The English Army was first established as a standing military force in 1660. In 1707 many regiments of the English and Scottish armies were already combined under one operational command and stationed in the Netherlands fighting in the War of Spanish Succession. Consequently, although the regiments were now part of the new British military establishment, they remained under the same operational command, and so not only were the regiments of the old armies transferred in situ to the new army so too was the institutional ethos, customs, and traditions, of the old standing armies that had been created shortly after the restoration of the monarchy 66 years earlier. The order of seniority of the most senior line regiments in the British Army is based on the order of seniority in the English army. Scottish and Irish regiments were only allowed to take a rank in the English army from the date of their arrival in England or the date when they were first placed on the English establishment. For example, in 1694 a board of general officers was convened to decide the rank of English, Irish and Scots regiments serving in the Netherlands; the regiment that became known as the Scots Greys were designated as the 4th Dragoons because there were three English regiments raised prior to 1688 when the Scots Greys were first placed on the English establishment. In 1713, when a new board of general officers was convened to decide upon the rank of several regiments, the seniority of the Scots Greys was reassessed and based on their entry into England in June 1685. At that time there was only one English regiment of dragoons, and so after some delay the Scots Greys obtained the rank of 2nd Dragoons in the British Army.
Following William and Mary's accession to the throne, England involved itself in the War of the Grand Alliance, primarily to prevent a French invasion restoring Mary's father, James II. Following the union of England and Scotland in 1707, and the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801, British foreign policy on the continent was to contain expansion by its competitor powers such as France and Spain. Spain, in the previous two centuries, had been the dominant global power, and the chief threat to England's early transatlantic ambitions, but was now waning. The territorial ambitions of the French, however, led to the War of the Spanish Succession and the Napoleonic Wars. Russian activity led to the Crimean War. After 1745, recruits were increasingly drawn from Scotland; by the mid-1760s between one fifth and one third of officers were from Scotland.
From the time of the end of the Seven Years' War in 1763, Great Britain, and its successor, the United Kingdom, was one of the leading military and economic powers of the world.
The British Empire expanded in this time to include colonies, protectorates, and Dominions throughout the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australasia. Although the Royal Navy is widely regarded as having been vital for the rise of the British Empire, and British dominance of the world, the British Army played an important role in the colonisation of India and other regions. Typical tasks included garrisoning the colonies, capturing strategically important territories, and participating in actions to pacify colonial borders, provide support to allied governments, suppress Britain's rivals, and protect against foreign powers and hostile natives.
The English had been involved, both politically and militarily, in Ireland since being given the Lordship of Ireland by the Pope in 1171. The campaign of the English republican Protector, Oliver Cromwell, involved uncompromising treatment of the Irish towns (most notably Drogheda and Wexford) that had supported the Royalists during the English Civil War. The English Army (and subsequently the British Army) stayed in Ireland primarily to suppress numerous Irish revolts and campaigns for independence. In addition to its ongoing conflict with ethnic Irish nationalists, it was faced with the prospect of battling Anglo-Irish and Ulster Scots peoples in Ireland, angered primarily by unfavourable taxation of Irish produce imported into Britain, who, alongside other Irish groups, had raised their own volunteer army and threatened to emulate the American colonists if their conditions were not met. Having learnt from their experience in America, the British government sought a political solution. The British Army found itself fighting Irish rebels, both Protestant and Catholic, primarily in Ulster and Leinster (Wolfe Tone'sUnited Irishmen) in the 1798 rebellion.
British Mark I tank during the First World War. Note the guidance wheels behind the main body which were later scrapped as they were unnecessary. Armoured vehicles of this time still required much infantry and artillery support and still do to a lesser extent today. The photo was taken by Ernest Brooks.
Great Britain's dominance of the world had been challenged by numerous other powers; in the 20th century, most notably Germany. A century before, it was still vying with Napoleonic France for pre-eminence in Europe and around the world, and Hannoverian Britain's natural allies were the various Kingdoms and principalities of Northern Germany. By the middle of the 19th century, Britain and France were allied in preventing Russia's appropriation of the Ottoman Empire (although it was the fear of French invasion that led, shortly after, to the creation of the Volunteer Force). By the first decade of the 20th century, however, the United Kingdom was allied with France (by the Entente Cordiale) and Russia (which had its own secret agreement with France of mutual support in any war against the Prussian-led German Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire), and when the First World War broke out in 1914, the British Army sent the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) to France and Belgium to prevent Germany from occupying these countries. The British Army created the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force in Egypt and sent it to Gallipoli in an unsuccessful attempt to capture Constantinople and secure a sea route to Russia. After the retreat from Gallipoli nearly 400,000 men in 13 divisions from the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force and the Force in Egypt formed a strategic reserve in Egypt called the Egyptian Expeditionary Force. With most of the strategic reserve sent to the Western Front, an Egyptian Expeditionary Force of two British infantry and one Australian and New Zealand mounted division in the Eastern Force, successfully defend the Suez Canal and Romani in 1916 from German and Ottoman incursions. This force captured the Sinai and garrisoned the extended lines of communication, but in early 1917 their advance was stopped at Gaza until towards the end of the year when a greatly enlarged force of infantry and mounted troops captured Beersheba, most of southern Palestine and Jerusalem. Allenby's force, now including Indian Army units which replaced a number of British units sent to the Western Front, captured the southern Jordan Valley in 1918 and carried out two major, but unsuccessful attacks to Amman and Es Salt and occupied part of the Jordan Valley, during preparations for his final successful assault in September at the Battle of Megiddo. As a result of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force's capture of two Ottoman armies, an armistice with the Ottoman Empire was signed on 31 October 1918.
After the end of the Second World War, the British Army was significantly reduced in size, although National Service continued until 1960. This period also saw the process of decolonisation commence with the partition and independence of India and Pakistan, followed by the independence of British colonies in Africa and Asia. Accordingly, the army's strength was further reduced, in recognition of Britain's reduced role in world affairs, outlined in the 1957 Defence White Paper. This was despite major actions in Korea in the early 1950s and Suez in 1956. A large force of British troops also remained in Germany, facing the threat of Soviet invasion. The British Army of the Rhine was the Germany garrison formation, with the main fighting force being I (BR) Corps. The Cold War saw significant technological advances in warfare and the Army saw more technologically advanced weapons systems come into service.
In the three decades following 1969, the Army was heavily deployed in Northern Ireland, to support the Royal Ulster Constabulary (later the Police Service of Northern Ireland) in their conflict with republican paramilitary groups, called Operation Banner. The locally recruited Ulster Defence Regiment was formed, later becoming home service battalions in the Royal Irish Regiment in 1992, before being disbanded in 2006. Over 700 soldiers were killed during the Troubles. Following the IRA ceasefires between 1994 and 1996 and since 1997, demilitarisation has taken place as part of the peace process, reducing the military presence from 30,000 to 5,000 troops. On 25 June 2007, the Second Battalion Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment vacated the Army complex at Bessbrook Mill in Armagh. This is part of the 'normalisation' programme in Northern Ireland in response to the IRA's declared end to its activities.
The British Army is purely a professional force since National service came to an end. The full-time element of the British Army is referred to as the Regular Army since the creation of the reservist Territorial Force in 1908.
The size and structure of the British Army is continually evolving. Accordingly, the Ministry of Defence publishes monthly reports on personnel. Figures for 1 January 2015 show; 87,140 Regulars, 2,720 Gurkhas and 25,010 Army Reservists for a combined component strength of 114,870 personnel. Of those Regulars and Gurkhas; 80,590 and 2,650 were trained, respectively.
The future transformation of the British Army is referred to as "Army 2020", which is the result of the Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) in October 2010 and a number of following reviews and modifications thereafter. According to the Ministry of Defence, Army 2020 will "ensure that the British Army remains the most capable Army in its class" and enable "it to better meet the security challenges of the 2020s and beyond". Initially, the SDSR outlined a reduction of the Regular British Army by 7,000 to a trained strength of 95,000 personnel by 2015. However, following a further independent review on the future structure of the British Army, "Future Reserves 2020", it was announced that the Regular Army will be reduced to a trained strength of 82,000 while the Army Reserve will be increased to a trained strength of around 30,000 personnel. There will of course be an added margin for soldiers in training. This reform will bring the ratio of regular and part-time personnel of the British Army in line with US and Canadian allies. Perhaps the most important aspect of Army 2020 is that the Army Reserve will become "fully integrated" with the Regular Army and "better prepared" for overseas deployments and operations.
In addition to the active elements of the British Army (Regular and Army Reserve), all ex-Regular Army personnel remain liable to be recalled for duty in a time of need, this is known as the Regular Reserve. The Regular Reserve is separated into two categories: A and D. Category A is mandatory, with the length of time serving in category A depending on time spent in Regular service. Category D is voluntary and consists of personnel who are no-longer required to serve in category A. Regular Reserves in both category A and D serve under a fixed-term reserve contract and are liable to report for training or service overseas and at home. These contracts are similar in nature to those of the Army Reserve. The Long Term reserve is also part of the Regular Reserve but excludes personnel serving in categories A and D. Unlike the other reserves the Long Term reserve do not serve under a contract of any sort, instead they retain a "statutory liability for service" and may be recalled to service under Section 52 of the Reserve Forces Act (RFA) 1996 (until the age of 55). In 2007 there were 121,800 Regular Reserves of the British Army, of which, 33,760 served in categories A and D.
Publications since April 2013 no longer report the entire strength of the Regular Reserve, instead they only give a figure for the Regular Reserves serving in categories A and D only. They had a reported strength of 30,030 personnel in 2014.
The table below shows historical personnel trends of the British Army from 1750 to 2014. The Army Reserve – or Territorial Army, as it was known then – did not come into existence until 1908.
Challenger 2, Warrior, AS90, MLRS and Stormer of 1 YORKS battlegroup
Infantry The basic infantry weapon of the British Army is the L85A2 assault rifle, sometimes equipped with an L17A2 underbarrel grenade launcher. The rifle has several variants, such as the L86A2, the Light Support Weapon (LSW), and the L22A2 carbine issued to tank crews. Support fire is provided by the FN Minimi light machine gun and the L7 General Purpose Machine Gun (GPMG); indirect fire by 51 and 81 mm mortars. Sniper rifles used include the L118A1 7.62 mm, the L115A3 and the AW50F, all produced by Accuracy International. Some units use the L82A1 .50 calibre Barrett sniper rifle. More recently, the L128A1 (Benelli M4) 'combat shotgun' has been adopted, and is intended for close quarters combat in Afghanistan.
Artillery The Army uses three main artillery systems: the Multi Launch Rocket System (MLRS), AS-90 and L118. The MLRS was first used operationally in Operation Granby and has a range of 70 km (43 mi). The AS-90 is a 155 mm self-propelled gun. The L118 Light Gun is a 105 mm towed gun used primarily in support of 16 Air Assault Brigade, 19 Light Brigade and 3 Commando Brigade (Royal Marines). The Rapier FSC Missile System is the Army's primary battlefield air defence system, widely deployed since the Falklands War and the Starstreak HVM (High Velocity Missile) is a surface-to-air weapon, launched either by a single soldier or from a vehicle-mounted launcher.
Army Aviation The Army Air Corps (AAC) provides direct aviation support for the Army, although the RAF also contributes by providing support helicopters. The primary attack helicopter is the Westland WAH-64 Apache, a licence-built, modified version of the US AH-64 Apache, which replaced the Westland Lynx AH7 in the anti-tank role. The Lynx remains in service as an armed escort, surveillance and light utility helicopter. Other types are used in specialised roles e.g. the Westland Gazelle as a light surveillance aircraft and the Bell 212 for support in specific Jungle / 'hot and high' environments The Eurocopter AS 365N Dauphin is used for Special Operations Aviation and the Britten-Norman Islander is a light fixed-wing aircraft used for airborne reconnaissance and command and control.
The ending of the Cold War saw a significant cut in manpower, as outlined in the Options for Change review. Despite this, the Army has been deployed in an increasingly global role, and contributed 50,000 troops to the coalition force that fought Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. British forces were put in control of Kuwait after it was liberated. 47 British Military personnel died during the Persian Gulf War.
The British Army was deployed to Yugoslavia in 1992; initially this force formed part of the United Nations Protection Force. In 1995 command was transferred to IFOR and then to SFOR. Currently troops are under the command of EUFOR. Over 10,000 troops were sent. In 1999 British forces under the command of SFOR were sent to Kosovo during the conflict there. Command was subsequently transferred to KFOR. Between early 1993 and June 2010, 72 British military personnel died on operations in the former Yugoslavian countries of Bosnia, Kosovo and Macedonia.
In November 2001 the United Kingdom, as a part of Operation Enduring Freedom with the United States, invaded Afghanistan to topple the Taliban. The 3rd Division were deployed in Kabul, to assist in the liberation of the troubled capital. The Royal Marines' 3 Commando Brigade (part of the Royal Navy but including a number of Army units), also swept the mountains. The British Army concentrated on fighting Taliban forces and bringing security to Helmand province with around 9,500 British troops (including marines, airmen and sailors) at its peak making it the second largest force after the United States. In December 2012, Prime Minister David Cameron announced that 3,800 troops – almost half of the force serving in Helmand Province – would be withdrawn during 2013 with numbers to fall to approximately 5,200. By March 2014, troop levels had fallen to 4,000. Between 2001 and 26 April 2014 a total of 453 British military personnel died on operations in Afghanistan. Operation Herrick officially ended with the handover of Camp Bastion on 26 October 2014. The British Army maintains a deployment of 500 personnel in Afghanistan as part of Operation Toral.
In 2003 the United Kingdom was a major contributor to the invasion of Iraq, sending a force that would reach 46,000 military personnel. The British Army controlled the southern regions of Iraq and maintained a peace-keeping presence in the city of Basra until their withdrawal on 30 April 2009. 179 British Military personnel have died on operations in Iraq. All of the remaining British troops were fully withdrawn from Iraq after the Iraqi government refused to extend their mandate.
Operation Banner ended at midnight on 31 July 2007, bringing to an end some 38 years of continuous deployment, making it the longest in the British Army's history. An internal British Army document released in 2007 stated that the British Army had failed to defeat the IRA but had made it impossible for them to win through the use of violence. Operation Helvetic replaced Operation Banner in 2007 maintaining fewer servicemen in a much more benign environment. From 1971 to 1997 a total of 763 British military personnel were killed during the "Troubles". Some 300 deaths during the conflict were attributed to the British Army, including paramilitary and civilians. A total of 303 RUC officers were killed in the same time period. In March 2009, two soldiers and a Police Officer were killed in separate dissident republican attacks in Northern Ireland.
183-strong contingent responsible for Sector 2 of the UN's Buffer Zone. 25-strong Royal Military Police unit part of the UN's Force Military Police Unit. 50-strong unit part of the UN's Mobile Force Reserve.
The British Army were deployed to Sierra Leone for Operation Palliser in 1999 to aid the government in quelling violent uprisings by militiamen, under United Nations resolutions. Troops remain in the region to provide military support and training to the Sierra Leonean government.
British troops were based in Belize from 1949 until 1994. Belize's neighbour, Guatemala, claimed the territory and there were numerous border disputes. At the request of the Belizean government, British troops remained in Belize after independence in 1981 to provide a defence force. The main training unit was mothballed in 2011, following the Strategic Defence and Security Review. However, in 2015, it was reported that the training unit was seeing increased usage.
A Gurkha battalion has been maintained in Brunei since the Brunei Revolt in 1962 at the request of SultanOmar Ali Saifuddin III. The Training Team Brunei (TTB) is the Army's jungle warfare school, while the small number of garrison troops support the battalion. 7 Flight AAC provides helicopter support to both the Gurkha battalion and the TTB.
The UK retains two Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus after the rest of the island's independence. The bases serve as forward bases for deployments in the Middle East. Principal facilities are Alexander Barracks at Dhekelia and Salamanca Barracks at Episkopi.
A training centre in the Alberta prairie which is provided for the use of British Army and Canadian Forces under agreement with the government of Canada. British forces conduct regular, major armoured training exercises here every year, with helicopter support provided by 29 (BATUS) Flight AAC.
Previously a platoon-sized Royal Marines Naval Party acted as the military presence. After the war in 1982 between Argentina and the UK, the garrison was enlarged and bolstered with an RAF base at Mount Pleasant on East Falkland.
British forces remained in Germany after the end of the Second World War. Forces declined considerably after the end of the Cold War, and in October 2010 the Prime Minister, David Cameron, announced large cuts in defence with all UK troops currently in Germany to leave by 2020.
The structure of the British Army is complex, due to the different origins of its various constituent parts. It is broadly split into the Regular Army (full-time Officers/soldiers and units) and the Army Reserve (Spare-time Officers/soldiers and units).
In terms of its military structure, it has two parallel organisations, one administrative and one operational.
Corps are made up of two or more divisions, but now are rarely deployed as a purely national formation due to the size of the British Army.
In place of a Battalion, a task-specific Battlegroup may be formed. A battlegroup is grown around the core of either an armoured regiment or infantry battalion, and has other units added or removed from it as necessary for its purpose. It results in a mixed formation of armour, infantry, artillery, engineers and support units, typically consisting of between 600 and 700 soldiers under the command of a Lieutenant Colonel.
Numerous military units were raised historically in British territories, including self-governing and Crown colonies, and protectorates. Whereas the old Commonwealth Dominions, such as Canada and Australia, had their own armies before achieving complete independence, units raised in those territories which remained part of the realm of the UK were, and are, ultimately under the control of the UK government, and do not constitute separate armies. The UK retains responsibility for the defence of all of the fourteen remaining British Overseas Territories. Although the Cayman Islands premier has stated the desire to raise a Cayman Islands Defence Force when it can be afforded (it currently has only the Cayman Islands Cadet Corps), becoming the fifth, only four of the remaining British Overseas Territories retain locally raised regiments:
The Army mainly recruits within the United Kingdom; it normally has a recruitment target of around 12,000 soldiers per year. Low unemployment in Britain has resulted in the Army having difficulty in meeting its target. In the early years of the 21st century there has been a marked increase in the number of recruits from other (mostly Commonwealth) countries. In 2006 overseas recruitment, mostly in Commonwealth countries, generated more than 6,000 soldiers from 54 nations; together with the 3,000 Gurkhas, 10% of the British Army are foreign nationals.
The Ministry of Defence now caps the number of recruits from Commonwealth countries, although this will not affect the Gurkhas. If the trend continues 10% of the army will be from Commonwealth countries before 2012. The cap is in place as some fear the army's British character is being diluted, and employing too many could make the army seen as employing mercenaries. The minimum recruitment age is 16 years (after the end of GCSEs), although soldiers may not serve on operations below 18 years; the maximum recruitment age was raised in January 2007 from 26 to 33 years. The normal term of engagement is 22 years, and, once enlisted, soldiers are not normally permitted to leave until they have served at least 4 years.
All soldiers must take an oath of allegiance upon joining the Army, a process known as attestation. Those who wish to swear by God use the following words:
I, [soldier's name], swear by Almighty God that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, her heirs and successors and that I will as in duty bound honestly and faithfully defend Her Majesty, her heirs and successors in person, crown and dignity against all enemies and will observe and obey all orders of Her Majesty, her heirs and successors and of the generals and officers set over me.
Others replace the words "swear by Almighty God" with "solemnly, sincerely and truly declare and affirm". Under the reign of another monarch, the name of the monarch and all pronouns with gender are replaced appropriately.
The British Army does not have its own specific ensign for the whole Army, unlike the Royal Navy, which uses the White Ensign, and the RAF, which uses the Royal Air Force Ensign. Instead, the Army has different flags and ensigns, some for the entire army and many for the different regiments and corps. The official flag of the Army as a whole is the Union Flag, flown in a ratio of 3:5. A non-ceremonial flag also exists, which is used at recruiting events, military events and exhibitions. It also flies from the Ministry of Defence building in Whitehall.
Whilst at war, the Union Flag is always used, and this flag represents the Army on The Cenotaph at Whitehall in London (the UK's memorial to its war dead).
The British Army has throughout its history operated ships, ports and myriad boats. boats, landing craft and ports are still operated by the Army and ensigns exists for vessels commanded by the Army. The Royal Logistic Corps operates a large fleet of vessels from its base at Marchwood near Southampton. The Royal Engineers has had fleets since the introduction of diving in 1838 and was granted an ensign following the foundation of the Royal Engineers Submarine Mining Service in 1871, where it operated sea mine laying ships, before transfer of the trade to the Royal Navy. The Corps maintains a Blue Ensign defaced by the crest of the Board of Ordnance from where the Corps developed, which it flies from its fleet and shore establishments that routinely operate boats.
Each Foot Guards and line regiment (excluding The Rifles and Royal Gurkha Rifles (RGR)) also has its own flags, known as Colours—normally a Regimental Colour and a Queen's Colour. The design of different Regimental Colours vary but typically the colour has the Regiment's badge in the centre. The RGR carry the Queen's Truncheon in place of Colours.
Flag Ratio: 3:5. The official flag of the Army.
The non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. Sometimes the word Army in gold letters appears below the badge.
A long established nickname for a British soldier has been Tommy Atkins or Tommy for short. The origins are obscure but most probably derive from a specimen army form circulated by the Adjutant-General Sir Harry Calvert to all units in 1815 where the blanks had been filled in with the particulars of a Private Thomas Atkins, No 6 Company, 23rd Regiment of Foot. German soldiers in both world wars would usually refer to their British opponents as Tommys. Present-day British soldiers are often referred to as Toms or just Tom. The British Army magazine Soldier has a regular cartoon strip, Tom, featuring the everyday life of a British soldier. Outside the services, soldiers are generally known as squaddies by the British popular press, and the general public.
Another nickname which applies only to soldiers in Scottish regiments is Jock, derived from the fact that in Scotland the common Christian name John is often changed to Jock in the vernacular. Welsh soldiers are occasionally referred to as Taffy or just Taff. This may only apply to those from the Taff-Ely Valley in South Wales, where a large portion of men, left unemployed from the decline of the coal industry in the area, enlisted during the First and Second World Wars. Alternatively, it is derived from the supposed Welsh pronunciation of Dafydd—the vernacular form of Dave or Davey, the patron Saint of Wales being Saint David. As a nickname for the Welsh it has existed since 1699.
Junior officers in the army, especially those from a privileged background, are sometimes known as Ruperts by the Other ranks. This nickname is believed to have been derived from the children's comic book character Rupert Bear who epitomises traditional public school values and from the purported preponderance of that particular forename amongst young men from a public school background.
^Since April 2013, MoD publications no longer report the entire strength of the Regular Reserve, instead, only Regular Reserves serving under a fixed-term reserve contract are counted. These contracts are similar in nature to the Army Reserve.
^"Army recruitment in Northern Ireland has just revealed that 16 per cent of all those enlisting since April were from south of the border. That figure is up from 10.5 per cent last year – which was in itself more than double for 2006" (Sharrock 2008).
^"Between 2005 and 2006, just 3% of recruits entering the military through its recruitment centres in Northern Ireland came from the Republic. The figure so far this year is 14%, and officers believe it will rise further" (Buchanan 2008).
^"There has been a seven-fold increase in Irish recruits to the British armed forces since the recession began. Figures obtained by Fine Gael TD Brian Hayes revealed 10 people with addresses in the Republic of Ireland joined the British military between 2007 and 2008. From 2009 to 2010 this number rose to 85" (McGarrigle 2010).
^"Eager to place themselves in the best possible light after the war was over – six months at the most was a common reckoning – Irish Unionist and Nationalist politicians called on their followers to do their duty for their respective causes and enlist. Estimates suggest that up to 200,000 Irishmen of all persuasions eventually fought in the British army between 1914 and 1918. Perhaps as many as 49,000 died" ("Remembering Irish soldiers in World War I". History Times.[dead link])
^"Ian Malone's decision also had a long historical precedent. Almost 150,000 Irish soldiers fought in the First World War; 49,000 died. More than 60,000 Irishmen – more than from loyal Ulster – also saw action in the Second World War; like their compatriots in the Great War, all were volunteers. As one of 400 or more men from the republic then serving in the British Army, some of them stationed in Northern Ireland, Ian Malone was part of a familiar Irish story of economic emigration – he was seeking work abroad when there was little at home. And never having left the country, he was no doubt seeking travel and adventure, too" (Watson 2004).
^Army Briefing Note 120/14, Newly formed Force Troops Command Specialist Brigades: "It commands all of the Army’s Intelligence, Surveillance and Electronic Warfare assets, and is made up of units specifically from the former 1 Military Intelligence Brigade and 1 Artillery Brigade, as well as 14 Signal Regiment, 21 and 23 SAS®."