Play Video
1
Plan B - Candy
Plan B - Candy
::2013/12/18::
Play Video
2
Plan B - Candy
Plan B - Candy
::2013/09/07::
Play Video
3
Robbie Williams - Candy
Robbie Williams - Candy
::2012/09/10::
Play Video
4
au pays de Candy le film  en version Française
au pays de Candy le film en version Française
::2012/08/15::
Play Video
5
Kid Candy Review 8
Kid Candy Review 8
::2014/05/15::
Play Video
6
HALLOWEEN CANDY REVIEW GONE WRONG
HALLOWEEN CANDY REVIEW GONE WRONG
::2014/10/19::
Play Video
7
Paolo Nutini - Candy (Video)
Paolo Nutini - Candy (Video)
::2009/10/02::
Play Video
8
Candy Candy - Capítulo 6 - Un Príncipe en la colina
Candy Candy - Capítulo 6 - Un Príncipe en la colina
::2013/05/12::
Play Video
9
Kinder Egg Maxi Monster! Halloween Candy Review
Kinder Egg Maxi Monster! Halloween Candy Review
::2014/10/19::
Play Video
10
ASMR Whispered Candy Tasting / Review - Assorted Chocolates + Gummy Bears from Germany
ASMR Whispered Candy Tasting / Review - Assorted Chocolates + Gummy Bears from Germany
::2014/10/19::
Play Video
11
Kid Candy Review 19: Crayon Shin-Chan Butt Pudding!
Kid Candy Review 19: Crayon Shin-Chan Butt Pudding!
::2014/08/14::
Play Video
12
Sen. Ted Cruz Discusses Ebola with Candy Crowley on CNN’s State of the Union
Sen. Ted Cruz Discusses Ebola with Candy Crowley on CNN’s State of the Union
::2014/10/19::
Play Video
13
Cameo - Candy
Cameo - Candy
::2009/06/16::
Play Video
14
WEIRD JAPANESE CANDY
WEIRD JAPANESE CANDY
::2014/01/07::
Play Video
15
Candy Candy - Capítulo 8 - Una invitación feliz
Candy Candy - Capítulo 8 - Una invitación feliz
::2013/05/12::
Play Video
16
Sour Patch Kids Extreme! Kid Candy Review
Sour Patch Kids Extreme! Kid Candy Review
::2014/10/16::
Play Video
17
Proud To Love Candy - #ProudtoLove
Proud To Love Candy - #ProudtoLove
::2013/06/26::
Play Video
18
Kid Candy Review 14: Warheads!
Kid Candy Review 14: Warheads!
::2014/07/10::
Play Video
19
YouTube Challenge - I Told My Kids I Ate All Their Halloween Candy 2013
YouTube Challenge - I Told My Kids I Ate All Their Halloween Candy 2013
::2013/11/04::
Play Video
20
Cry Baby Extra Sour Gum!  Kid Candy Review
Cry Baby Extra Sour Gum! Kid Candy Review
::2014/09/18::
Play Video
21
Kid Candy Review 13: Candy Japan!
Kid Candy Review 13: Candy Japan!
::2014/07/03::
Play Video
22
Kracie Popin
Kracie Popin' Cookin' Mini Ice Cream Shaped Candy たのしいケーキやさん How to Make Ice Cream Candy
::2014/06/14::
Play Video
23
Coris Popsicle Ice Cream Bar DIY Japanese Candy Kit
Coris Popsicle Ice Cream Bar DIY Japanese Candy Kit
::2014/10/17::
Play Video
24
HOMEMADE MAPLE ROCK CANDY. ( SUGAR STICKS)
HOMEMADE MAPLE ROCK CANDY. ( SUGAR STICKS)
::2013/12/20::
Play Video
25
Poisoned Halloween Candy: Myth vs. Fact (Black Ops 2 Gameplay Commentary)
Poisoned Halloween Candy: Myth vs. Fact (Black Ops 2 Gameplay Commentary)
::2014/10/20::
Play Video
26
Iggy Pop - Candy
Iggy Pop - Candy
::2009/03/11::
Play Video
27
COTTON CANDY MAKER - DOES THIS THING REALLY WORK?
COTTON CANDY MAKER - DOES THIS THING REALLY WORK?
::2014/09/13::
Play Video
28
Aggro Santos feat Kimberly Wyatt - Candy (Official Video)
Aggro Santos feat Kimberly Wyatt - Candy (Official Video)
::2010/04/01::
Play Video
29
Candy Candy - Capítulo 9 - Un baile maravilloso
Candy Candy - Capítulo 9 - Un baile maravilloso
::2013/05/12::
Play Video
30
Candy Pancakes
Candy Pancakes
::2014/10/17::
Play Video
31
Candy Candy (il film)
Candy Candy (il film)
::2012/07/30::
Play Video
32
MINECRAFT CANDY POPS - NERDY NUMMIES
MINECRAFT CANDY POPS - NERDY NUMMIES
::2014/07/29::
Play Video
33
Watch Out For Weed Infused Candy This Halloween
Watch Out For Weed Infused Candy This Halloween
::2014/10/18::
Play Video
34
Kid Candy Review 11: Popin
Kid Candy Review 11: Popin' Cookin' Sushi!
::2014/06/19::
Play Video
35
Candy Candy - Capítulo 1 - Las travesuras de Candy
Candy Candy - Capítulo 1 - Las travesuras de Candy
::2013/05/12::
Play Video
36
Kid Candy Review 16: Mike and Ike!
Kid Candy Review 16: Mike and Ike!
::2014/07/24::
Play Video
37
Candy Candy [Capitulo 41] Un Hada en el festival del colegio
Candy Candy [Capitulo 41] Un Hada en el festival del colegio
::2012/10/31::
Play Video
38
Candy Candy [Capitulo 115] Capítulo Final ~ Las rosas están en flor en Casa Pony
Candy Candy [Capitulo 115] Capítulo Final ~ Las rosas están en flor en Casa Pony
::2012/11/13::
Play Video
39
Play Doh Candy Cyclone Playset Sweet Shoppe Make Gumballs Candies Lollipops Gumball Machine Clay
Play Doh Candy Cyclone Playset Sweet Shoppe Make Gumballs Candies Lollipops Gumball Machine Clay
::2014/01/07::
Play Video
40
Pooping Halloween Candy Dispensers, Pumpkin, Skeleton & Kitty Witch
Pooping Halloween Candy Dispensers, Pumpkin, Skeleton & Kitty Witch
::2014/10/20::
Play Video
41
Kid Candy Review 24: Eating Bugs!
Kid Candy Review 24: Eating Bugs!
::2014/09/11::
Play Video
42
GTA 5 Online Funny Moments - Candy Bar Bus, Sticky Bomb Glitch Troll & More!!
GTA 5 Online Funny Moments - Candy Bar Bus, Sticky Bomb Glitch Troll & More!!
::2014/10/18::
Play Video
43
Candy / épisode 1/115 / HD / Français
Candy / épisode 1/115 / HD / Français
::2012/06/16::
Play Video
44
Moko Moko Mokolet Fun Fizzing Ramuna Cola Candy Toilet! - Japanese DIY Kit
Moko Moko Mokolet Fun Fizzing Ramuna Cola Candy Toilet! - Japanese DIY Kit
::2014/05/30::
Play Video
45
Rainbow Ice & Rock Candy With The Clifford The Big Red Dog Food Science Kit
Rainbow Ice & Rock Candy With The Clifford The Big Red Dog Food Science Kit
::2014/08/25::
Play Video
46
Candy Candy - Capítulo 36 - Annie recupera su sonrisa
Candy Candy - Capítulo 36 - Annie recupera su sonrisa
::2013/05/13::
Play Video
47
Cotton Candy Flavor Series: Toxic Waste, Lemon Heads, Sugar Free & Root Beer Barrels
Cotton Candy Flavor Series: Toxic Waste, Lemon Heads, Sugar Free & Root Beer Barrels
::2014/04/07::
Play Video
48
drop pop candy (English Cover) 【Kuraiinu + JubyPhonic】
drop pop candy (English Cover) 【Kuraiinu + JubyPhonic】
::2014/08/03::
Play Video
49
Pop Rocks Cotton Candy! Dum Dums, Blow Pops, Tootsie Pops & Apple Lollipops
Pop Rocks Cotton Candy! Dum Dums, Blow Pops, Tootsie Pops & Apple Lollipops
::2014/08/16::
Play Video
50
Candy Candy - Capítulo 23 - Su primer paseo juntos
Candy Candy - Capítulo 23 - Su primer paseo juntos
::2013/05/12::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the type of confection generally. For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation) and Candies (disambiguation).
"Sweets" redirects here. For other uses, see Sweets (disambiguation).
Candy
Candy in Damascus.jpg
Candy at a souq in Damascus, Syria
Alternative names Sweets, lollies
Type Sugar confectionery
Main ingredients Sugar or honey
Cookbook:Candy  Candy
A booth selling candy
Liquorice is a candy flavored with the extract of the roots of the liquorice plant. It is very popular in Finland.
Batasha are one of many traditional candies found in South Asia. Flavored varieties include nuts and mint

Candy, also called sweets or lollies, is a confection that features sugar as a principal ingredient. The category, called sugar confectionery, encompasses any sweet confection, including chocolate, chewing gum, and sugar candy. Vegetables, fruit, or nuts which have been glazed and coated with sugar are said to be candied.

Physically, candy is characterized by the use of a significant amount of sugar, or, in the case of sugar-free candies, by the presence of sugar substitutes. Unlike a cake or loaf of bread that would be shared among many people, candies are usually made in smaller pieces. However, the definition of candy also depends upon how people treat the food. Unlike sweet pastries served for a dessert course at the end of a meal, candies are normally eaten casually as a snack between meals. Each culture has its own ideas of what constitutes candy rather than dessert. The same food may be a candy in one culture and a dessert in another.[1]

Definition and classification[edit]

Candy is a sweet food product.

Sugar candies include hard candies, caramels, marshmallows, taffy, and other candies whose principal ingredient is sugar. Commercially, sugar candies are often divided into groups according to the amount of sugar they contain and their chemical structure.[2]

Chocolate is sometimes treated as a separate branch of confectionery.[3] In this model, chocolate candies like chocolate candy bars and chocolate truffles are included. Hot chocolate or other cocoa-based drinks are excluded, as is candy made from white chocolate. However, when chocolate is treated as a separate branch, it also includes confections whose classification is otherwise difficult, being neither exactly candies nor exactly baked goods, like chocolate-dipped foods, tarts with chocolate shells, and chocolate-coated cookies.

Candies can be classified into noncrystalline and crystalline types. Noncrystalline candies are homogeneous and may be chewy or hard; they include hard candies, caramels, toffees, and nougats. Crystalline candies incorporate small crystals in their structure, are creamy that melt in the mouth or are easily chewed; they include fondant and fudge.[4]

History[edit]

Between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, the Persians, followed by the Greeks, discovered the people in India and their "reeds that produce honey without bees". They adopted and then spread sugar and sugarcane agriculture.[5] Sugarcane is indigenous to tropical South and Southeast Asia, while the word sugar is derived from the Sanskrit word Sharkara.[6] Pieces of sugar were produced by boiling sugarcane juice in ancient India and consumed as Khanda, dubbed as the original candy.[7]

Before sugar was readily available, candy was based on honey.[8] Honey was used in Ancient China, Middle East, Egypt, Greece and the Roman Empire to coat fruits and flowers to preserve them or to create forms of candy.[9] Candy is still served in this form today, though now it is more typically seen as a type of garnish.

Before the Industrial Revolution, candy was often considered a form of medicine, either used to calm the digestive system or cool a sore throat. In the Middle Ages candy appeared on the tables of only the most wealthy at first. At that time it began as a combination of spices and sugar that was used as an aid to digestive problems. Digestive problems were very common during this time due to the constant consumption of food that was neither fresh nor well balanced. Banquet hosts would typically serve these types of 'candies' at banquets for their guests. One of these candies, sometimes referred to as a 'chamber spice', was made with cloves, ginger, aniseed, juniper berries, almonds and pine kernels dipped in melted sugar.[9]

The Middle English word candy began to be used in the late 13th century.[10][11]

The first candy came to America in the early 18th century from Britain and France. Only a few of the early colonists were proficient in sugar work and were able to provide the sugary treats for the very wealthy. Rock candy, made from crystallized sugar, was the simplest form of candy, but even this basic form of sugar was considered a luxury and was only attainable by the rich.[12]

Industrial Revolution[edit]

The candy business underwent a drastic change in the 1830s when technological advances and the availability of sugar opened up the market. The new market was not only for the enjoyment of the rich but also for the pleasure of the working class as well. There was also an increasing market for children. Confectioners were no longer the venue for the wealthy and high class but for children as well. While some fine confectioners remained, the candy store became a staple of the child of the American working class. Penny candies epitomized this transformation of candy. Penny candy became the first material good that children spent their own money on. For this reason candy store-owners relied almost entirely on the business of children to keep them running. Even penny candies were directly descended from medicated lozenges that held bitter medicine in a hard sugar coating.[13]

In 1847, the invention of the candy press (also known as a toy machine) made it possible to produce multiple shapes and sizes of candy at once. In 1851, confectioners began to use a revolving steam pan to assist in boiling sugar. This transformation meant that the candy maker was no longer required to continuously stir the boiling sugar. The heat from the surface of the pan was also much more evenly distributed and made it less likely the sugar would burn. These innovations made it possible for only one or two people to successfully run a candy business.[12]

Production[edit]

Main article: Candy making

Candy is made by dissolving sugar in water or milk to form a syrup, which is boiled until it reaches the desired concentration or starts to caramelize. Candy comes in a wide variety of textures, from soft and chewy to hard and brittle, and the texture of candy depends on the ingredients and the temperatures that the candy is processed at.

The final texture of sugar candy depends primarily on the sugar concentration. As the syrup is heated, it boils, water evaporates, the sugar concentration increases, and the boiling point rises. A given temperature corresponds to a particular sugar concentration. These are called sugar stages. In general, higher temperatures and greater sugar concentrations result in hard, brittle candies, and lower temperatures result in softer candies.[14] Once the syrup reaches 171 °C (340 °F) or higher, the sucrose molecules break down into many simpler sugars, creating an amber-colored substance known as caramel. This should not be confused with caramel candy, although it is the candy's main flavoring.

Most candies are made commercially. The industry relies significantly on trade secret protection, because candy recipes cannot be copyrighted or patented effectively, but are very difficult to duplicate exactly. Seemingly minor differences in the machinery, temperature, or timing of the candy-making process can cause noticeable differences in the final product.[15]

Packaging[edit]

Salt water taffy is usually wrapped in pieces of wax paper.

Candy wrapper or sweets wrapper is a common term for this packaging.[16]

Purposes of packaging[edit]

Packaging preserves aroma and flavor and eases shipping and dispensation. Wax paper seals against air, moisture, dust, and germs, while cellophane is valued by packagers for its transparency and resistance to grease, odors and moisture. In addition, it is often resealable. Polyethylene is another form of film sealed with heat, and this material is often used to make bags in bulk packaging. Saran wraps are also common. Aluminum foils wrap chocolate bars and prevent transfer of water vapor, while being lightweight, non-toxic and odor proof. Vegetable parchment lines boxes of high-quality confections like gourmet chocolates. Cardboard cartons are less common, though they offer many options concerning thickness and movement of water and oil.

Packaging may be used as a type of gift wrapping.

Packages are often sealed with a starch-based adhesive derived from tapioca, potato, wheat, sago, or sweet potato. Occasionally, glues are made from the bones and skin of cattle and hogs for a stronger and more flexible product, but this is not as common because of the expense.[17]

History[edit]

Prior to the 1900s, candy was commonly sold unwrapped from carts in the street, where it was exposed to dirt and insects. By 1914 there were some machines to wrap gum and stick candies, but this was not the common practice. After the polio outbreak in 1916, unwrapped candies garnered widespread censure because of the dirt and germs. At the time, only upscale candy stores used glass jars. With advancements in technology wax paper was adopted, and foil and cellophane were imported[vague] from France by DuPont in 1925. Necco packagers were one of the first companies to package without human touch.[18]

Candy packaging played a role in its adoption as the most popular treat given away during trick-or-treating for Halloween in the US. In the 1940s, most treats were homemade. During the 1950s, small, individually wrapped candies were recognized as convenient and inexpensive. By the 1970s, after widely publicized but largely false stories of poisoned candy myths circulating in the popular press, factory-sealed packaging with a recognizable name brand on it became a sign of safety.[19]

Marketing and design[edit]

Packaging helps market the product as well. Manufacturers know that candy must be hygienic and attractive to customers. In the children's market quantity, novelty, large size and bright colors are the top sellers.[18] Many companies redesign the packaging to maintain consumer appeal.

Shelf life[edit]

Because of its high sugar concentration, bacteria are not usually able to grow in candy. As a result, the shelf life of candy is longer than for many foods. Most candies can be safely stored in their original packaging at room temperature in a dry, dark cupboard for months or years. As a rule, the softer the candy or the damper the storage area, the sooner it goes stale.[20]

Shelf life considerations with most candies are focused on appearance, taste, and texture, rather than about the potential for food poisoning. That is, old candy may not look pretty or taste very good, even though it is very unlikely to make the eater sick. Candy can be made unsafe by storing it badly, such as in a wet, moldy area. Typical recommendations are these:[20]

  • Hard candy may last indefinitely in good storage conditions.
  • Milk chocolates and caramels usually become stale after about one year.
  • Dark chocolate lasts up to two years.
  • Soft or creamy candies, like candy corn, may last 8 to 10 months in ideal conditions.
  • Chewing gum and gumballs may stay fresh as long as 8 months after manufacture.

Nutrition[edit]

Even in a culture that eats sweets frequently, candy is not a significant source of nutrition or food energy for most people. The average American eats about 1.1 kg (2.5 pounds) of sugar or similar sweeteners each week, but almost 95% of that sugar—all but about 70 grams (2.5 ounces)—comes from non-candy sources, especially soft drinks and processed foods.[21]

Meal replacements[edit]

Candy is considered a source of empty calories, because it provides little or no nutritional value beyond food energy. At the start of the 20th century, when undernutrition was a serious problem, especially among poor and working-class people, and when nutrition science was a new field, the high calorie content was promoted as a virtue. Researchers suggested that candy, especially candy with milk and nuts, was a low-cost alternative to normal meals. To get the food energy necessary for a day of labor, candy might cost half as much as eggs.[22] During the 1920s and 1930s, candy bars selling for five cents were often marketed as replacements for lunch.[23]

In more recent times, a variety of snack bars have been marketed. These include bars that are intended as meal replacements as well as snack bars that are marketed as having nutritional advantages when compared to candy bars, such as granola bars. However, the actual nutritional value is often not very different from candy bars, except for usually a higher sodium content, and the flavors (most popularly, chocolate, fudge, and caramel) and the presentation mimic candy bars.[23]

Among the Bengali people, candy may be eaten for an entire meal, especially during festivals. Candy may also be offered to vegetarian guests in lieu of fish or meat dishes in India.[24]

Vegetarianism[edit]

Traditional holiday candy house.

Most candy contains no meat or other animal parts, and many contain no milk or other animal products. Some candy, including marshmallows and gummi bears, contains gelatin derived from animal collagen, a protein found in skin and bones, and is thus avoided by vegans and some vegetarians. "Kosher gelatin" is also unsuitable for vegetarians and vegans, as it is derived from fish bones.[25] Other substances, such as agar, pectin, starch and gum arabic may also be used as setting and gelling agents, and can be used in place of gelatin.

Other ingredients commonly found in candy that are not suitable for vegetarian or vegan diets include carmine, a red dye made from cochineal beetles, and confectioner's glaze, which may contain wings or other insect parts.

Health effects[edit]

Cavities[edit]

Candy generally contains sugar, which can be involved in tooth decay causing cavities. Sugar is a food for several types of bacteria commonly found in the mouth, particularly Streptococcus mutans; when the bacteria metabolize the sugar they create acids in the mouth which demineralize the tooth enamel and can lead to dental caries.[26] To help prevent this, dentists recommend that people should brush their teeth regularly, particularly after every meal and snack.[citation needed]

Glycemic index[edit]

Most candy, particularly low-fat and fat-free candy, has a high glycemic index (GI), which means that it causes a rapid rise in blood sugar levels after ingestion. This is chiefly a concern for people with diabetes, but could also be dangerous to the health of non-diabetics.[27]

Health benefits[edit]

Candies that primarily consist of peppermint and mint, such as candy canes, have digestive benefits. Peppermint oil can help soothe an upset stomach by creating defense against irritable bowel syndrome and is effective in killing germs.[28]

Mint-flavored gum increases short-term memory, heart rate, and the amount of oxygen in the brain. The correlation between heart rate and oxygen in the brain triggers short-term memory. Chewing gum can also provide a burst of insulin in the anticipation for food.[29]

When eaten in moderation, dark chocolate can have health benefits. The cocoa in chocolate can help reduce the risk of heart disease. Vitamins and minerals such as calcium, magnesium, and sodium can be found in chocolate, as well as antioxidants.[30]

In a study of approximately 8,000 individuals, candy consumers enjoyed an average of 0.92 years of longer life, with greater consumption of candy not associated with progressively lower mortality. Non-consumers typically ate less red meat and salads, drank more and were more likely to smoke. Mortality was lowest among those consuming candy 1–3 times a month and highest among those consuming candy three or more times a week. The study concluded that one possible explanation for this was the presence of antioxidant phenols in chocolate, but the study could not differentiate between consumption of sugar candy and chocolate in they study.[31]

Contamination[edit]

Some kinds of candy have been contaminated with an excessive amount of lead in it.[32] Claims of contamination have been made since shortly after industrial-scale candy factories began producing candy in the mid-19th century.[33]

Choking deaths[edit]

Hard, round candies are a leading cause of choking deaths in children.[34] Some types of candy, such as Lychee Mini Fruity Gels, have been associated with so many choking deaths that their import or manufacture is banned by some countries.[34][35]

Sales[edit]

Global sales of candies were estimated to have been approximately US $118 billion in 2012.[36]

Because each culture varies in how it treats some foods, a food may be a candy in one place and a dessert in another. For example, in Western countries, baklava is served on a plate and eaten with a fork as a dessert, but in the Middle East, Northern Africa, and Eastern Europe, it is treated as a candy.[1]

Cultural significance[edit]

Candy is the source of several cultural themes:

  • Adults worry that other people will use candy to poison or entice children into harmful situations. Stranger danger warnings include telling children not to take candy from strangers, for fear of the child being abducted. Poisoned candy myths persist in popular culture, especially around trick-or-treating at Halloween, despite the rarity of actual incidents.[33]
  • The phrase like taking candy from a baby is a common simile, and means that something is very easy to do.[33]
  • A 1959 Swedish dental health campaign encouraged people to reduce the risk of dental problems by limiting consumption of candy to once a week. The slogan, "All the sweets you want, but only once a week", started a tradition of buying candy every Saturday, called lördagsgodis (literally "Saturday candy").[37]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Richardson, Tim H. (2002). Sweets: A History of Candy. Bloomsbury USA. pp. 53–54. ISBN 1-58234-229-6. 
  2. ^ McWilliams, Margaret (2007). Nutrition and Dietetics' 2007 Edition. Rex Bookstore, Inc. pp. 177–184. ISBN 978-971-23-4738-2. 
  3. ^ Edwards, W.P. (2000). The Science of Sugar Confectionery. Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry. p. 1. ISBN 9780854045938. 
  4. ^ Norman Potter and Joseph Hotchkiss (1999), Food Science: Fifth Edition, ISBN 978-0834212657, Springer, Chapter 20
  5. ^ "Agribusiness Handbook: Sugar beet white sugar". Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations. 2009. 
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "sugar". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  7. ^ See:
    • George Watt (1893), The Economic Products of India, W.H. Allen & Co., Vol 6, Part II, pages 29–30;
    • J.A. Hill (1902), The Anglo-American Encyclopedia, Volume 7, page 725;
    • Thomas E. Furia (1973), CRC Handbook of Food Additives, Second Edition, Volume 1, ISBN 978-0849305429, page 7 (Chapter 1, by Thomas D. Luckey);
    • Mary Ellen Snodgrass (2004), Encyclopedia of Kitchen History, ISBN 978-1579583804, Routledge, pages 145–146
  8. ^ NPCS (2013). Confectionery Products Handbook (Chocolate, Toffees, Chewing Gum & Sugar Free Confectionery). India: Asia Pacific Business Press. p. 1. 
  9. ^ a b Toussaint-Samat, Maguelonne (2009). A History of Food. New Jersey: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 9781444305142. 
  10. ^ Harper, Douglas. "candy". Online Etymology Dictionary. 
  11. ^ "Sugarcane: Saccharum Offcinarum". USAID, Govt of United States. 2006. p. 1 (Chapter 7). [dead link]
  12. ^ a b Woloson, Wendy. "The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America". Oxford University Press. Retrieved 18 March 2012. 
  13. ^ Woloson, Wendy (2002). Refined Tastes. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. 
  14. ^ The Cold Water Candy Test, Exploratorium; Sugar Syrup Chart at Baking911
  15. ^ Richardson, Tim H. (2002). Sweets: A History of Candy. Bloomsbury USA. pp. 12–13. ISBN 1-58234-229-6. 
  16. ^ Old Candy Wrappers. Wholesale Candy Store. Retrieved on November 2, 2011.
  17. ^ "Trends in Food Packaging Technology". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 1 (16): 978–986. October 1953. doi:10.1021/jf60016a002. 
  18. ^ a b Kawash, Samira (September 2012). "The Candy Prophylactic: Danger, Disease, and Children's Candy around 1916". The Journal of American Culture 33 (3). 
  19. ^ Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 271–276. ISBN 9780865477568. 
  20. ^ a b The Shelf Life of Candy from The Candy Crate
  21. ^ Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. p. 11. ISBN 9780865477568. 
  22. ^ Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. p. 98. ISBN 9780865477568. 
  23. ^ a b Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 310–318. ISBN 9780865477568. 
  24. ^ Richardson, Tim H. (2002). Sweets: A History of Candy. Bloomsbury USA. pp. 335–336. ISBN 1-58234-229-6. 
  25. ^ Will These Bones Live? Yechezkel 37:3. Kashrut.com. Retrieved on November 2, 2011.
  26. ^ Dental caries[dead link]. National Confectioners Association
  27. ^ Balkau et al. (1998) "High blood glucose concentration is a risk factor for mortality in middle-aged nondiabetic men. 20-year follow-up in the Whitehall Study, the Paris Prospective Study, and the Helsinki Policemen Study." Diabetes Care 1998 Mar;21(3):360-7
  28. ^ Viegas, Jennifer. "Candy Canes Fight Germs, Settle Stomachs". Retrieved March 14, 2012. [dead link]
  29. ^ Scholey, Andrew. "Chewing Gum Found to Increase Brain Power". Retrieved March 20, 2012. 
  30. ^ Mondestin, Angely. "Chocolate? As a Health Benefit?". Retrieved March 14, 2012. 
  31. ^ Paffenbarger, Ralph. "Life Is Sweet: Candy Consumption and Longevity". Retrieved March 15, 2012. 
  32. ^ US Compliance with Lead Standards in Candy SGS SafeGuard Bulletin, Retrieved 09/20/2012
  33. ^ a b c Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 8–25. ISBN 9780865477568. 
  34. ^ a b Roach, Mary (26 March 2013). "Mary Roach on Studying How Humans Chew and Eat". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 March 2013. 
  35. ^ Seidel JS, Gausche-Hill M (November 2002). "Lychee-flavored gel candies: a potentially lethal snack for infants and children". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 156 (11): 1120–2. doi:10.1001/archpedi.156.11.1120. PMID 12413340. 
  36. ^ Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. p. 6. ISBN 9780865477568. 
  37. ^ Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 257–258. ISBN 9780865477568. 

External links[edit]

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014