Pashto is main language spoken in Buner which until 1969 was part of Swat, a moderate number of people speak Punjabi languages (Hindko, Gujri and Majhi dialects). Kohistani is also spoken by few. The national language, Urdu, is also spoken and understood.
The Buner Valley lies on the Peshawar valley border of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It is a small mountain valley, dotted with villages and divided into four sub-divisions. The Mora Hills and the Ilam range divide it from the Swat Valley, the Sinawar range from Yusafzai, the Guru mountains from the MARDAN valley, and the Duma range from the Puran Valley. During the 19th century the inhabitants rose twice against the British, but submitted in 1897. Until the year 2000 it was a part of Malakand Division - until this division was abolished.
In April 2009, the Taliban seized control of Buner, after a brief battle with local residents. Strict rules were reportedly being enforced, including the elimination of video stores, bans on cutting beards, and the prevention of women from appearing in many public places. On 29 April the government responded to the Taliban by sending the army to the region and dropping parachutists by helicopter. By the end of May 2009, almost all of Buner was cleared of the Taliban.
On November 2, 2012, a bomb attack killed local anti-Taliban politician Fateh Khan, an ex-leader of the secular Awami National Party and three of his guards as his car left a petrol station. Several people were also injured. According to Pakistan's Express Tribune, Mr Khan was a former ANP leader who had recently joined the Qaumi Watan Party. Mr Khan was also the head of a local tribal anti-Taliban force.
The district have many high and higher secondary schools. Four degree colleges for male students and two intermediate schools and a degree college for female students. Few private sector schools and colleges are also there.
^ One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Buner". Encyclopædia Britannica4 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.