Brutalist architecture is a style of architecture that flourished from the 1950s to the mid-1970s, spawned from the modernist architectural movement. Brutalism rapidly became popular with governments and institutions around the world, with numerous high style examples located in Britain, France, Germany, Japan, United States, and Brazil. Examples are typically large buildings, massive in character, fortresslike, with a predominance of exposed concrete construction. The style was often selected for socialist government sponsored projects for public structures, high-rise multi-family housing, and shopping centres to create an architectural image that communicated strength, functionality, and frugal construction. Its popularity spread to include other uses such as college buildings, but was rarely applied to corporate projects, whose leaders were concerned about the association with socialism. It was typical for post-war government projects to be selected by public building committees through competitions.