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EATT 2015 - French Air Force - CASA/IPTN CN-235-200M
EATT 2015 - French Air Force - CASA/IPTN CN-235-200M
Published: 2015/06/24
Channel: Pedro Monteiro Oliveira
M&L   CN235 and C295
M&L CN235 and C295
Published: 2015/11/08
Channel: Faisal Al Faifi
CASA CN 235 / IPTN CN 235 l Turkish,  Pakistan, Spanish,  French, Indonesian Air Force
CASA CN 235 / IPTN CN 235 l Turkish, Pakistan, Spanish, French, Indonesian Air Force
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: Aeronautica Reloaded
CN-235 Aircraft at the Singapore 2016 Airshow
CN-235 Aircraft at the Singapore 2016 Airshow
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: Nicholas' Production company
CASA CN-235 Armée de l
CASA CN-235 Armée de l'Air Take Off at Bern Airport
Published: 2014/06/29
Channel: matthiashaenni
CASA/IPTN CN-235 - Tactical Transport Aircraft For Spainish Forces
CASA/IPTN CN-235 - Tactical Transport Aircraft For Spainish Forces
Published: 2015/02/15
Channel: hindu judaic
CASA IPTN CN-235M French Air Force departure at RIAT 2016 AirShow
CASA IPTN CN-235M French Air Force departure at RIAT 2016 AirShow
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: MUC-Spotter
CASA IPTN CN-235M-100 Irish Air Corps departure at RIAT 2015 AirShow
CASA IPTN CN-235M-100 Irish Air Corps departure at RIAT 2015 AirShow
Published: 2015/08/22
Channel: MUC-Spotter
CASA/IPTN CN-235 Takeoff from Oxford
CASA/IPTN CN-235 Takeoff from Oxford
Published: 2013/02/18
Channel: Golf Juliet
CASA/IPTN CN-235M-200 Armée de l
CASA/IPTN CN-235M-200 Armée de l'Air 160 / 62-IS - Passages & Atterrissages à TUF le 07/06/15
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: Avianca Spotting
CASA CN-235-300 Takeoff
CASA CN-235-300 Takeoff
Published: 2012/08/30
Channel: 235FireFly
Chile - Army CASA/IPTN CN-235M-100 216
Chile - Army CASA/IPTN CN-235M-100 216
Published: 2015/10/09
Channel: Alfonso Gimenez
RC CN-235 in the hard windy day flight-02
RC CN-235 in the hard windy day flight-02
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: SangWook Hong
CASA 235 cockpit en vuelo. 744 Esquadron CASA 235. Sept.2009
CASA 235 cockpit en vuelo. 744 Esquadron CASA 235. Sept.2009
Published: 2010/07/04
Channel: robindwn0101
RMAF CN235-220M smooth landing.
RMAF CN235-220M smooth landing.
Published: 2013/04/14
Channel: faizal fretless
CASA CN-235 - Landing
CASA CN-235 - Landing
Published: 2017/05/20
Channel: 235FireFly
The ATK AC 235 Light Gunship
The ATK AC 235 Light Gunship
Published: 2016/08/16
Channel: Korean People's Army
CASA/IPTN CN-235M French Air Force 62-HE - RNS, 30/10/2015
CASA/IPTN CN-235M French Air Force 62-HE - RNS, 30/10/2015
Published: 2015/11/08
Channel: Avianca Spotting
CASA IPTN CN-235M-200 French Air Force departure at RIAT 2016 AirShow
CASA IPTN CN-235M-200 French Air Force departure at RIAT 2016 AirShow
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: MUC-Spotter
Airbus Military CN235-C295 Pallet Transfer System
Airbus Military CN235-C295 Pallet Transfer System
Published: 2012/03/23
Channel: kokpitaero
CASA IPTN CN-235M-200 French Air Force arrival at RIAT 2016 AirShow
CASA IPTN CN-235M-200 French Air Force arrival at RIAT 2016 AirShow
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: MUC-Spotter
CN-235 Persuader, Spain - Maritime Patrol Aircraft of Spanish Navy
CN-235 Persuader, Spain - Maritime Patrol Aircraft of Spanish Navy
Published: 2015/02/10
Channel: hindu judaic
Final check for a maiden flight of DIYed CN-235
Final check for a maiden flight of DIYed CN-235
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: 한상규
[Rejected Takeoff] French Air Force Casa CN235 Taxi & Takeoff at YQB!
[Rejected Takeoff] French Air Force Casa CN235 Taxi & Takeoff at YQB!
Published: 2015/09/13
Channel: YQBspotting
CASA IPTN CN-235M-300 French Air Force departure RIAT 2012
CASA IPTN CN-235M-300 French Air Force departure RIAT 2012
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: MUC-Spotter
Cn-235 CASA
Cn-235 CASA
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: Gurme Pilot
Casa CB-235-100M Turkish Navy at Edinburgh
Casa CB-235-100M Turkish Navy at Edinburgh
Published: 2014/02/25
Channel: Jim Ramsay
RC CN-235 in the hard windy day flight-01
RC CN-235 in the hard windy day flight-01
Published: 2017/04/22
Channel: SangWook Hong
RIAT 2016  Irish Air Corps CASA CN235-100MPA
RIAT 2016 Irish Air Corps CASA CN235-100MPA
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: gvlacom
PK-XNE , Airtech CN-235-220M , South Korea - Coast Guard @ TaoYuan International Airport , Taiwan
PK-XNE , Airtech CN-235-220M , South Korea - Coast Guard @ TaoYuan International Airport , Taiwan
Published: 2011/05/08
Channel: aerostars
French Casa CN235 Departing Avalon Airport
French Casa CN235 Departing Avalon Airport
Published: 2017/03/08
Channel: Avalon Airport Spotter
CN-235 South African Air Force
CN-235 South African Air Force
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: Leon Steyn
Royal Malaysian Air Force RMAF Military Aircraft Landing Subang Airport (CASA CN 235)
Royal Malaysian Air Force RMAF Military Aircraft Landing Subang Airport (CASA CN 235)
Published: 2014/09/21
Channel: Seraphina
CN-235 KCG Run-up
CN-235 KCG Run-up
Published: 2011/07/23
Channel: heryatna88
Spanish Coast Guard CASA CN-235.
Spanish Coast Guard CASA CN-235.
Published: 2012/08/16
Channel: Alan the leopard
CN-235 Brunei Darusalam Air Force
CN-235 Brunei Darusalam Air Force
Published: 2006/07/18
Channel: arysaputra
RAMF CN235
RAMF CN235
Published: 2007/08/29
Channel: karayaimanis
Casa CN-235  Spanish AF comes in at Gilze Rijen
Casa CN-235 Spanish AF comes in at Gilze Rijen
Published: 2014/06/29
Channel: MrSoeberg
RC CN-235 Korea Coast Guard trim 2nd Sortie(setting flight) for the Test Flight
RC CN-235 Korea Coast Guard trim 2nd Sortie(setting flight) for the Test Flight
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: SangWook Hong
CASA CN-235 French AF from New Caledonia at RNZAF Air Tattoo 25 Feb 2017
CASA CN-235 French AF from New Caledonia at RNZAF Air Tattoo 25 Feb 2017
Published: 2017/02/26
Channel: Marcus
Airbus Military C295 MPA
Airbus Military C295 MPA
Published: 2012/03/23
Channel: kokpitaero
CASA 235
CASA 235
Published: 2012/08/27
Channel: TheCamerasuarus
French CASA 235-300 Display At Warbirds Over Wanaka 2016
French CASA 235-300 Display At Warbirds Over Wanaka 2016
Published: 2016/04/03
Channel: Benbow Video Productions
SOFEX 2014 ATK AC-235 Light Gunship
SOFEX 2014 ATK AC-235 Light Gunship
Published: 2014/05/15
Channel: Jane's
CASA CN-235M-100 Irish Air Corps departure at RIAT 2016 AirShow
CASA CN-235M-100 Irish Air Corps departure at RIAT 2016 AirShow
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: MUC-Spotter
CASA/IPTN CN-235
CASA/IPTN CN-235
Published: 2016/08/06
Channel: WikiWikiup
[HD1080p50] CASA CN235, Irish Air Corps @ Newcastle Festival of Flight 2015
[HD1080p50] CASA CN235, Irish Air Corps @ Newcastle Festival of Flight 2015
Published: 2015/08/09
Channel: Shane Kelly
CN-235 KCG Flt. Training mission accomplished
CN-235 KCG Flt. Training mission accomplished
Published: 2011/07/23
Channel: heryatna88
ROK AirForce CN-235/JEJU INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
ROK AirForce CN-235/JEJU INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT
Published: 2014/12/15
Channel: rider eye-Aviation&Military
HC-144A Ocean Sentry  --  CASA CN 235_DSC_0032.mp4
HC-144A Ocean Sentry -- CASA CN 235_DSC_0032.mp4
Published: 2012/09/14
Channel: GalaxyEsAndroid
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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CN-235
Casa.cn-235m-100.35-24.spanishaf.arp.jpg
A CASA CN-235M-100 of the Spanish Air Force
Role Transport aircraft/maritime patrol aircraft
Manufacturer Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA
IPTN
First flight 11 November 1983
Introduction 1 March 1988
Status Active service
Primary users Turkish Air Force
United States Air Force
French Air Force
Republic of Korea Air Force
Produced 1983[citation needed]–present[1]
Number built 283[2] (+ > 57 IPTN)[3]
Unit cost
$ 34 million [4]
Variants EADS CASA HC-144 Ocean Sentry
Developed into EADS CASA C-295
Indonesian Aerospace N-245

The CASA/IPTN CN-235 is a medium-range twin-engined transport aircraft that was jointly developed by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) of Spain and Indonesian manufacturer IPTN, as a regional airliner and military transport. Its primary military roles include maritime patrol, surveillance, and air transport. Its largest user is Turkey which has 59 aircraft.[5]

Design and development[edit]

The project was a joint venture between Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA (CASA) and Indonesian Aerospace (PT. Dirgantara Indonesia), formerly known as IPTN, which formed Airtech International to manage the programme. The partnership applied only to the Series 10 and Series 100/110, with later versions being developed independently. Over 230 of all versions of CN-235 are in service and have accumulated more than 500,000 flight hours.

Design began in January 1980 with first flight on 11 November 1983. Spanish and Indonesian certification was on 20 June 1986; the first flight of the production aircraft was on 19 August 1986 and CASA's FAA type approval was granted on 3 December 1986. The aircraft entered service on 1 March 1988

In 1994 the Irish Air Corps took delivery of two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft having used one on loan from CASA from 1992 while their own aircraft were being built.

In 1995, CASA launched development of a stretched CN-235 as the C-295. In December 2002, the Colombian Navy ordered two CN-235 for patrol and anti-drug trafficking missions.

In April 2005, Venezuela ordered two CN-235 maritime surveillance aircraft plus 10 transport planes but the operation was halted because the United States government refused to allow the transfer of what they deemed to be US technology in the avionics.[6]

In January 2006, Thailand placed an order with Indonesian Aerospace for ten aircraft, six for the Ministry of Defence and four for the Ministry of Agriculture.

In December 2007, Spain ordered two CN-235 maritime patrol aircraft for the Guardia Civil, for delivery 2008–2009.

One CN-235 MPA aircraft was delivered by Indonesian Aerospace to the Indonesian defence ministry in June 2008.

In August 2006, three CASA CN-235-10 aircraft remained in airline service, in Africa, with Safair (two) and Tiko Air (one).[7] Asian Spirit operated a lone CN-235-220 in the Philippines, correct as of June/July 2007.

There are at least two CN-235s flying with the United States Air Force for an undisclosed role with the 427th Special Operations Squadron, located at the former Pope AFB, North Carolina.[8][verification needed]

In early July 2008, the Mexican Navy announced that it would purchase six CASA CN-235s from Spain.[9] In April 2010, Hervé Morin, French Minister of Defence, announced the order of eight CN-235-300s from Spain.[10]

In 2011, Indonesian Aerospace was still working on 4 CN-235-110 MPAs for South Korea Coast Guard with amount of $96 million.[11]

The Senegalese Air Force acquired two CN-235s in 2010 and August 2012 under a $13 million contract. They plan to buy two more aircraft for VIP and cargo duties. The Air Force is also interested in the maritime patrol version of the aircraft.[12]

In 2015, Indonesian Aerospace announced that they are currently planning a new variant of CN-235 called N-245 that will be designed specially for civil operation and able to carry up to 60 passengers. Previously also known as CN-235NG, this variant planned to be fully launched after Indonesian Aerospace N-219 project is done and expected to be fully certified in 2019. Further planned development is N-270, a stretched version of N-245 that able to carry up to 70-90 passengers and planned to be developed in 2019-2024.[13]

Commercial airliner[edit]

Merpati Nusantara's CN-235 in Indonesia

Although the CN-235 was designed for military purposes in the 1980s, it began to be used as a commercial plane, although it wasn't a very big success for airlines. Possibly its lack of success was due to its 50-passenger capacity and short range coupled with high fuel usage. Iberia LAE, Spain's flag carrier, bought four CN-235s from CASA aircraft for regional routes but in 1992 Aerolíneas Argentinas (then also a subsidiary of Iberia) ordered two of these aircraft for regional routes - to be operated by its subsidiary, Austral.

Variants[edit]

Presidential Airways CN-235, formerly belonging to Binter Mediterráneo
A CASA CN-235 of the Spanish Air Force
CN-235-10
Initial production version (15 built by each company), with GE CT7-7A engines.
CN-235-100/110
Generally as series 10, but with GE CT7-9C engines in new composites nacelles; replaced Series 10 in 1988 from 31st production aircraft. Series 100 is Spanish-built, series 110 Indonesian-built, with improved electrical, warning and environmental systems.
CN-235-200/220
Improved version. Structural reinforcements to cater for higher operating weights, aerodynamic improvements to wing leading-edges and rudder, reduced field length requirements and much-increased range with maximum payload. Series 200 is Spanish-built, Series 220 Indonesian-built.
CN-235-300
CASA Modification of 200/220 series, with the Honeywell International Corp. avionics suite. Other features include improved pressurisation and provision for optional twin-nosewheel installation.
CN-235-330 Phoenix
Modification of Series 200/220, offered by IPTN with new Honeywell avionics, ARL-2002 EW system and 16.800 kg/37.037 lb MTOW, to Royal Australian Air Force to meet Project Air 5190 tactical airlift requirement, but was forced by financial constraints to withdraw in 1998.[14]
CN-235 MPA
Maritime patrol version with 6 hardpoints to carry AM-39 Exocet-Missiles or Mk.46-Torpedoes.[15]
HC-144 Ocean Sentry
United States Coast Guard designation for a planned twenty-two[16] aircraft fleet bought to replace the small HU-25 Guardian business-style jets. As of 2010, twelve [17] had been delivered.
AC-235
A light gunship modified with integrated weapons pylons to carry AGM-114 missiles and 70MM rockets, has a side-mounted 30mm cannon, and a Synthetic aperture radar. The collaborative effort was made by King Abdullah II Design and Development Bureau of Jordan, and the U.S. Defense company Orbital ATK[18][19]

Operators[edit]

Military operators[edit]

CN-235 world operators:
  Military operators
  Only government operators
  Former operators
 Botswana
 Brunei
 Burkina Faso
 Cameroon
 Chile
 Colombia
 Ecuador
 France
 Gabon
 Indonesia
 Ireland
  • The Irish Air Corps operates 2 CN235-100 employed as maritime patrol aircraft. Delivery took place in 1994[28]
 Jordan
 Malaysia
 Mexico
A RMAF's CN-235-100M
 Morocco
   Nepal
  • The Nepalese Army's Aviation Brigade signed a deal on 16 June 2017 to purchase its very first CN235-220.[32]
 Pakistan
 Papua New Guinea
 Republic of Korea
 Senegal
 Spain
 Thailand
 Turkey
 United Arab Emirates
US Air Force CN-235-100M QC
 United States

Former Military operators[edit]

 Austria
 Bophuthatswana
 Panama
 South Africa
 Yemen
  • Yemen Air Force [41] (1x CN-235-300) The only aircraft of the type, registration number 2211, factory number 168988, serial number 188, was destroyed in a Saudi airstrike on March 25, 2015.[42][43]

Government and paramilitary operators[edit]

A CASA CN-235-300 MPA of the Spanish Maritime Safety Agency
Presidential Airways CN235
 Oman
 Spain
 Mexico
 Thailand

Civil Operators[edit]

Binter Mediterraneo CN-235
 Argentina
 Indonesia
 Madagascar
 Namibia
 Spain
 South Africa
 United States
 Venezuela

Notable accidents[edit]

On 18 Oct 1992, Merpati Nusantara Airlines (Registration PK-MNN) CN-235-10 Flight 5601 crashed on Garut, Indonesia, killing all 31 people on board [45]

On 19 January 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 training mission crashed near Kayseri after entering a spin from which recovery was not possible, killing all 3 people on board[46][47]

On 16 May 2001, a Turkish Air Force CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control, killing all 34 people on board.[47][48]

On 18 May 2001, a Turkish Navy CN-235 crashed after the pilot lost control after reaching an altitude of just 100 feet, killing all 4 people on board.[47][49]

On 29 August 2001, Binter Mediterráneo Flight 8261 (Registration EC-FBC) crash-landed at Málaga, Spain, killing four of the 44 passengers and crew aboard.[50] The aircraft was scrapped.[51]

On 11 Feb 2013 a CN-235 crashed into a forest 45 km south of Monrovia, Liberia, 8 km to Roberts International Airport, killing 11 people amongst them Souleymane Kelefa Diallo, Guinea army chief.[52]

On 1 Aug 2015 a CN-235-200M operated by the Colombian Air Force crashed in Cesar province, Colombia due to engine failure, killing 11 people.[53]

On 26 February 2016, a CN-235 operated by the Royal Malaysian Air Force crashed in a swamp in Kuala Selangor with no casualties.[54] However, a local fisherman drowned during the rescue.

Aircraft on display[edit]

Specifications (CN235)[edit]

EADS CASA CN-235.svg

Data from Airbus Military[56]

General characteristics

Performance

See also[edit]

Related development

References[edit]

  1. ^ Pesawat CN-235 Buatan Indonesia Pesanan Senegal Tiba di Dakar
  2. ^ Orders, Deliveries, In Operation Military aircraft by Country - Worldwide, Airbus Defence & Space (31 December 2016)
  3. ^ Indonesia-Air Force, Andrew Hunt, Airliners.net (Demand Media, Inc.)
  4. ^ "CN-235". Deagel.com. Retrieved 13 June 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Orders, Deliveries, In Operation Military aircraft by Country - Worldwide" (PDF). Airbus Space and Defence. Airbus Space and Defence. 31 August 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  6. ^ "Venezuela Buys Military Equipment". 28 November 2005. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  7. ^ Flight International, 3–9 October 2006
  8. ^ "USAF Serial Number Search Results". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  9. ^ http://blog.elgrancapitan.org/?p=586
  10. ^ "Francia compra a EADS ocho aviones CN-135-300 por 250 millones de euros". Libertad Digital. 2010-04-04. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  11. ^ "RI seeks to exchange planes with South Korea". The Jakarta Post. 2011-05-20. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  12. ^ Senegal: MoD plans to acquire two additional CN235s, including MPA versions - Dmilt.com, 30 August 2013
  13. ^ "RI Gencar Bikin Pesawat, Setelah N219 Ada N245 dan N270". finance.detik.com. 
  14. ^ "Mengenang CN-235 Phoenix Project-Australia". June 12, 2013. 
  15. ^ "CN-235 Persuader Maritime Patrol Aircraft – Airforce Technology". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  16. ^ "USCG: Acquisition Programs & Projects". US Coast Guard. Retrieved January 26, 2012. 
  17. ^ "USCG: HC-144A "Ocean Sentry" Maritime Patrol Aircraft". US Coast Guard Acquisitions Directorate. 2010-12-20. Retrieved January 26, 2012. 
  18. ^ "AC-235c Fact Sheet" (PDF). orbitalatk.com. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  19. ^ "Jordan takes delivery of AC235 gunship". flightglobal.com. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  20. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 46.
  21. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 47.
  22. ^ Hoyle, Craig (6 June 2012). "Cameroon signs deal for CN235 transport". Flightglobal. Retrieved 9 June 2012. 
  23. ^ "Military Aircraft Airbus DS - Press Center". Airbus Military. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  24. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 48.
  25. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 49.
  26. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 50.
  27. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 52.
  28. ^ "CASA CN235". Defence Forces Ireland. 2014. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  29. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 55.
  30. ^ "Defence Security Report". Janes.com. 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  31. ^ http://www.semar.gob.mx/transparencia/informes_labores/2_inf_labores.pdf
  32. ^ http://www.southasia.com.au/2017/06/20/nepalese-army-buying-military-transport-aircraft-indonesia-can-even-carry-small-vehicle/
  33. ^ John Pike. "Pakistan Air Force Equipment". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  34. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 57.
  35. ^ a b c Jackson 2003, p. 207.
  36. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 59.
  37. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 60.
  38. ^ "Turkish Army Current Order of Battle". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  39. ^ a b Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 61.
  40. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 63.
  41. ^ Hoyle Flight International 11–17 December 2012, p. 64.
  42. ^ Oryx. "Oryx Blog". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  43. ^ "bmpd". Archived from the original on 2 May 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  44. ^ Mexican Police Aviation
  45. ^ Harro Ranter (18 October 1992). "ASN Aircraft accident IPTN/CASA CN-235-10 PK-MNN Garut". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  46. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident IPTN_CASA CN-235M-100 097 Kayseri". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  47. ^ a b c "Military cargo plane crashes, four die". Hürriyet Daily News. 2001-05-19. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  48. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident IPTN_CASA CN-235M-100 086 Malatya". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  49. ^ "ASN Aircraft accident IPTN_CASA CN-235MP-100M TCSG-552 Ankara-Etimesgut AFB". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  50. ^ "Aircraft accidents photos – Binter Mediterraneo – Malaga, Spain – CASA 235-200". 1001 Crash. 2001-08-29. Retrieved 2011-10-02. 
  51. ^ Harro Ranter (29 August 2001). "ASN Aircraft accident CASA CN-235-200 EC-FBC Málaga Airport (AGP)". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  52. ^ "Guinea military head killed in Liberia plane crash". BBC News. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  53. ^ "Airbus CN235 military transport crashes in Colombia, killing 11". Flightglobal. Retrieved 1 August 2015. 
  54. ^ Cheng, Nicholas; Mutiah, Wani. "RMAF plane crashes in Kuala Selangor, rescuer believed drowned - Nation - The Star Online". 
  55. ^ "The SAAF Forum". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  56. ^ "Military Aircraft Airbus DS – CN235". Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  • Hoyle, Craig. "World Air Forces Directory". Flight International, Vol. 182 No. 5370. 11–17 December 2012. pp. 40–64.
  • Jackson, Paul. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsden, UK: Jane's Information Group, 2003. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
  • Lambert, Mark. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1993–94. Coulsden, UK:Jane's Data Division, 1993. ISBN 0-7106-1066-1.

External links[edit]

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