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|Motto: Land of Smiling Beauty|
Map of the Philippines with Cagayan highlighted
|Region||Cagayan Valley (Region II)|
|• Governor||Alvaro Antonio (UNA)|
|• Vice Governor||Leonides Fausto (NP)|
|• Total||9,295.75 km2 (3,589.11 sq mi)|
|Area rank||5th out of 81|
|• Rank||27th out of 81|
|• Density||120/km2 (310/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||65th out of 81|
|• Independent cities||0|
|• Component cities||1|
|• Districts||1st to 3rd districts of Cagayan|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|ZIP code||3500 to 3528|
|ISO 3166 code||PH-CAG|
|Spoken languages||Ibanag, Ilocano, Itawis, Tagalog, English|
Cagayan (// kah-gə-YAHN) is a province of the Philippines in the Cagayan Valley region in the northeast of Luzon Island, and includes the Babuyan Islands to the north. The province borders Ilocos Norte and Apayao to the west, and Kalinga and Isabela to the south. Its capital is Tuguegarao.
Present-day chroniclers hold that the name was ultimately derived from the tagay, a plant that grows abundantly in the northern part of the province. The term "Catagayan”, "the place where the tagay grows" was shortened to "Cagayan".
In 1581, Captain Juan Pablo Carreon arrived in Cagayan with a hundred fully equipped soldiers and their families by order of Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñaloza, the fourth Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines. the expeditionary force was sent to explore the Cagayan Valley, to forcibly convert the natives to Catholicism, and to establish ecclesiastical missions and towns throughout the valley.
On 29 June 1583, Juan de Salcedo traced the northern coastline of Luzon and set foot on the Massi (Pamplona), Tular, and Aparri areas. The Spanish friars soon established mission posts in Camalaniugan and Lal-lo (Nueva Segovia), which became the seat of the Diocese established by Pope Clement VIII on August 14, 1595. The Spanish influence can still be seen in the massive churches and other buildings that the Spaniards built for the spiritual and social welfare of the people.
When the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1898, ending the Spanish-American War, America took over the Philippines and influenced the culture, most notably in agriculture and education as well as in public works and communications. At the close of the 18th century, there were 29 municipalities in the province of Cagayan. When the Philippines came under American sovereignty in 1902, 35 municipalities have been founded. Since then, however, on account of the tendency toward centralization and shifting of population as a result of the opening of roads and public agricultural lands, only 29 municipalities now remain.
During the Second World War, with air raids by Japanese fighters and bombers, the province of Cagayan suffered destruction by bombs and invasions. Japanese Imperial forces entered Cagayan in 1942.
During the Second World War under the Japanese Occupation, over several pre-war infantry divisions and regular units of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was re-established from 1942 to 1946 at the general headquarters, camps and garrisoned here the province of Cagayan and begins the battles and invasions for the Anti-Japanese Operations in Cagayan Valley included to sending the province of Cagayan and Isabela and helping the local soldiers of the 11th and 14th Infantry Regiment of the USAFIP-NL, the local guerrilla fighters and the U.S. liberation forces was defeated and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces from 1942 to 1945.
The Battle of Cape Engaño on October 26, 1944, is held off Cape Engaño. At the time, when American carrier forces attacked the Japanese Northern Force to end and became the conclusion of the Battle of Leyte Gulf. The Japanese lost 4 carriers, 3 light cruisers and 9 destroyers.
In 1945, the combined United States and Philippine Commonwealth ground troops together with the recognized guerrillas took in Cagayan by the attack from the Japanese troops during the liberated in Cagayan province was under the Filipino soldiers of the 1st, 2nd, 11th, 12th, 13th, 15th and 16th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army, 1st Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary and the 11th and 14th Infantry Regiment of the United States Armed Forces in the Philippines – Northern Luzon or USAFIP-NL from the Battle of Cagayan Valley during the Second World War.
The Hotel Delfino siege is a bloody coup attempt happened on March 4, 1990, when suspended Cagayan governor Rodolfo Aguinaldo and his armed men of 200 seized Hotel Delfino in Tuguegarao, Brigader General Oscar Florendo, his driver and four members of the civilian staff, and several other people were held hostage for several hours. A gunfight was launched to kill Aguinaldo and his men but one of the suspended governor's men was found dead in a checkpoint shootout, Brig. Gen. Florendo and 12 others were also dead and 10 more wounded. Aguinaldo is also slightly wounded in a car gunfight until eventually escaped and hid into the mountains.
In 2013, Palaui Island, in the northern part of the region, was used as the filming location for Survivor: Blood vs. Water and Survivor: Cagayan, the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth seasons of the American reality television competition series Survivor.
The province is bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the east; on the south by Isabela province; on the west by the Cordillera Mountains; and on the north by the Balintang Channel and the Babuyan Group of Islands. About two kilometers from the northeastern tip of the province is the island of Palaui; a few kilometers to the west is Fuga Island. The Babuyan Group of Islands, which includes Calayan, Dalupiri, Camiguin, and Babuyan Claro, is about 60 nautical miles (110 km) north of Luzon mainland.
The province comprises an aggregate land area of 9,002.70 square kilometers, which constitutes three percent of the total land area of the country, making it the second largest province in the region.
Cagayan has 28 municipalities and one city divided into three congressional districts. It has 820 barangays. Tuguegarao City (as of December 18, 1999) is the provincial capital, regional seat, and center of business, trade, and education. It has a land area of 144.80 square kilometers and a population of 120,645 as of 2000.
|Population census of Cagayan|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
The majority of people living in Cagayan are of Ilocano descent, mostly from migrants coming from the Ilocos Region. Originally, the more numerous group were the Ibanags, who were first sighted by the Spanish explorers and converted to Christianity by missionaries. This is why the Ibanag language spread throughout the area prior to the arrival of Ilocanos.
Aside from Ilocanos and Ibanags, Malauegs, Itawits, Gaddangs, groups of nomadic Aetas, as well as families of Ibatans who have assimilated into the Ibanag-Ilocano culture make Cagayan their home. More recently, a new group from the south, the Muslim Filipinos, have migrated to this province and have made a community for themselves. In addition to this, Tagalog-speaking people from the Southern Luzon have also settled in the area. Because of this influence from other majority groups like the Ilocano from the west and the Tagalog from the south, the smaller ethnic groups living in the valley could potentially go extinct.
Agricultural products are rice, corn, peanut, beans, and fruits. Livestock products include cattle, hogs, carabaos, and poultry. Fishing various species of fish from the coastal towns is also undertaken. Woodcraft furniture made of hardwood, rattan, bamboo, and other indigenous materials are also available in the province. The Northern Cagayan International Airport is a planned airport in Lal-lo, Cagayan. The airport will be built to support the Cagayan Special Economic Zone in northern Cagayan, which also serves seaborne traffic through Port Irene. The airport project will involve the construction of a 2,200-meter runway, with a width of 45 meters, following the standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization. Once completed, the planned international airport can accommodate large aircraft such as the Airbus A319-100 and Boeing regional jets of comparable size. SM City Aparri will soon be built once the towns of Aparri, Santa Ana and Lal-lo attained its cityhood.
Since Cagayan faces the Pacific Ocean an extensive shoreline sprawls along the coastal towns of Sanchez Mira, Sta. Praxedes, Claveria, Buguey, Buguey, Aparri, Ballesteros, Abulug, and the islands of Palaui, Fuga, and island municipality of Calayan. Sanchez Mira, Claveria, and Sta. Praxedes have facilities for excursion stays while Fuga Island is being developed as a world-class recreation and tourism center. Whale watching at the Calayan Islands are the most sought-after and scuba diving, snorkeling and fishing are the most famous in Palaui Island in Sta. Ana. The airstrip at Claveria could be used as a jump-off point to Fuga Island.
There are a lot of recreation and things to do in Cagayan for tourists and locals alike with its famous Sambali Festival celebrated throughout and in commemoration of its founding. Activities in the province are unlimited with its green surroundings, floras and faunas, caves and historical churches. There are many nice places to stay such as the Governors Garden Hotel, Hotel Candice, Hotel Roma and Hotel Kimikarlai all in Tuguegarao City.
Claveria is blessed with a wealth of scenic attractions which include the following: the Lakay-Lakay Lagoon, the rocky formation along the Camalaggaon Caves, the Roadside Park overlooking the Claveria Bay, Macatel Falls with its crystal waters that run in abundance throughout the year, the Pata Lighthouse that offers a breathtaking experience, and the Claveria Beach Resort along the serene white sand coasts.
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||Ilocos Norte||Batanes /
Balintang Channel (Luzon Strait)