The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined transport aircraft that was jointly developed by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport. Its primary military roles include maritime patrol, surveillance, and air transport. Its largest user is Turkey which has 59 aircraft.
Design and development
The project was a joint venture between Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) and Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), formerly known as IPTN, which formed Airtech International to manage the programme. The partnership applied only to the Series 10 and Series 100/110, with later versions being developed independently. Over 230 of all versions of CN-235 are in service and have accumulated more than 500,000 flight hours.
Design began in January 1980 with first flight on 11 November 1983. Spanish and Indonesian certification was on 20 June 1986; the first flight of the production aircraft was on 19 August 1986 and CASA's FAA type approval was granted on 3 December 1986. The aircraft entered service on 1 March 1988
In 1994 the Irish Air Corps took delivery of two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft having used one on loan from CASA from 1992 while their own aircraft were being built.
In 1995, CASA launched development of a stretched CN-235 as the C-295. In December 2002, the Colombian Navy ordered two CN-235 for patrol and anti-drug trafficking missions.
In April 2005, Venezuela ordered two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft plus 10 transport planes but the operation was halted because the United States government refused to allow the transfer of what they deemed to be US technology in the avionics.
In January 2006, Thailand placed an order with Indonesian Aerospace for ten aircraft, six for the Ministry of Defence and four for the Ministry of Agriculture.
In December 2007, Spain ordered two CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft for the Guardia Civil, for delivery 2008–2009.
One CN-235 MPA aircraft was delivered by Indonesian Aerospace to the Indonesian defence ministry in June 2008.
In August 2006, three CASA CN-235-10 aircraft remained in airline service, in Africa, with Safair (two) and Tiko Air (one). Asian Spirit operated a lone CN-235-220 in the Philippines, correct as of June/July 2007.
There are at least two CN-235s flying with the United States Air Force for an undisclosed role with the 427th Special Operations Squadron, located at the former Pope AFB, North Carolina.
In early July 2008, the Mexican Navy announced that it would purchase six CASA CN-235s from Spain. In April 2010, Hervé Morin, French Minister of Defence, announced the order of eight CN-235-300s from Spain.
In 2011, Indonesian Aerospace was still working on 4 CN-235-110 MPAs for South Korea Coast Guard with amount of $96 million.
The Senegalese Air Force acquired two CN-235s in 2010 and August 2012 under a $13 million contract. They plan to buy two more aircraft for VIP and cargo duties. The Air Force is also interested in the maritime patrol version of the aircraft.
Although the CN-235 was designed for military purposes in the 1980s, it began to be used as a commercial plane, although it wasn't a very big success for airlines. Possibly its lack of success was due to its 50-passenger capacity and short range coupled with high fuel usage. Iberia LAE, Spain's flag carrier, bought four CN-235s from CASA aircraft for regional routes but in 1992 Aerolíneas Argentinas (then also a subsidiary of Iberia) ordered two of these aircraft for regional routes – to be operated by its subsidiary, Austral.
In 2015, Indonesian Aerospace announced that they are currently planning a new variant of CN-235 called N-245 that will be designed specially for civil operation and able to carry up to 60 passengers. Previously also known as CN-235NG, this variant planned to be fully launched after Indonesian Aerospace N-219 project is done and expected to be fully certified in 2019. Further planned development is N-270, a stretched version of N-245 that able to carry up to 70–90 passengers and planned to be developed in 2019–2024.
- Initial production version (15 built by each company), with GE CT7-7A engines.
- Generally as series 10, but with GE CT7-9C engines in new composites nacelles; replaced Series 10 in 1988 from 31st production aircraft. Series 100 is Spanish-built, series 110 Indonesian-built, with improved electrical, warning and environmental systems.
- Improved version. Structural reinforcements to cater for higher operating weights, aerodynamic improvements to wing leading-edges and rudder, reduced field length requirements and much-increased range with maximum payload. Series 200 is Spanish-built, Series 220 Indonesian-built.
- CASA Modification of 200/220 series, with the Honeywell International Corp. avionics suite. Other features include improved pressurization and provision for optional twin-nosewheel installation.
- CN-235-330 Phoenix
- Modification of Series 200/220, offered by IPTN with new Honeywell avionics, ARL-2002 EW system and 16.800 kg/37.037 lb MTOW, to Royal Australian Air Force to meet Project Air 5190 tactical airlift requirement, but was forced by financial constraints to withdraw in 1998.
- CN-235 MPA
- Maritime patrol version with 6 hardpoints to carry AM-39 Exocet-Missiles or Mk.46-Torpedoes.
- HC-144 Ocean Sentry
- United States Coast Guard designation for a planned twenty-two aircraft fleet bought to replace the small HU-25 Guardian business-style jets. As of 2010 , twelve  had been delivered.
- A light gunship modified with integrated weapons pylons to carry AGM-114 Hellfire missiles and 70MM rockets, has a side-mounted 30mm cannon, and a Synthetic aperture radar. The collaborative effort was made by King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau of Jordan, and the U.S. Defense company Orbital ATK
CN-235 world operators:
Only government operators
- Burkina Faso
- The Irish Air Corps operates 2 CN235-100 employed as maritime patrol aircraft. Delivery took place in 1994
- Papua New Guinea
- South Korea
- United Arab Emirates
US Air Force CN-235-100M QC
- United States
Former Military operators
- South Africa
- Yemen Air Force  (1x CN-235-300) The only aircraft of the type, registration number 2211, factory number 168988, serial number 188, was destroyed in a Saudi airstrike on March 25, 2015.
Government and paramilitary operators
Binter Mediterraneo CN-235
- South Africa
- United States
- Prescott Support Company Inc, operating two CASA CN-235
On 18 Oct 1992, Merpati Nusantara Airlines (Registration PK-MNN) CN-235-10 Flight 5601 crashed on Garut, Indonesia, killing all 31 people on board 
On 19 January 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 training mission crashed near Kayseri after entering a spin from which recovery was not possible, killing all 3 people on board
On 16 May 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control, killing all 34 people on board.
On 18 May 2001, a Turkish Navy CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control after reaching an altitude of just 100 feet, killing all 4 people on board.
On 29 August 2001, Binter Mediterráneo Flight 8261 (Registration EC-FBC) crash-landed at Málaga, Spain, killing four of the 44 passengers and crew aboard. The aircraft was scrapped.
On 11 Feb 2013 a CN-235 crashed into a forest 45 km south of Monrovia, Liberia, 8 km to Roberts International Airport, killing 11 people amongst them Souleymane Kelefa Diallo, Guinea army chief.
On 1 Aug 2015 a CN-235-200M operated by the Colombian Air Force crashed in Cesar province, Colombia due to engine failure, killing 11 people.
On 26 February 2016, a CN-235 operated by the Royal Malaysian Air Force crashed in a swamp in Kuala Selangor with no casualties. However, a local fisherman drowned during the rescue.
On 17 January 2018, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 on a training mission crashed with two pilots and a technician on board near Isparta. All on board were killed.
Aircraft on display
Data from Airbus Military
- Crew: two, pilot and co-pilot
- Capacity: 51 passengers, 35 paratroops, 18 stretchers or four HCU-6/E pallets including one on the ramp
- Payload: 6,000 kg (13,100 lb)
- Length: 21.40 m (70 ft 21⁄2 in)
- Wingspan: 25.81 m (84 ft 8 in)
- Height: 8.18 m (26 ft 10 in)
- Wing area: 59.10 m2 (636.1 sq ft)
- Airfoil: NACA 653-218
- Aspect ratio: 11.27:1
- Empty weight: 9,800 kg (21,605 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 15,100 kg (33,289 lb)
- Powerplant: 2 × General Electric CT7-9C3 turboprops, 1,305 kW (1,750 hp) (take-off) each
- Cruise speed: 450 km/h (248 knots, 286 mph) at 4,575 m (15,000 ft)
- Stall speed: 156 km/h (84 knots, 97 mph) (flaps down)
- Range: 4,355 km (2,350 nmi, 2,706 mi)
- Service ceiling: 7,620 m (25,000 ft)
- Rate of climb: 7.8 m/s (1,780 ft/min)
- Related development
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