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British Antarctic Territory - wildlife and heritage
British Antarctic Territory - wildlife and heritage
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Redfern Natural History Productions
First wedding at British Antarctic Survey Research Station in Antarctica
First wedding at British Antarctic Survey Research Station in Antarctica
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: British Antarctic Survey
British Antarctic Territory
British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: Countries, cities,places and all about them!
British Antarctic Territory National Anthem
British Antarctic Territory National Anthem
Published: 2016/01/04
Channel: Peter Morin
Territorial claims of Antarctica (1900-2015)
Territorial claims of Antarctica (1900-2015)
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: Kaliningrad General
Overview of the UK Overseas Territories
Overview of the UK Overseas Territories
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Redfern Natural History Productions
British Antarctic Territory Animated Flag
British Antarctic Territory Animated Flag
Published: 2014/10/01
Channel: Arachnid Graphics
Falkland Islands & British Overseas Territories
Falkland Islands & British Overseas Territories
Published: 2012/12/28
Channel: BustaFilms1
Couple first ever to marry in British Antarctic Territory
Couple first ever to marry in British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2017/07/17
Channel: euronews (in English)
Boaty McBoatface
Boaty McBoatface's first Antarctic dive
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: British Antarctic Survey
Who Owns Antarctica?
Who Owns Antarctica?
Published: 2015/04/08
Channel: NowThis
BRITISH SCIENTISTS TO CLOSE ANTARCTICA RESEARCH STATION!
BRITISH SCIENTISTS TO CLOSE ANTARCTICA RESEARCH STATION!
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: Unexplained
Giant Antartica Ice CRACK causes Scientists to pull out of Area
Giant Antartica Ice CRACK causes Scientists to pull out of Area
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: thornews
First Couple to Marry in British Antarctic Territory
First Couple to Marry in British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Datum News
Extreme Antarctica - British Antarctic Survey at work
Extreme Antarctica - British Antarctic Survey at work
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: British Antarctic Survey
First couple to tie the knot in British Antarctic Territory
First couple to tie the knot in British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2017/07/13
Channel: Flash News
Couple marry in first British Antarctic Territory ceremony
Couple marry in first British Antarctic Territory ceremony
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Loknyay Hind
British Antarctic Station Closed Over Ice Concerns
British Antarctic Station Closed Over Ice Concerns
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Wall Street Journal
Penguins at Port Lockroy, British Antarctic Territor
Penguins at Port Lockroy, British Antarctic Territor
Published: 2007/11/24
Channel: david rose
Port Lockroy, Wiencke Island,  Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica, South Pole
Port Lockroy, Wiencke Island, Palmer Archipelago, Antarctica, South Pole
Published: 2013/07/11
Channel: Pietro Pecco
Met Office and the British Antarctic Survey
Met Office and the British Antarctic Survey
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Met Office - Weather
The anthem of the British Overseas Territory of the British Antarctic Territory
The anthem of the British Overseas Territory of the British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2017/07/08
Channel: Fanky Danky
Antarctica : Terror Warning
Antarctica : Terror Warning
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: Creepy Little Book
Flag of the British Antarctic Territory
Flag of the British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2013/10/01
Channel: Sameoldfitup It was a right fit up
Port Lockroy, Wiencke Island, British Antarctic Territory, Antarctica, South Pole
Port Lockroy, Wiencke Island, British Antarctic Territory, Antarctica, South Pole
Published: 2013/07/11
Channel: Pietro Pecco
British Indian Ocean Territory – coconut crabs
British Indian Ocean Territory – coconut crabs
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Redfern Natural History Productions
The Skadoos
The Skadoos
Published: 2015/11/15
Channel: British Antarctic Survey
British couple get married in Antarctica wedding ceremony
British couple get married in Antarctica wedding ceremony
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: AFP news agency
World
World's Coolest Wedding - Antarctic Wedding
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Cute Girl
ANTARTICA Terror Warnings
ANTARTICA Terror Warnings
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: RichieFromBoston
Tour Rothera Antarctic research station by drone
Tour Rothera Antarctic research station by drone
Published: 2017/04/27
Channel: British Antarctic Survey
National Flag of British Antarctic Territory
National Flag of British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2012/03/27
Channel: InformPlz
British Antarctic Territory Anthem GOD SAVE THE QUEEN
British Antarctic Territory Anthem GOD SAVE THE QUEEN
Published: 2017/02/14
Channel: Music is Love Anthems
British Antarctic Flag
British Antarctic Flag
Published: 2016/08/07
Channel: Teresa Challa
VOCABULARY IN 20 LANGUAGES = British Antarctic Territory
VOCABULARY IN 20 LANGUAGES = British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2011/04/01
Channel: LEARN FRENCH WITH VINCENT
2012 Captain Scott Terra Nova Expedition Silver Coin: British Antarctic Territory
2012 Captain Scott Terra Nova Expedition Silver Coin: British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2012/10/12
Channel: CoinBazaar
Plants of the UK Overseas Territories
Plants of the UK Overseas Territories
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: Redfern Natural History Productions
British Husband Wife in Antarctica Couple Marries In Antarctica In Sub-Zero Temperatures
British Husband Wife in Antarctica Couple Marries In Antarctica In Sub-Zero Temperatures
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: Indian Entertainment and News Channel
British couple to marry in first Antarctic wedding
British couple to marry in first Antarctic wedding
Published: 2017/07/15
Channel: New 24/7
Ten Hours of the Territorial Anthem of the British Antarctic Territory
Ten Hours of the Territorial Anthem of the British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: P. Bass Productions
Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
Published: 2009/11/12
Channel: dan ezzo - izzo
British Antarctic Territory 2012 Terra Nova Expedition Coin
British Antarctic Territory 2012 Terra Nova Expedition Coin
Published: 2012/03/12
Channel: IslandStampsandCoins
National Anthem of the British Antarctic Territory
National Anthem of the British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2016/06/11
Channel: TheNationalAnthems1
FROM ENGLISH TO SPANISH = British Antarctic Territory
FROM ENGLISH TO SPANISH = British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2011/11/05
Channel: YTenglish2spanish
British couple to marry in first Antarctic wedding
British couple to marry in first Antarctic wedding
Published: 2017/07/15
Channel: Latest News
FROM ENGLISH TO GERMAN = British Antarctic Territory
FROM ENGLISH TO GERMAN = British Antarctic Territory
Published: 2011/12/12
Channel: YTenglish2german
The British Overseas Territories
The British Overseas Territories
Published: 2011/11/12
Channel: TheLiberalKnight
Antarctica. Queen Maud Land. Ulvetanna VS Tungespissen.
Antarctica. Queen Maud Land. Ulvetanna VS Tungespissen.
Published: 2016/12/14
Channel: Alternative View
Who Owns Antarctica? (Bizarre Borders Part 3)
Who Owns Antarctica? (Bizarre Borders Part 3)
Published: 2015/12/31
Channel: CGP Grey
british antarctic territory flagnikosgranturismo5
british antarctic territory flagnikosgranturismo5
Published: 2013/12/20
Channel: nikosgranturismo5
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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British Antarctic Territory
Motto: "Research and discovery"
BritishAntarcticTerritory.svg
Position of the United Kingdom (white) relative to the edge of its Antarctic territorial claim (striped).
Position of the United Kingdom (white) relative to the edge of its Antarctic territorial claim (striped).
Status British Overseas Territory
Main base
and administrative centre
Rothera
Official languages English
Government
• Monarch
Elizabeth II
John Kittmer
Jane Rumble
• Administrator
Henry Burgess
• Responsible Ministera (UK)
Alan Duncan MP
Establishment
• Claimed
1908
Area
• Total
1,709,400 km2 (660,000 sq mi)
Population
• Summer estimate
250[1]
Currency Pound sterling (GBP)
Time zone UTC-3
Internet TLD .aqb
  1. For the Overseas Territories.
  2. .uk (UK), .ar (Argentina) and .cl (Chile) also used.
UK Postcode: BIQQ 1ZZ
Chile postcode: 6360000[2]

The British Antarctic Territory (BAT) is a sector of Antarctica claimed by the United Kingdom as one of its 14 British Overseas Territories, of which it is by far the largest by area. It comprises the region south of 60°S latitude and between longitudes 20°W and 80°W, forming a wedge shape that extends to the South Pole, overlapping the Antarctic claims of Argentina (Argentine Antarctica) and Chile (Chilean Antarctic Territory).

The Territory was formed on 3 March 1962, although the UK's claim to this portion of the Antarctic dates back to Letters patent of 1908 and 1917. The area now covered by the Territory includes three regions which, before 1962, were administered by the British as separate dependencies of the Falkland Islands: Graham Land, the South Orkney Islands, and the South Shetland Islands. Since the Antarctic Treaty came into force in 1961, Article 4 of which states "No acts or activities taking place while the present Treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty shall be asserted while the present Treaty is in force." most countries do not recognise territorial claims in Antarctica.[3] The United Kingdom has ratified the treaty.

In 2012, the southern part of the territory was named Queen Elizabeth Land in honour of Queen Elizabeth II. The territory is inhabited by the staff of research and support stations operated and maintained by the British Antarctic Survey and other organisations, and stations of Argentina, Chile and other countries. There are no native inhabitants.

History[edit]

The United Kingdom has had a continuous presence in the far South Atlantic since 1833 when it reasserted sovereignty over the Falkland Islands. In 1908, the UK extended its territorial claim by declaring sovereignty over "South Georgia, the South Orkneys, the South Shetlands, the Sandwich Islands, and Graham's Land, situated in the South Atlantic Ocean and on the Antarctic continent to the south of the 50th parallel of south latitude, and lying between the 20th and the 80th degrees of west longitude".[4] All these territories were administered as Falkland Islands Dependencies from Stanley by the Governor of the Falkland Islands.

In 1917, the wording of the claim was modified, so as to, among other things, unambiguously include all the territory in the sector stretching to the South Pole (thus encompassing all of the present-day British Antarctic Territory). The new claim covered "all islands and territories whatsoever between the 20th degree of west longitude and the 50th degree of west longitude which are situated south of the 50th parallel of south latitude; and all islands and territories whatsoever between the 50th degree of west longitude and the 80th degree of west longitude which are situated south of the 58th parallel of south latitude".[4]

The United Kingdom also claimed Victoria Land in 1841 and Enderby Land in 1930, however all territory between 160°E and 45°E was transferred to Australia in 1933.

In 1943, at the height of World War II, the UK undertook a military operation known as Operation Tabarin, to provide reconnaissance and meteorological information in the South Atlantic Ocean. This "secret" wartime project became the civilian Falkland Islands Dependencies Survey and later the British Antarctic Survey (BAS). BAS is responsible for most of the United Kingdom's scientific research in Antarctica. In the 1950s the Antarctic Treaty was negotiated to demilitarise the region and retain Antarctica – defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude – for peaceful research purposes. The treaty was passed in 1961.

Recognition[edit]

The Antarctic Treaty, signed by all relevant regional claimants, does not in itself either recognise or dispute any territorial claims, leaving this matter to individual signatories.[3] Most of the world's countries do not recognise any national claims to Antarctica.[5] Australia, France, New Zealand, Norway and the United Kingdom, all of whom have territorial claims on the continent, mutually recognise each other's claims.[6][7] Argentina and Chile dispute the British claim, and make their own counter-claims that overlap both Britain's and each other's (see Argentine Antarctica and Chilean Antarctic Territory).

Geography[edit]

Map of the British Antarctic Territory

Topography[edit]

The British Antarctic Territory includes the Antarctic Peninsula, the South Shetland Islands, South Orkney Islands and numerous other offshore islands, the Ronne Ice Shelf (Weddell Sea), parts of Coats Land. A 437,000-square-kilometre (169,000 sq mi) triangle of central Antarctica converging on the South Pole was named Queen Elizabeth Land in December 2012, in honour of the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II.[8][9]

Over 99 per cent of the territory's land surface is covered by a permanent ice sheet, up to about 5,000 metres (16,000 ft) thick.[10] The highest peak is Mount Jackson, on the Antarctic Peninsula, at 3,184 metres (10,446 ft).[10]

Vegetation[edit]

There are very few plants in the British Antarctic Territories; most of them are mosses and lichens, but there are also two flowering plants: the Antarctic hairgrass and Antarctic pearlwort.[11]

Wildlife[edit]

Many bird species, including seven species of penguin breed in the British Antarctic Territories. The British Antarctic Territories are also home to six species of seals.[11]

Administration[edit]

The British Antarctic Territory is administered by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO). A Commissioner is appointed and is always the Director of the FCO's Overseas Territories Directorate.

The Territory has a full suite of laws, and legal and postal administrations. Given the provisions of the Antarctic Treaty System, the Territory does not enforce its laws on foreign nations who maintain scientific bases within the Territory. It is self-financing, with income from the sale of postage stamps and income tax.

Nationality law[edit]

The territory is fully a part of the British Overseas Territories for nationality purposes. It is possible to hold British Overseas Territories citizenship (BOTC) by virtue of a connection with the territory. Additionally, since the relevant provisions of the British Overseas Territories Act 2002 came into force on 21 May 2002, a BOTC connected with the territory would also hold British citizenship.

Although this territory's immigration laws would not allow for naturalisation, a person born in the territory before 1983 would hold BOTC (and British citizenship) on that basis. British citizenship and BOTC would also extend to the first generation born overseas. No people currently fall into this category. While Emilio Palma was born in the Antarctic territories claimed by the UK, he has not claimed British citizenship. Since his parents were both Argentine citizens and he was born at an Argentine base, he was automatically granted Argentine citizenship by the Argentine government. Changes to British nationality law from 1 January 1983 mean that children born in the territory can only gain BOTC and/or British citizenship if his/her father or mother holds BOTC and/or British citizenship or if his/her father or mother is "ordinarily resident" in the territory in compliance with the relevant immigration legislation.[12] This effectively prevents any more children born in Argentine or Chilean bases within the area of the British claim being able to claim BOTC or British citizenship by virtue of being born within the territory.

Research stations[edit]

The British Antarctic Survey has two permanently staffed research stations in the Territory:[13][14]

Signy was operated from 1947 until 1996 and now is only staffed in the summer.[15] There are also two summer-only forward operating stations at Fossil Bluff and Sky Blu.

Faraday was maintained until 1996, when it was sold to Ukraine and renamed Akademik Vernadsky Station.[16]

Since 1996, the historic base at Port Lockroy on Goudier Island has been staffed by the UK Antarctic Heritage Trust during the Antarctic summer. Receiving about 10,000 visitors a year, it is one of the most visited sites on the continent. Visitors can tour the museum, buy souvenirs, post mail, and view the large gentoo penguin colony.[17]

Argentine presence in the territory dates to the foundation of the Orcadas Base, South Orkney Islands, in 1903.

A number of other nations maintain bases in the territory, many in the South Shetland Islands.[10]

Postage stamps and coins[edit]

1963 British Antarctic Territory half-penny stamp.

Despite the lack of permanent inhabitants, the British Antarctic Territory issues its own postage stamps. While some are actually used by visiting tourists and resident scientists, the bulk are sold overseas to collectors. The first issue came in 1963, an engraved set with 15 values ranging from ½d to one pound, featuring a portrait of Queen Elizabeth overlooking various scenes of human activity in Antarctica. Several additional issues in the 1960s were followed by a decimalisation issue in 1971 produced by overprinting the 1963 stamps.

In 2008–2009, as part of the celebrations of the centenary of the 1908 British territorial claim, the British Antarctic Territory issued its first ever legal-tender coin.[18]

Queen Elizabeth Land[edit]

On 18 December 2012, the Foreign & Commonwealth Office announced that the southern part of British Antarctic Territory has been named Queen Elizabeth Land in honour of Queen Elizabeth II in her Diamond Jubilee year. The area, the southern third of the territory, has an area of about 437,000 square kilometres (169,000 sq mi) – almost twice the size of the United Kingdom – and is roughly triangular in shape, with the South Pole at one apex and with the 20°W and 80°W lines of longitude forming the eastern and western boundaries. The northern boundary is formed by the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf on the west and by Coats Land on the east.

The name "Queen Elizabeth Land" will be used in future on all British maps, but due to the unique status of Antarctica, it will be up to other countries to recognise the name if they see fit.[19] Argentina, which lays claim to part of the area, criticised the naming.[20]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Hendry, Ian; Dickson, Susan (2011). British Overseas Territories Law. Oxford: Hart Publishing. p. 299. ISBN 9781849460194.
  2. ^ "Antártica Postcode". Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  3. ^ a b The Antarctic Treaty, National Science Foundation, Office of Polar Programs
  4. ^ a b International law for Antarctica, p. 652, Francesco Francioni and Tullio Scovazzi, 1996
  5. ^ "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Retrieved 19 March 2017. 
  6. ^ R. K. Headland (23 February 1990). Chronological List of Antarctic Expeditions and Related Historical Events. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  7. ^ Ben Cahoon. "British Antarctic Territory". Worldstatesmen.org. Retrieved 13 August 2012. 
  8. ^ "UK to rename part of Antarctica Queen Elizabeth Land". BBC News. BBC. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  9. ^ "Part of Antarctica named 'Queen Elizabeth Land' as gift for Diamond Jubilee". Daily Telegraph. Daily Telegraph. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  10. ^ a b c British Antarctic Territory, Country Facts Archived March 12, 2011, at the Wayback Machine., Foreign & Commonwealth Office
  11. ^ a b Commonwealth Secretariat Website Archived June 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  12. ^ British Nationality Act 1981, s.1, s.15 & s.50
  13. ^ "Research Stations in Antarctica". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 7 September 2008. 
  14. ^ Extreme Engineering: the challenges of working in Antarctica, Ingenia, September 2005.
  15. ^ "Signy Research Station". British Antarctic Survey. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 7 September 2008. 
  16. ^ "Faraday Station - History". British Antarctic Survey. Retrieved 7 September 2008. 
  17. ^ "Port Lockroy". UK Antarctic Heritage Trust. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. Retrieved 7 September 2008. 
  18. ^ The British Antarctic Territory Currency Archived 2010-04-19 at the Wayback Machine., Antarctic Heritage Trust.
  19. ^ "The Foreign Secretary has announced that the southern part of British Antarctic Territory has been named Queen Elizabeth Land". Foreign & Commonwealth Office. 18 December 2012. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  20. ^ "Argentina angry after Antarctic territory named after Queen". BBC News. BBC. 22 December 2012. Retrieved 22 December 2012. 

External links[edit]


Coordinates: 75°00′S 50°00′W / 75.000°S 50.000°W / -75.000; -50.000

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