Play Video
1
dead head buddleja
dead head buddleja
::2013/10/01::
Play Video
2
Le stagioni in casa - La Buddleja davidii, l
Le stagioni in casa - La Buddleja davidii, l'Echinacea purpurea major
::2014/06/12::
Play Video
3
Buddleja alternifolia (Weeping Butterfly Bush)
Buddleja alternifolia (Weeping Butterfly Bush)
::2011/06/20::
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4
How to Cut back a Buddleja
How to Cut back a Buddleja
::2011/11/13::
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5
VOL.AT-Gartentipp: Der Buddleja
VOL.AT-Gartentipp: Der Buddleja
::2014/07/11::
Play Video
6
Daniele Garella - Buddleja Fleur Angelique - played by Nadja Dornik
Daniele Garella - Buddleja Fleur Angelique - played by Nadja Dornik
::2014/07/08::
Play Video
7
Vlinderstruik (Buddleja davidii) snoeien
Vlinderstruik (Buddleja davidii) snoeien
::2014/03/31::
Play Video
8
How to prune Buddleja Buzz™ video with Thompson & Morgan.
How to prune Buddleja Buzz™ video with Thompson & Morgan.
::2011/03/15::
Play Video
9
How To  Prune a  Buddleja Butterfly Bush
How To Prune a Buddleja Butterfly Bush
::2013/02/09::
Play Video
10
Tagpfauenauge Schmetterlingsstrauch Buddleja Davidii 2011
Tagpfauenauge Schmetterlingsstrauch Buddleja Davidii 2011
::2011/07/26::
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11
Sergio Zavattieri building Buddleja Solarizada
Sergio Zavattieri building Buddleja Solarizada
::2010/03/10::
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12
buddleja globosa
buddleja globosa
::2013/07/01::
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13
Über invasive Neophyten und Buddleja - Schmetterlingsflieder
Über invasive Neophyten und Buddleja - Schmetterlingsflieder
::2012/09/17::
Play Video
14
Common Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) on white Butterfly-Bush (Buddleja davidii) [3]
Common Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) on white Butterfly-Bush (Buddleja davidii) [3]
::2014/10/09::
Play Video
15
Dwarf Buddleja
Dwarf Buddleja
::2012/12/07::
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16
Butterflies feeding on Buddleja
Butterflies feeding on Buddleja
::2014/01/17::
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17
Buddleja Buzz | Glebe Garden Centre Leicester
Buddleja Buzz | Glebe Garden Centre Leicester
::2013/07/08::
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18
Migrating Monarchs find Buddleja Buzz Bliss
Migrating Monarchs find Buddleja Buzz Bliss
::2014/09/29::
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19
Butterfly Bush - Buddleja davidii - Fiðrildarunni  -  Skrautrunni
Butterfly Bush - Buddleja davidii - Fiðrildarunni - Skrautrunni
::2012/08/15::
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20
Time-lapse Buddleja
Time-lapse Buddleja
::2009/09/17::
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21
Buddleja Free Petite® Blue Heaven
Buddleja Free Petite® Blue Heaven
::2014/03/04::
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22
Schmetterlingsstrauch Sommerflieder Buddleja davidii 2013
Schmetterlingsstrauch Sommerflieder Buddleja davidii 2013
::2013/08/04::
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23
Terras Buddleja, winnaar Colour your Life Award Plantarium 2011
Terras Buddleja, winnaar Colour your Life Award Plantarium 2011
::2011/10/03::
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24
Buddleja davidii Border Beauty  Vlinderstruik  Atalanta
Buddleja davidii Border Beauty Vlinderstruik Atalanta
::2014/08/16::
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25
Peacock butterfly drinking nectar from buddleja
Peacock butterfly drinking nectar from buddleja
::2011/08/31::
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26
Buddleja davidii - Nyári orgona metszése - Megyeri Szabolcs Kertészet webáruház
Buddleja davidii - Nyári orgona metszése - Megyeri Szabolcs Kertészet webáruház
::2014/02/23::
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27
Buddleja | Glebe Garden Centre Leicester
Buddleja | Glebe Garden Centre Leicester
::2014/07/28::
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28
Butterfly Bush - Buddleja davidii - Fiðrildarunni 2    og svöng  Húshumla
Butterfly Bush - Buddleja davidii - Fiðrildarunni 2 og svöng Húshumla
::2013/08/18::
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29
Buddleja sp. aka Butterfly Bush/Buddleia with Suburban Stone Age
Buddleja sp. aka Butterfly Bush/Buddleia with Suburban Stone Age
::2013/02/26::
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30
Vivara Sommerflieder (Buddleja davidii)
Vivara Sommerflieder (Buddleja davidii)
::2013/10/22::
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31
Buddleia de David (Buddleja davidii)
Buddleia de David (Buddleja davidii)
::2014/04/09::
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32
Schmetterlingsflieder Buddleja Sungold
Schmetterlingsflieder Buddleja Sungold
::2010/09/20::
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33
Broad-bordered Bee Hawk Moths Hemaris fuciformis feeding on Buddleja davidii
Broad-bordered Bee Hawk Moths Hemaris fuciformis feeding on Buddleja davidii
::2013/04/07::
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34
BUDDLEJA GAME 2013 DRIVE IT PERFORMANCE ‪#‎โชว์ของน้องรุ่น25
BUDDLEJA GAME 2013 DRIVE IT PERFORMANCE ‪#‎โชว์ของน้องรุ่น25
::2013/08/25::
Play Video
35
Common Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) on white Butterfly-Bush (Buddleja davidii) [1]
Common Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) on white Butterfly-Bush (Buddleja davidii) [1]
::2012/08/12::
Play Video
36
BUGDELIA DE INVIERNO: Buddleja madagascariensis (www.riomoros.com)
BUGDELIA DE INVIERNO: Buddleja madagascariensis (www.riomoros.com)
::2014/08/23::
Play Video
37
Verschillen tussen Buddleja
Verschillen tussen Buddleja 'Empire Blue' & 'Nanho Blue' door tuinplantenwinkel.nl
::2014/10/15::
Play Video
38
Return of the Buddleja
Return of the Buddleja
::2013/09/11::
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39
Silver-washed Fritillary (Argynnis paphia) on white Butterfly-Bush (Buddleja davidii)
Silver-washed Fritillary (Argynnis paphia) on white Butterfly-Bush (Buddleja davidii)
::2012/08/13::
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40
Buddleja davidii Nanho Blue
Buddleja davidii Nanho Blue
::2014/08/24::
Play Video
41
Vlinders op de vlinderstruik (Buddleja davidii) in onze tuin - Butterflies in our garden
Vlinders op de vlinderstruik (Buddleja davidii) in onze tuin - Butterflies in our garden
::2009/08/22::
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42
Red Admiral Nectaring Buddleja - September 14, 2013
Red Admiral Nectaring Buddleja - September 14, 2013
::2013/09/19::
Play Video
43
BUDDLEJA GAME 2013 DRIVE IT PERFORMANCE ‪#‎หลีดผี‬
BUDDLEJA GAME 2013 DRIVE IT PERFORMANCE ‪#‎หลีดผี‬
::2013/08/25::
Play Video
44
Buddleja Davidii (Schmetterlingsstrauch, Sommerflieder)
Buddleja Davidii (Schmetterlingsstrauch, Sommerflieder)
::2009/07/19::
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45
Echinacea purpurea 紫锥菊 Buddleja davidii 大叶醉鱼草
Echinacea purpurea 紫锥菊 Buddleja davidii 大叶醉鱼草
::2011/04/05::
Play Video
46
Common Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) on white Butterfly-Bush (Buddleja davidii) [2]
Common Brimstone (Gonepteryx rhamni) on white Butterfly-Bush (Buddleja davidii) [2]
::2012/08/13::
Play Video
47
Red Admiral Nectaring Buddleja, "Butterfly Wings" - September 14, 2013
Red Admiral Nectaring Buddleja, "Butterfly Wings" - September 14, 2013
::2013/09/20::
Play Video
48
dagpauwoog op honeycomb buddleja
dagpauwoog op honeycomb buddleja
::2011/09/29::
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49
Buddleia Davidii - butterfly bush - Buddleja davidii HD 01
Buddleia Davidii - butterfly bush - Buddleja davidii HD 01
::2013/12/23::
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50
Verschillen tussen Buddleja
Verschillen tussen Buddleja 'Blue Chip' & 'Dreaming Lavender' door tuinplantenwinkel.nl
::2014/10/15::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Buddleja
Butterfly Bush
White buddleia closeup.jpg
Buddleja davidii (white flowered form)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Scrophulariaceae
Tribe: Buddlejeae[1]
Genus: Buddleja
L.
Type species
Buddleja americana
L.[2]
Species

About 100 species, see text.

Synonyms

Adenoplea Radlk.
Adenoplusia Radlk.
Buddleia L., orth. var.
Chilianthus Burch.[3]

Buddleja, or Buddleia /ˈbʌdlə/ (also historically given as Buddlea) commonly known as the butterfly bush[4] is a genus comprising over 100 species of flowering plants endemic to Asia, Africa, and the Americas. The generic name bestowed by Linnaeus posthumously honoured the Reverend Adam Buddle (1662–1715), a botanist and rector in Essex, England, at the suggestion of Dr. William Houstoun. Houstoun sent the first plants to become known to science as buddleja (B. americana) to England from the Caribbean about 15 years after Buddle's death.[1]

Nomenclature[edit]

The botanic name has been the source of some confusion. By modern practice of botanical Latin, the spelling of a generic name made from 'Buddle' would be Buddleia, but Linnaeus in his Species Plantarum of 1753 and 1754 spelled it Buddleja, with the long i between two vowels, common in early modern orthography.[5] The pronunciation of the long i in Buddleja as j is a common modern error. The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature has gradually changed to incorporate stricter rules about orthographic variants, and as of the 2006 edition requires (article 60, particularly 60.5) that Linnaeus' spelling should be followed in this case.[6]

Classification[edit]

The genus Buddleja is now included in the Scrophulariaceae family;[7] it had earlier been classified in either the Loganiaceae or in a family of its own, the Buddlejaceae.

Description[edit]

Of the approximately 100 species nearly all are shrubs <5 m (16 ft) tall, but a few qualify as trees, the largest reaching 30 m (98 ft). Both evergreen and deciduous species occur, in tropical and temperate regions resp. The leaves are lanceolate in most species, and arranged in opposite pairs on the stems (alternate in one species, B. alternifolia); they range from 1–30 cm (0.39–11.81 in) long. The flowers of the Asiatic species are mostly produced in terminal panicles 10–50 cm (3.9–19.7 in) long; the American species more commonly as cymes forming small, globose heads. Each individual flower is tubular and divided into four spreading lobes (petals) about 3–4 mm (0.12–0.16 in) across, the corolla length ranging from around 10 mm in the Asiatics to 3–30 mm in the American species, the wider variation in the latter because some South American species have evolved long red flowers to attract hummingbirds, rather than insects, as exclusive pollinators.

The colour of the flowers varies widely, from mostly pastel pinks and blues in Asia, to vibrant yellows and reds in the New World, while many cultivars have deeper tones. The flowers are generally rich in nectar and often strongly honey-scented. The fruit is a small capsule about 1 cm (0.39 in) long and 1–2 mm (0.039–0.079 in) diameter, containing numerous small seeds; in a few species (previously classified in the separate genus Nicodemia) the capsule is soft and fleshy, forming a berry.

Distribution[edit]

The genus is endemic to four continents. Over 60 species are native throughout the warmer parts of the New World from the southern United States south to Chile, while many other species are found in the Old World, in Africa, and parts of Asia, but all are absent as natives from Europe and Australasia. The species are divided into three groups based on their floral type: those in the New World are mostly dioecious (occasionally hermaphrodite or trioecious), while those in the Old World are exclusively hermaphrodite with perfect flowers.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

As garden shrubs Buddlejas are essentially 20th-century plants, with the exception of B. globosa which was introduced to Britain from southern Chile in 1774 and disseminated from the nursery of Lee and Kennedy, Hammersmith.[8] Several species are popular garden plants, the species are commonly known as 'butterfly bushes' owing to their attractiveness to butterflies, and have become staples of the modern butterfly garden; they are also attractive to bees and moths.

The most popular cultivated species is Buddleja davidii from central China, named for the French Basque missionary and naturalist Père Armand David. Other common garden species include the aforementioned B. globosa, grown for its strongly honey-scented orange globular inflorescences, and the weeping Buddleja alternifolia. Several interspecific hybrids have been made, notably B. 'Lochinch' (B. davidii × B. fallowiana) and B. × weyeriana (B. globosa × B. davidii), the latter a cross between a South American and an Asiatic species.

Some species commonly escape from the garden. B. davidii in particular is a great coloniser of dry open ground; in urban areas in the United Kingdom, it often self-sows on waste ground or old masonry, where it grows into a dense thicket, and is listed as an invasive species in many areas. It is frequently seen beside railway lines, on derelict factory sites and, in the aftermath of World War II, on urban bomb sites. This earned it the popular nickname of 'the bombsite plant' among the war-time generation.

Popular garden cultivars include 'Royal Red' (reddish-purple flowers), 'Black Knight' (very dark purple), 'Sungold' (golden yellow), and 'Pink Delight' (pure pink). In recent years, much breeding work has been undertaken to create small, more compact buddlejas, such as 'Blue Chip' which reach no more than 2–3 ft (0.61–0.91 m) tall, and which are also seed sterile, an important consideration in the USA where B. davidii and its cultivars are banned from many states owing to their invasiveness.

Buddleja collections[edit]

In the UK, there are four NCCPG national collections held by:

  • The Lavender Garden, Ashcroft Nurseries, Kingscote, Tetbury, Glos. GL8 8YF. Tel. 01453 860356 www.thelavenderg.co.uk
  • Longstock Park Nursery, Longstock, Stockbridge, Hants. SO20 6EH. Tel. 01264 810894 www.longstocknursery.co.uk
  • Paignton Zoo, Totnes Road, Paignton, Devon TQ4 7EU. Tel. 01803 697529 www.paigntonzoo.org.uk
  • The Shapcott Barton Estate, East Knowstone, South Molton, Devon EX36 4EE. Tel. 01398 341664

List of Buddleja species and naturally-occurring hybrids[edit]

The many species of Buddleja have been the subject of much taxonomic contention. The listing below includes the names, still prevalent in horticulture, of many former Asiatic species sunk by the late Anthonius Leeuwenberg as Buddleja crispa and adopted as such in the definitive Flora of China.[9][10][11]

Formerly placed here[edit]

Gallery[edit]

List of Buddleja cultivars and artificial hybrids[edit]

A large number of hybrids and cultivars, predominantly of B. davidii, has been raised in nurseries on both sides of the Atlantic:

RHS Award of Garden Merit[edit]

The following Buddleja species and cultivars are currently (2014) holders of the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:

See also[edit]

Monographs[edit]

Asiatic and African species[edit]

  • Leeuwenberg, A. J. M. (1979) The Loganiaceae of Africa XVIII Buddleja L. II, Revision of the African & Asiatic species. H. Veenman & Zonen, Wageningen, Nederland.

North and South American species[edit]

  • Norman, E. (2000). Buddlejaceae. Flora Neotropica, Vol. 81. New York Botanical Garden, USA. ISSN 0071 - 5794

Cultivated species and cultivars[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Genus Buddleja". Taxonomy. UniProt. Retrieved 21 October 2009. 
  2. ^ "Buddleja L.". TROPICOS. Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 21 October 2009. 
  3. ^ "Genus Buddleja L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 20 April 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  4. ^ Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607; OED: "Buddleia"
  5. ^ Linnaei, C. (1753). Species plantarum. Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Stockholm.
  6. ^ McNeill, J.; Barrie, F. R.; Buck, W. R. et al., eds. (2012), International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Melbourne Code), Adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, Australia, July 2011 (electronic ed.), Bratislava: International Association for Plant Taxonomy, retrieved 20 December 2012  .
  7. ^ Stevens, P.F. (2001 onwards), "Scrophulariaceae", Angiosperm Phylogeny Website  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  8. ^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Buddleia".
  9. ^ "Buddleja". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 10 April 2010. 
  10. ^ "GRIN Species Records of Buddleja". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 29 November 2010. 
  11. ^ Norman, E. (2000). Buddlejaceae. Flora Neotropica, Vol. 81. New York Botanical Garden, USA.

External links[edit]

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