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Starset - CARNIVORE
Starset - CARNIVORE
Published: 2013/07/02
Channel: starsetonline
Carnivore - Carnivore (Full Album)
Carnivore - Carnivore (Full Album)
Published: 2014/07/07
Channel: MewsikTV
Nightcore - Carnivore
Nightcore - Carnivore
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: NightcoreReality
Carnivore : Retaliation (Full Album) 1987
Carnivore : Retaliation (Full Album) 1987
Published: 2014/09/05
Channel: liarle The Grey Pilgrim
Starset - Carnivore (Official Music Video)
Starset - Carnivore (Official Music Video)
Published: 2014/11/03
Channel: starsetVEVO
Carnivore | Hollywood Thriller Movies | Steven Walker, Jill Adcock
Carnivore | Hollywood Thriller Movies | Steven Walker, Jill Adcock
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: Cinecurry Hollywood
starset - carnivore lyrics
starset - carnivore lyrics
Published: 2014/01/30
Channel: Flare Rocker
Carnivore - Sex and Violence - Live at Wacken Open Air 2006
Carnivore - Sex and Violence - Live at Wacken Open Air 2006
Published: 2015/04/16
Channel: WackenTV
Starset - Carnivore (audio)
Starset - Carnivore (audio)
Published: 2014/07/08
Channel: starsetVEVO
7. Jesus Hitler - Carnivore
7. Jesus Hitler - Carnivore
Published: 2012/08/29
Channel: Metralla Underground
Carnivore - Male Supremacy
Carnivore - Male Supremacy
Published: 2011/07/05
Channel: imperlapa93
Jurassic World - Carnivore
Jurassic World - Carnivore
Published: 2015/09/19
Channel: XenoPredAlien123
Undertale [Genocide AMV Animation] - Carnivore
Undertale [Genocide AMV Animation] - Carnivore
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: BatBoyTale
Dragon Ball Super「AMV」- Carnivore [HD]
Dragon Ball Super「AMV」- Carnivore [HD]
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Killer AMV
Akame Ga Kill   AMV   Carnivore
Akame Ga Kill AMV Carnivore
Published: 2014/09/10
Channel: BGL44
Dragon Ball Z 「AMV」Carnivore
Dragon Ball Z 「AMV」Carnivore
Published: 2016/04/23
Channel: Force99AMVs
Naruto AMV - Carnivore
Naruto AMV - Carnivore
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: AMV Maker
Jurassic world - Carnivore
Jurassic world - Carnivore
Published: 2015/07/25
Channel: IndominusBradey500
Fairy Tail 「AMV」 - Carnivore [HD]
Fairy Tail 「AMV」 - Carnivore [HD]
Published: 2015/10/29
Channel: zUTzAMV
Piano Tutorial – Starset - Carnivore BOTH HANDS 100% speed
Piano Tutorial – Starset - Carnivore BOTH HANDS 100% speed
Published: 2016/02/26
Channel: Pernee
Starset - Carnivore [Lyrics]     1 hour
Starset - Carnivore [Lyrics] 1 hour
Published: 2016/06/06
Channel: Silver Shade
Carnivore - Predator
Carnivore - Predator
Published: 2009/07/14
Channel: Nicolò Tedesco
Naruto - Carnivore 【AMV】
Naruto - Carnivore 【AMV】
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: Anderson Perz
Herbivore, Carnivore, Omnivore Song
Herbivore, Carnivore, Omnivore Song
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: Mr. R.'s Songs for Teaching
Learning About Herbivores, Carnivores, and Omnivores
Learning About Herbivores, Carnivores, and Omnivores
Published: 2015/05/14
Channel: Mr. DeMaio
6. God Is Dead - Carnivore
6. God Is Dead - Carnivore
Published: 2012/08/29
Channel: Metralla Underground
Carnivore - Race War
Carnivore - Race War
Published: 2011/01/26
Channel: Nikola Mladenovic
Noblesse - AMV | CARNIVORE
Noblesse - AMV | CARNIVORE
Published: 2016/02/20
Channel: animevital
Starset-Carnivore [1 Hour]
Starset-Carnivore [1 Hour]
Published: 2014/05/24
Channel: Nebula Nightcore
Carnivore-Jesus Hitler
Carnivore-Jesus Hitler
Published: 2010/11/14
Channel: Andrew PxSx
Carnivore - World Wars III And IV
Carnivore - World Wars III And IV
Published: 2008/05/22
Channel: normanlizard
Carnivore - Starset (lyrics)
Carnivore - Starset (lyrics)
Published: 2014/12/06
Channel: GoldenWolf
Planet Carnivore Lions and Hyenas
Planet Carnivore Lions and Hyenas
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: Filipe Slb
STARSET - CARNIVORE (Sub Español) [Music - Video]
STARSET - CARNIVORE (Sub Español) [Music - Video]
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: Randal Traducciones
Tokyo Ghoul amv Carnivore
Tokyo Ghoul amv Carnivore
Published: 2016/03/20
Channel: Berenice Puga
5 PLANTES CARNIVORES LES PLUS SURPRENANTES AU MONDE | Dr Bot
5 PLANTES CARNIVORES LES PLUS SURPRENANTES AU MONDE | Dr Bot
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: Dr Bot
Starset -LIVE- "Carnivore" @Berlin Feb 21, 2015
Starset -LIVE- "Carnivore" @Berlin Feb 21, 2015
Published: 2015/02/22
Channel: Sixteen Roses
Dr Shawn Baker: Carnivore Diet (Zero Carb Diet Plan) Results & Benefits
Dr Shawn Baker: Carnivore Diet (Zero Carb Diet Plan) Results & Benefits
Published: 2017/07/29
Channel: Biohackers Lab
Carnivore - U.S.A. for U.S.A.
Carnivore - U.S.A. for U.S.A.
Published: 2011/05/02
Channel: ColinSebern
plante carnivore en action
plante carnivore en action
Published: 2016/12/03
Channel: santé-environnement développement durable
Klaus Mikaelson ● Carnivore
Klaus Mikaelson ● Carnivore
Published: 2014/09/20
Channel: Ancaria
NightCore Carnivore 中文翻譯
NightCore Carnivore 中文翻譯
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: Unlimited NightCore Collections
Les Plantes Carnivores
Les Plantes Carnivores
Published: 2015/11/06
Channel: Documentaire Animalier
IDÉE REÇUE #20 : Les plantes carnivores (feat. Fabien Olicard)
IDÉE REÇUE #20 : Les plantes carnivores (feat. Fabien Olicard)
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: Max Bird
Creo - Carnivores
Creo - Carnivores
Published: 2016/07/11
Channel: Creo
TE FAIRE MANGER PAR UNE PLANTE CARNIVORE ? Vrai ou Faux #14
TE FAIRE MANGER PAR UNE PLANTE CARNIVORE ? Vrai ou Faux #14
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: Dr Nozman
Hatsan BT65 .30 cal Carnivore
Hatsan BT65 .30 cal Carnivore
Published: 2016/07/12
Channel: Hunter One
Starset-Carnivore legendado [AMV] tokyo ghoul
Starset-Carnivore legendado [AMV] tokyo ghoul
Published: 2015/06/06
Channel: Kanerito ken
Undertale - "Carnivore" AMV
Undertale - "Carnivore" AMV
Published: 2016/07/24
Channel: SuperMarioTrey
CARNIVORE "Jesus Hitler" (Live)
CARNIVORE "Jesus Hitler" (Live)
Published: 2011/08/27
Channel: MrMarcCarnivore
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Lion eating corpse of dead animal

A carnivore /ˈkɑːrnɪvɔər/ meaning 'Meat Eater' (Latin, carne meaning 'meat' or 'flesh' and vorare meaning 'to devour') is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.[1][2] Animals that depend solely on animal flesh for their nutrient requirements are called obligate carnivores while those that also consume non-animal food are called facultative carnivores.[2] Omnivores also consume both animal and non-animal food, and apart from the more general definition, there is no clearly defined ratio of plant to animal material that would distinguish a facultative carnivore from an omnivore.[3] A carnivore that sits at the top of the food chain is termed an apex predator.

Plants that capture and digest insects (and, at times, other small animals) are called carnivorous plants. Similarly, fungi that capture microscopic animals are often called carnivorous fungi.

Classification[edit]

The word "carnivore" sometimes refers to the mammalian order Carnivora, but this is somewhat misleading. While many Carnivora meet the definition of being meat eaters, not all do, and even fewer are true obligate carnivores (see below). For example, most species of bears are actually omnivorous, except for the giant panda, which is almost exclusively herbivorous, and the exclusively meat-eating polar bear, which lives in the Arctic, where few plants grow. In addition, there are plenty of carnivorous species that are not members of Carnivora.

Outside the animal kingdom, there are several genera containing carnivorous plants and several phyla containing carnivorous fungi. The former are predominantly insectivores, while the latter prey mostly on microscopic invertebrates, such as nematodes, amoebae and springtails.

The Venus flytrap, a well known carnivorous plant

Carnivores are sometimes characterized by the type of prey that they consume. For example, animals that eat insects and similar invertebrates primarily or exclusively are called insectivores, while those that eat fish primarily or exclusively are called piscivores. The first tetrapods, or land-dwelling vertebrates, were piscivorous amphibians known as labyrinthodonts. They gave rise to insectivorous vertebrates and, later, to predators of other tetrapods.[4]

Carnivores may alternatively be classified according to the percentage of meat in their diet. The diet of a hypercarnivore consists of more than 70% meat, that of a mesocarnivore 50–70%, and that of a hypocarnivore less than 30%, with the balance consisting of non-animal foods such as fruits, other plant material, or fungi.

Obligate carnivores[edit]

This Bengal tiger's sharp teeth and strong jaws are the classical physical traits expected from carnivorous mammalian predators

Obligate carnivores, or "true" carnivores, are those carnivores whose survival depends on nutrients which are found only in animal flesh. While obligate carnivores might be able to ingest small amounts of plant material, because of their evolution they lack the necessary physiology required to digest that plant matter. In fact, some obligate carnivorous mammals will only ever ingest vegetation for its specific use as an emetic to self-induce vomiting to rid itself of food that has upset its stomach.

For instance, felids including the domestic cat are obligate carnivores requiring a diet of primarily animal flesh and organs.[5] Specifically, cats have high protein requirements and their metabolisms appear unable to synthesize certain essential nutrients (including retinol, arginine, taurine, and arachidonic acid), and thus, in nature, they can rely only on animal flesh as their diet to supply these nutrients.[6][7]

Characteristics of carnivores[edit]

Characteristics commonly associated with carnivores include organs for capturing and disarticulating prey (teeth and claws serve these functions in many vertebrates) and status as a predator. In truth, these assumptions may be misleading, as some carnivores do not hunt and are scavengers (though most hunting carnivores will scavenge when the opportunity exists). Thus they do not have the characteristics associated with hunting carnivores. Carnivores have comparatively short digestive systems, as they are not required to break down tough cellulose found in plants. Many animals that hunt other animals have evolved eyes that face forward, thus making depth perception possible. This is almost universal among mammalian predators. Other predators, like crocodiles, as well as most reptiles and amphibians, have sideways facing eyes and hunt by ambush rather than pursuit.

Prehistoric carnivores[edit]

The first vertebrate carnivores were fish, and then amphibians that moved on to land. Early tetrapods were large amphibious piscivores. Some scientists assert that Dimetrodon "was the first terrestrial vertebrate to develop the curved, serrated teeth that enable a predator to eat prey much larger than itself."[8] While amphibians continued to feed on fish and later insects, reptiles began exploring two new food types, tetrapods (carnivory), and later, plants (herbivory). Carnivory was a natural transition from insectivory for medium and large tetrapods, requiring minimal adaptation (in contrast, a complex set of adaptations was necessary for feeding on highly fibrous plant materials).[4]

Carnivoramorphs are currently the dominant carnivorous mammals, and have been so since the Miocene. In the early to mid-Cenozoic, however, hyaenodonts, oxyaenid, entelodonts, ptolemaiidans, "arctocyonids" and "mesonychians" were dominant instead, representing a very high diversity of eutherian carnivores in the northern continents and Africa. In South America, sparassodonts were dominant instead, while Australia saw the presence of several marsupial predators, such as the dasyuromorphs and thylacoleonids.

In the Mesozoic, while theropod dinosaurs were the larger carnivores, several carnivorous mammal groups were already present. Most notable are the gobiconodontids, the triconodontid Jugulator, the deltatheroideans and Cimolestes. Many of these, such as Repenomamus, Jugulator and Cimolestes, were among the largest mammals in their faunal assemblages, capable of attacking dinosaurs.[9][10][11]

Most carnivorous mammals, from dogs to Deltatheridium, share several adaptations in common, such as carnassialiforme teeth, long canines and even similar tooth replacement patterns.[12] Most aberrant are thylacoleonids, which bear a diprodontan dentition completely unlike that of any mammal, and "eutriconodonts" like gobioconodontids and Jugulator, by virtue of their cusp anatomy, though they still worked in the same way as carnassials.[9]

Some theropod dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus rex that existed during the Mesozoic Era were probably obligate carnivores.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nutrient Requirements: Carnivores. Duane E. Ullrey. Encyclopedia of Animal Science.
  2. ^ a b Mammals: Carnivores. Duane E. Ullrey. Encyclopedia of Animal Science.
  3. ^ Mammals"' Omnivores. Duane E. Ullrey. Encyclopedia of Animal Science.
  4. ^ a b Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. & Falcon-Lang, H.J. (2010). "Rainforest collapse triggered Pennsylvanian tetrapod diversification in Euramerica" (PDF). Geology. 38 (12): 1079–1082. doi:10.1130/G31182.1. 
  5. ^ Velegrand-Defretin, Veronique (1994). "Differences between cats and dogs: a nutritional view" (PDF). Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 53: 15–24. doi:10.1079/pns19940004. 
  6. ^ Ullrey, D. E. (2004). "Mammals: Carnivores". In Pond, Wilson. Encyclopedia of Animal Science. CRC Press. p. 591. ISBN 978-0-8247-5496-9. 
  7. ^ Ullrey, D. E. (2004). "Nutrient Requirements: Carnivores". In Pond, Wilson. Encyclopedia of Animal Science. CRC Press. p. 670. ISBN 978-0-8247-5496-9. 
  8. ^ Foley, James A. (February 7, 2014). "Carnivorous, Pre-Dinosaur Predator was First to Evolve Steak Knife-like Teeth". Nature World News. Retrieved May 3, 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Zofia Kielan-Jaworowska, Richard L. Cifelli, Zhe-Xi Luo (2004). "Chapter 12: Metatherians". Mammals from the Age of Dinosaurs: origins, evolution, and structure. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 425–262. ISBN 0-231-11918-6.
  10. ^ Richard C. Fox (2015) A revision of the Late Cretaceous–Paleocene eutherian mammal Cimolestes Marsh, 1889. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences (advance online publication)
  11. ^ Cifelli, Richard L.; Madsen, Scott K. (1998). "Triconodont mammals from the medial Cretaceous of Utah". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 18 (2): 403–411. doi:10.1080/02724634.1998.10011068.
  12. ^ CHRISTIAN DE MUIZON and BRIGITTE LANGE-BADRÉ, Carnivorous dental adaptations in tribosphenic mammals and phylogenetic reconstruction, Article first published online: 29 MAR 2007 DOI: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.1997.tb00481

Further reading[edit]

  • Glen, Alistair & Dickman, Christopher (Eds) 2014, Carnivores of Australia, CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne, ISBN 978-0-643-10310-8.

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