breckenridge
Published: 2015/07/08
Channel: zx9burnz
Breckenridge MN Herby Derby 2017
Breckenridge MN Herby Derby 2017
Published: 2017/06/04
Channel: Guy Serenko13
45
45' Marathon Prevost XLVII Breckenridge | Luxury Motor Coach Rental
Published: 2013/05/07
Channel: Luxurious Rentals LLC
Gold Runner Alpine Rollercoaster- Peak 8- Breckenridge Colorado
Gold Runner Alpine Rollercoaster- Peak 8- Breckenridge Colorado
Published: 2013/03/22
Channel: USAthemeparkpov
Post Western Interview // ep 010
Post Western Interview // ep 010
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: Avery Collins
The American Presidential Election of 1860
The American Presidential Election of 1860
Published: 2015/12/31
Channel: Mr. Beat
Spartan Prep For Breckinridge Beast 2016
Spartan Prep For Breckinridge Beast 2016
Published: 2016/06/28
Channel: Tom Seliga
how to grow your hair SUPER long and thick
how to grow your hair SUPER long and thick
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: elissa deheart
#TBT: Breckinridge, CO (Spring Break 2016)
#TBT: Breckinridge, CO (Spring Break 2016)
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: Joslyn Pham
Breckinridge county sheriff arrested
Breckinridge county sheriff arrested
Published: 2015/10/07
Channel: WLKY News Louisville
1995 Breckinridge County Marching Tiger Band
1995 Breckinridge County Marching Tiger Band
Published: 2017/04/30
Channel: W A
Breckenridge top to bottom run (Peak 8 Summit to Base)
Breckenridge top to bottom run (Peak 8 Summit to Base)
Published: 2014/01/19
Channel: TwinTippah
Having fun with TheElevatorChannel on the 2 Long elevators @ The Le Chateau Village Frontenac MO
Having fun with TheElevatorChannel on the 2 Long elevators @ The Le Chateau Village Frontenac MO
Published: 2011/09/10
Channel: DieselDucy
My acceptance into Nursing School/ITT Tech Breckinridge school of Nursing
My acceptance into Nursing School/ITT Tech Breckinridge school of Nursing
Published: 2014/11/21
Channel: JakiaLife
Breckinridge Co Ky Fair Demo Derby 2016 STOCK BIG CARS
Breckinridge Co Ky Fair Demo Derby 2016 STOCK BIG CARS
Published: 2016/07/17
Channel: Demo Derby
alpine slide breckenridge crash
alpine slide breckenridge crash
Published: 2009/08/31
Channel: Chad Otterstrom
Alpine Coaster @ Breckinridge Co.
Alpine Coaster @ Breckinridge Co.
Published: 2012/09/12
Channel: Jacksonkable
The American Presidential Election of 1856
The American Presidential Election of 1856
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: Mr. Beat
Snowboarding Crested Butte (Long Edit)
Snowboarding Crested Butte (Long Edit)
Published: 2016/12/22
Channel: Tyler Hermes
Corvette - CF Breckinridge `08 #05
Corvette - CF Breckinridge `08 #05
Published: 2010/01/20
Channel: Z07freak
How Can I Speed Up Braces Treatment Time? - Breckinridge Dental & Orthodontics
How Can I Speed Up Braces Treatment Time? - Breckinridge Dental & Orthodontics
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Breckinridge Dental & Orthodontics
FAMILY VACATION DAY 3 - KIDS GO SWIMMING - BRECKENRIDGE COLORADO
FAMILY VACATION DAY 3 - KIDS GO SWIMMING - BRECKENRIDGE COLORADO
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Max Family Fun
Rowlett Creek over the banks at Breckinridge Park 5/24/2015
Rowlett Creek over the banks at Breckinridge Park 5/24/2015
Published: 2015/05/24
Channel: Darren Hyde
First week of Nursing School/ ITT Tech Breckinridge school of Nursing
First week of Nursing School/ ITT Tech Breckinridge school of Nursing
Published: 2014/12/14
Channel: JakiaLife
The Sentinel (3/3) Movie CLIP - Assassination Attempt (2006) HD
The Sentinel (3/3) Movie CLIP - Assassination Attempt (2006) HD
Published: 2015/08/21
Channel: Movieclips
Cabell Breckinridge
Cabell Breckinridge
Published: 2017/10/25
Channel: Viki History
first time cutting my hair in 4 years
first time cutting my hair in 4 years
Published: 2017/08/11
Channel: elissa deheart
082611 Butler County 62, Breckinridge Co. 0
082611 Butler County 62, Breckinridge Co. 0
Published: 2011/08/29
Channel: JobePublishingNews
Myra Breckinridge (1970)
Myra Breckinridge (1970)
Published: 2010/11/05
Channel: cabaretaulait
Rough River Canard Fly In 9-26-15
Rough River Canard Fly In 9-26-15
Published: 2015/09/29
Channel: Mark Early
SOLD: River Lot in Breckenridge
SOLD: River Lot in Breckenridge
Published: 2012/07/02
Channel: Roger Moen
Children
Children's Literature Genre Project by Bianca Jaquez
Published: 2016/04/24
Channel: annya jaquez
Red Rock, Oklahoma Tornado / April 26, 1991 & Kaw Lake 1994 Tornado
Red Rock, Oklahoma Tornado / April 26, 1991 & Kaw Lake 1994 Tornado
Published: 2013/02/27
Channel: OKWeatherWatch
Cookers Song America
Cookers Song America
Published: 2008/07/31
Channel: spencerbford
my natural every day makeup !
my natural every day makeup !
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: elissa deheart
Ullr Fest Rocks Breckenridge
Ullr Fest Rocks Breckenridge
Published: 2014/12/30
Channel: Breckenridge, Colorado
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Breckinridge Long
BreckinridgeLong22.jpg
Breckinridge Long
17th Third Assistant Secretary of State
In office
January 29, 1917 – June 8, 1920
Preceded by William Phillips
Succeeded by Van Santvoord Merle-Smith
United States Ambassador to Italy
In office
May 31, 1933 – April 23, 1936
President Franklin D. Roosevelt
Preceded by John W. Garrett
Succeeded by William Phillips
Personal details
Born Samuel Miller Breckinridge Long
(1881-05-16)May 16, 1881
St. Louis, Missouri, United States
Died September 26, 1958(1958-09-26) (aged 77)
Laurel, Maryland, United States
Spouse(s) Christine Alexander Graham
Children Christine Blair Long
Parents William Strudwick Long
Margaret Miller
Education Princeton University
Washington University School of Law
Occupation Lawyer, government official, racehorse owner

Samuel Miller Breckinridge Long (May 16, 1881 – September 26, 1958) was an American diplomat and politician who served in the administrations of Woodrow Wilson and Franklin Delano Roosevelt.[1]

Early life[edit]

Breckinridge Long was born on May 16, 1881 to Margaret Miller Breckinridge and William Strudwick Long in St. Louis, Missouri. Long was a member of the Breckinridge family. Long was a distant cousin of Henry Skillman Breckinridge (1886–1960), who was the United States Assistant Secretary of War from 1913-1916 under Wilson, and whose daughter married John Stephens Graham, the Assistant Secretary of the Treasury, and commissioners for the Internal Revenue Service and Atomic Energy Commission.

Long graduated from Princeton University in 1904 and studied at Washington University School of Law from 1905 to 1906, and received his M.A. from Princeton University in 1909.

Career[edit]

In 1906, he was admitted to the bar in Missouri and opened an office in St. Louis in 1907. Long continued to practice law independently until 1917. From 1914 to 1915, he was a member of the Missouri Code Commission on Revision of Judicial Procedure. Long then worked to establish the League of Nations and supported Wilsonian Democracy. He was credited with drafting Woodrow Wilson's "He kept us out of war" slogan, which helped secure Wilson's reelection as President in 1916.

He joined the State Department shortly after the election. In 1917, Long was appointed Third Assistant Secretary of State and remained at the post until he resigned in 1920 to pursue election to the U.S. Senate from Missouri. While in the Department of State, he held responsibility for overseeing Asian affairs. During this time he also directed attention to the improvement of U.S. foreign communications policy, and coordinated the first interdepartmental review of U.S. international communications.

In 1920 Long was the Democratic nominee for the U.S. Senate seat in Missouri held by Selden P. Spencer, but was defeated, garnering 44.5% of the vote to Spencer's 53.7%. He would go on to lose a second bid for the Senate in 1922.

FDR administration and World War II[edit]

Long was a personal friend of future President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, whom he had known as Assistant Secretary of the Navy during the Wilson Administration, and generously contributed to his 1932 Presidential campaign. Roosevelt rewarded him with the position of U.S. Ambassador to Italy, which he held from 1933 to 1936. During his ambassadorship, he was criticized for advising the president against imposing an embargo on oil shipments to Italy in retaliation for Mussolini's invasion of Ethiopia. He was a member of a special mission to Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay in 1938. Upon the outbreak of war in September 1939, he accepted appointment as a special assistant secretary of state in charge of problems arising from the war, a position he held until January 1940, when he was appointed assistant secretary of state.[clarification needed] Through February 1941, he was responsible for overseeing twenty-three of the forty-two divisions in the department before a revision of the workload among the other assistant secretaries.[2]

Long came to believe that he was under constant attack from what he termed radicals and the Jewish press for his stance on strict immigration controls mandated by the immigration laws in force at the time. In an intra-department memo he circulated in June 1940 Long wrote: "We can delay and effectively stop for a temporary period of indefinite length the number of immigrants into the United States. We could do this by simply advising our consuls to put every obstacle in the way and to require additional evidence and to resort to various administrative devices which would postpone and postpone and postpone the granting of the visas."[3][4]

Ultimately, the effect of the immigration policies set by Long's department was that, during American involvement in the war, ninety percent of the quota places available to immigrants from countries under German and Italian control were never filled. If they had been, an additional 190,000 people could have escaped the atrocities being committed by the Nazis.[5]

In November 1943, when the House was considering two bills that would have established a separate government agency charged with assisting the rescue of Jewish refugees, Long gave secret testimony to the House Foreign Affairs Committee saying that the majority of 580,000 refugees admitted from Europe were Jewish, and that such legislation would be a rebuke of the State Department in wartime. Long noted in his diary that day that he'd erred by speaking without notes (the actual numbers were 568,000 visas authorized and only 545,000 issued), but historians have noted his testimony was misleading because he implied that all of those were Jews.[6]

Long is largely remembered for his obstructionist role as the official responsible for granting refugee visas during World War II. He "obstructed rescue attempts, drastically restricted immigration, and falsified figures of refugees admitted. The exposure of his misdeeds led to his demotion, in 1944. He has become the major target of criticism of America's refugee and rescue policy."[7] He justified this in his diary by referencing the contemporary strict laws in the United States imposing quotas on the number of immigrants from particular countries, and his great concern about the possibility that Germany and the Soviet Union would introduce spies or subversive agents into the United States amidst the large numbers of refugees.[8]

Long resigned from the State Department in November 1944 and went into retirement.

Personal life[edit]

He married Christine Alexander Graham in 1912, with whom he had a daughter:[9]

  • Christine Blair Long, who married Arnold Willcox[9]

His special interests included the collection of antiques, paintings and American ship models. He maintained a stable of Thoroughbred race horses and was a director of the Laurel Park Racecourse in Laurel, Maryland, and he enjoyed fox hunting, fishing, and sailing.

He died in Laurel, Maryland on September 26, 1958.[1] His widow died in Palm Beach, Florida in 1959, aged 71.[9]

Legacy[edit]

His personal papers are available for research at the Library of Congress.[3]

In fiction, the character "Breckenridge Long", assistant Secretary of State, appears in Herman Wouk's War and Remembrance. [10] and B.A. Shapiro's The Muralist.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Breckinridge Long Is Dead at 77. Assistant Secretary of State. Aide of Wilson and Roosevelt Was Envoy to Italy, '33-36. Race Horse Breeder". New York Times. September 27, 1958. 
  2. ^ Breckinridge Long, The War Diary of Breckinridge Long: Selections from the Years 1939-1944, selected and edited by Fred L. Israel (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1966), pp. 178, 184.
  3. ^ a b Robert L. Beir (13 December 2013). Roosevelt and the Holocaust: How FDR Saved the Jews and Brought Hope to a Nation. Skyhorse Publishing Company, Incorporated. pp. 136, 137. ISBN 978-1-62636-366-3. We can delay and effectively stop for a temporary period of indefinite length the number of immigrants into the United States. We could do this by simply advising our consuls to put every obstacle in the way and to require additional evidence and to resort to various administrative devices which would postpone and postpone and postpone the granting of the visas. 
  4. ^ Goodwin, Doris Kearns (1994). No Ordinary Time. Simon & Schuster. p. 173. ISBN 9780684804484. 
  5. ^ Rafael Medoff; David S. Wyman; Henry Morgenthau (2009). Blowing the Whistle on Genocide: Josiah E. Dubois, Jr., and the Struggle for a U.S. Response to the Holocaust. Purdue University Press. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-55753-507-8. 
  6. ^ _The War Diary of Breckinridge Long: Selections from the Years 1939-1944_, pp. 334-335.
  7. ^ The Jewish Magazine
  8. ^ _The War Diary of Breckinridge Long_, passim.
  9. ^ a b c "Mrs. Breckinridge Long. Widow of Former Assistant Secretary of State Dies". The New York Times. January 25, 1959. Retrieved 31 March 2016. 
  10. ^ https://books.google.com/books?id=M9ZFVd93ihYC&lpg=PT483&ots=985XXVdcHp&dq=war%20and%20remembrance%20breckinridge%20long&pg=PT483#v=onepage&q=war%20and%20remembrance%20breckinridge%20long&f=false

External links[edit]

Government offices
Preceded by
William Phillips
Third Assistant Secretary of State
January 29, 1917 – June 8, 1920
Succeeded by
Van Santvoord Merle-Smith
Diplomatic posts
Preceded by
John W. Garrett
United States Ambassador to Italy
1933–1936
Succeeded by
William Phillips

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