Cagliari (Italian: [ˈkaʎʎari] ( listen); Sardinian: Casteddu;[n 1] Latin: Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an Autonomous Region of Italy. Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu literally means castle. It has 149.883 inhabitants, and 453.728 including its metropolitan area: Elmas, Assemini, Capoterra, Selargius, Sestu, Monserrato, Quartucciu, Quartu Sant'Elena and other 15 municipalities.
|— Comune —|
|Comune di Cagliari|
|• Mayor||Massimo Zedda (SEL)|
|• Total||85.45 km2 (32.99 sq mi)|
|Elevation||4 m (13 ft)|
|Population (31 October 2012)|
|• Density||1,800/km2 ( 4,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Patron saint||St. Saturninus|
|Saint day||October 30|
Cagliari (Italian: [ˈkaʎʎari] ( listen); Sardinian: Casteddu;[n 1] Latin: Caralis) is an Italian municipality and the capital of the island of Sardinia, an Autonomous Region of Italy. Cagliari's Sardinian name Casteddu literally means castle. It has 149.883 inhabitants, and 453.728 including its metropolitan area: Elmas, Assemini, Capoterra, Selargius, Sestu, Monserrato, Quartucciu, Quartu Sant'Elena and other 15 municipalities.
An ancient city with a long history, Cagliari has seen the rule of several civilizations. It was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia (which in 1861 became the Kingdom of Italy) from 1324 to 1848, when Turin, the mansion of the sovereigns, became the formal capital of the kingdom. Seat of the important University of Cagliari from 1607 and the Primate Roman Catholic archdiocese of Sardinia, from the 5th century AD, the city is an important regional cultural, educational, political and artistic centre, known for its diverse Art Nouveau architecture and several monuments. It is also Sardinia's economic and industrial hub, having one of the biggest ports in the Mediterranean sea, an international airport, and the 28th highest income rate in Italy, comparable to several Northern cities, such as Turin, Vicenza and Genoa. Under the buildings of the modern city there is a continuous stratification of human settlements of about five thousands years, from neolithic era to today. There are some Domus de janas, very ruined by cave activity, a great Carthaginian era necropolis, a great roman era amphitheater, a Byzantine basilica, two extraordinary Pisan-era towers, a formidable system of fortification that made the town the core of the Spanish Habsburg imperial power in the western Mediterranean sea. Its natural resources have always been its sheltered harbor, the oft-powerfully fortified hill of Monti Castru, the modern Casteddu, the salt from its lagoons, and, from inland, the Campidanian plain wheat and the Iglesiente mines.
The area where Cagliari would have been founded thousands of years later, was inhabited from the Neolithic period, at least 6000 years ago. In its territory, there are, very damaged by the quarries, the Domus de Janas, typical burial of the Middle and Late Neolithic in Sardinia (from Bonu Ighinu Culture to Abealzu-Filigosa Culture). During the Chalcolithic age some villages developed, one of which, in the hill of Monte Claro, gave the name to the Sardinian civilization of copper. No sign of buildings of the monumental Nuragic civilization, which developed in the Bronze Age and Iron Age in Sardinia, have been found in the city. But many Nuraghes, Giant'graves and “sacred weels" are all around on the coast and in the near inland. Traces of frequent visits of Mycenaean Age Greeks have been found on the shores of the gulf. Since the beginning of the second millennium before Christ the territory of Cagliari was frequented by Phoenician seamen and merchants. A source in the late 4th century AD, said Caralis, the ancient Cagliari, was founded, such as Carthage, by the powerful Tyrus and that source is confirmed by archaeological findings. Caralis was later annexed, together with all Sardinia, in the Carthaginian empire, and even then became the main town of Sardinia. Caralis retained this role when, after the First Punic War, Sardinia was occupied by the Romans. It was the capital of the Roman province Sardinia and Corsica for seven centuries from 238 BC until the middle of the 5th century. It was an important city with all the monuments of a province capital, such as an amphitheater that can still be seen today. It was quickly Christianized and in the 4th century it already had an archbishop. With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, it was occupied by the kingdom of the Vandals, but after about seventy years was conquered again by the Roman Empire of the East or Byzantine Empire; Caralis belonged to it, with all Sardinia, and always as the capital of the province, for the other three centuries and two more centuries as the capital of a State vassal of Byzantium, that was born because of the almost total breakdown of relations with Constantinople, due to the Arabic occupation of Sicily and large part of southern Italy. In fact, since the 8th century, the Arabs had occupied northern Africa and implemented numerous incursions, during one of which Caralis was conquered and sacked. But only in the 11th century the Arabs attempted the conquest of all Sardinia and were stopped only by the fleets of Pisa and Genoa. The vassal state of the Byzantines collapsed and was divided into four parts, called “Judicati”, one of which was controlled by Cagliari, Callari(s) in romance Sardinian. From that moment all Sardinia was restored in the cultural and political influence of Western Europe. In middle of the 13th century, the State of Cagliari was shot down by force by the Republic of Pisa that built a powerful fortress on the hill just above the port that created the form of the town until nowadays. This situation was not acceptable to the Pope, because of the strong ties between Pisa and the Holy Roman Empire. So in 1298, the Pope created the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica and enfeoffed to the King of Aragon. But the Aragonese monarchy was not able to levy war to Pisa until 1324 but two years later the kingdom was conquered and Cagliari became its the capital with the status of Royal City and a charter similar to that of Barcelona. From 1326 to 1848 it was the capital of the Kingdom of Sardinia (the Aragonese had renounced Corsica from 1460). The Kingdom was part of the Crown of Aragon, but after the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, Càller, (so the town was called in Spanish) enter within the empire of the Habsburgs of Spain and deeply absorbed Spanish language and culture, and indirectly enjoyed of the great wealth of the Spanish Empire after the discovery of America. At the beginnings of the 18th century, after the War of the Spanish Succession, and after various vicissitudes, it became a possession of the Savoy dynasty which until then had only the title of Duke. Since then, the King of Sardinia became a leading figure in European politics, but Cagliari, although the nominal capital of the kingdom, did not have big gain as the real seat of power was in Turin, home for centuries of the Savoy dynasty. In 1848 he lost in favor of Turin also the formal title of capital, but the Kingdom of Sardinia was now launched to the idea of romantic political reunification of Italy. In 1861 the parliament of the Kingdom of Sardinia changed, by law, the name of the State in Kingdom of Italy and Cagliari was one of several provincial capitals (two in Sardinia) and followed the fate of the new State, with a significant economic and demographic development, interrupted only by the disastrous damages and the thousands of casualties caused by aerial bombing during the Second World War. After the war the city was quickly and miraculously rebuilt and, in the new Italian Republic, became the capital of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia. The city returned to a tumultuous growth and is now a large and bustling urban area of nearly half a million inhabitants.
The city of Cagliari is situated in the south of Sardinia, overlooking the center of the homonymous gulf also called Golfo degli Angeli (Bay of Angels) due to an ancient legend. The city is spread over and around the hill of the historic district of Castello, and 9 other limestone hills of the middle-late Miocene, unique heights of a little more than one hundred meters above sea level on the long plains of Campidano. The plain is actually a Graben formed during the Alpine orogeny of the Cenozoic, which separated Sardinia from the European continent, roughly where it is now the Gulf of Lion in France, and broke up with various up and down tectonic movements the ancient island Paleozoic skeleton. The repeated intrusion of the sea left calcareous sediments that formed a series of hills that mark the territory of Cagliari: that where there is the fortified town near the harbor of the port and the birthplace of the city, Mount Urpinu, the St. Elias hillalso known as the Sella del Diavolo (Saddle of the Devil) for its curious shape, Tuvumannu and Tuvixeddu, where there was the ancient Punic and Roman necropolis, the small Bonaria hill, where stands the venerable Basilica, and the San Michele hill, on top of which there is the homonymous castle. The modern city has occupied the flat spaces between the hills and the sea to the south and south-east, along the Poetto beach, the lagoons and ponds of Santa Gilla and Molentargius, remains of more recent marine intrusions, in an articulate landscape, with many landmarks panoramas on the bay, the plain, the mountains that surround it at east, (The Seven Brothers and Serpeddì) and west (mountains of Capoterra). In the cold, clear days of winter, from the highest points of the city, we can recognize the snowy peaks of Gennargentu.
Cagliari has a Mediterranean climate (Csa in the Köppen climate classification) with hot, dry summers and very mild winters. The extreme values in summer sometimes slightly are over 40 °C (104 °F) (sometimes with very high humidity), while in winter, under special and rare conditions drop slightly below zero. Heavy snowfalls occur on average every thirty years. Generally, in the heart of winter, only a few flakes of snow fall in the cooler nights. The average temperature of the coldest month, January, is about 10 °C (50 °F), and those of the warmest month, August, about 25 °C (77 °F). But heat waves can occur, due to African anticyclone since June. From mid-June to mid-September, the rain is a rare event, reduced to some storm in the afternoon. The rainy season starts in September, but the first cold days you can only have in December that usually is the wettest month as well. Winds are frequent (we can say that there is no day without wind or breeze), especially the mistral and sirocco; in summer days a marine sirocco breeze (s'imbattu) lowers the temperature and the heat, making it more tolerable. Its climate is comparable to that of Adelaide, or Cape Town, Los Angeles, Athens.
|Climate data for Cagliari|
|Average high °C (°F)||14.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||9.9
|Average low °C (°F)||5.5
|Rainfall mm (inches)||49.7
|Avg. rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)||6.8||6.8||6.8||7.0||4.4||2.1||0.8||1.3||4.3||6.5||7.4||7.4||61.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||136.4||139.2||186.0||213.0||269.7||288.0||334.8||310.0||246.0||198.4||147.0||127.1||2,595.6|
|Source: Servizio Meteorologico, Hong Kong Observatory for data of sunshine hours|
The metropolitan area of Cagliari totals 453,728 inhabitants according to the 2011 census, a slight increase (2.3%) compared to 2001 census. There is no institution that identifies and governs the area that can only be limited by the daily commute to the capital, indicated by the municipalities where the population increases in a region that is unlike depopulated (+0.5 Sardinia), especially in inland areas. It covers a complex area on the plain of Campidano between large basins (Santa Gilla lagoon and salines of about 1300 hectares), ponds (Molentargius 1622 hectares) and the depopulated mountains up to 1,100 meters above sea level, largely covered by vast forests, managed largely by the Ente Foreste of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia, which are at west (mountains Capoterra and Pula 256 km², Monte Arcosu WWF Natural Reserve 36 km²) and at east (Mount Serpeddì and Sette Fratelli 132 km²), a large green area a few kilometers from downtown and the beaches of the Gulf. You can identify a first group of municipalities whose urbanization joins Cagliari without interruption (Quartu Sant'Elena, Quartucciu, Selargius, Monserrato, Elmas), a second band, with a development with larger meshes, but now important texture (Assemini, Sestu, Settimo San Pietro, Sinnai, Capoterra), and a final strip that is composed of the municipalities with the highest population growth due to lower housing costs. Excluding the mountains and lakes, the population density of the metropolitan area is much higher than what appears in the data listed below.
|Municipality||Area (km²)||Population 2001||Population 2011||%||Inhab./km²||To Cagliari km|
|Settimo San Pietro||23.21||5.949||6,532||9,8||281||13|
|Villa San Pietro||39.61||1.778||2,009||13,0||51||29|
Regional Park of Is Molentargius 
Is Molentargius in Sardinian language means: donkeys handlers as the salt extraction was the richest industry of the city for millenniums and the salt was carried by the donkeys. The park is a wetland extending over an area of about 1600 hectares serrounded by the urbanized areas of Cagliari and the other towns of the metropolitan area, and the waterfront of Poetto beach. The park was born in 1999 (Regional Law No. 5 of 02/26/1999) with the aim to protect and enhance a site of international interest, already included in the Ramsar Convention since 1977 because of its number relevance about stopover, wintering and nesting waterfowl bird species. The uniqueness of this area is the presence of reservoirs of both freshwater and saltwater, separated by a plain characterized by prevailing aridity called Is Arenas (the sands). Areas with fresh water are the ponds of Bellarosa Minore and Perdalonga, born as expansion of rainwater tanks. Areas of salt water ponds include the production system of the former Statal Saline of Cagliari, consisting of the Bellarosa Maggiore or Is Molentargius (water storage tank evaporation), by the Pond of Quartu (second and third tanks evaporation), the other salting basins (saline of Cagliari). From 1850 to the present, in the Molentargius have been recorded 230 bird species, belonging to 53 families.
Other major parks of the city include:
In addition it is the home of the Monumental Cemetery of Bonaria, recognised as one of the significant cemeteries in Europe . Some mountain parks, such as Monte Arcosu or Maidopis, with large forests and wildlife (Sardinian deer, wild boars, etc.) are located near the city.
The metropolitan area is limited to the east and west by high mountain ranges just over 1000 meters above sea level, largely covered by Mediterranean forests, dominated by evergreen oak, cork oak and arbutus. To the west the WWF nature reserve of Monte Arcosu lies, created to protect the subspecies of Sardinian deer (Cervus elaphus ssp. Corsicanus) and extended 36 km2 (14 sq mi), and the forests managed by the Ente Foreste of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia: Piscina Manna, Is Cannoneris, Monti Nieddu Gutturu Mannu for others 256 square kilometers; to the east Ente Foreste manages the Campidano Forest, and the forest of the Sette Fratelli, (Seven Brothers), a vast massif with crested peaks that appear in the number of seven viewed from Cagliari (hence the name) extend additional 132 km2 (51 sq mi). Together constitute a crown and a green lung for the pleasure of the citizens but which also constitute the largest areas covered by evergreen forests typical of the Mediterranean basin and thus have a high ecological value and scientific.
The environment, that characterizes this woods, varies with altitude for both the temperature and precipitation. In the municipality of Pula, for example, the coastal plain has an annual average rainfall of about 450 mm (18 in), while the mountains (Is Cannoneris, about 800 meters above sea level) more than 1,200 mm (47 in). The forest is populated by the Sardinian deers (Cervus elaphus corsicanus) saved from extinction, the by the fallow deer (Dama dama), extinct and reintroduced, wild boars, foxes, European pine marten (Martes martes).
The main beach of Cagliari is the Poetto. It stretches for about eight kilometers, from Sella del Diavolo (the Devil's Saddle) up to the coastline of Quartu Sant'Elena. Poetto is also the name of the district located on the western stretch of the strip between the beach and Saline di Molentargius (Molentargius's Salt Mine).
Another smaller beach is that of Calamosca near the Sant'Elia district. It's repared from the wind so, in Mistral days is very crowded.
On the coast between Calamosca and Poetto Beaches among the cliffs of the Sella del Diavolo, lays Cala Fighera, a crystal clear small bay famous among rock climbers and the gay community
Cagliari is close to other beautiful seaside locations, such as Nora, Santa Margherita di Pula, Chia, Tuerredda or Geremeas, Solanas, Villasimius, Costa Rei, still relatively unspoilt by tourism.
The old part of the city (called Castello in Italian, Casteddu de susu in Sardinian, the upper castle) lies on top of a hill, with a view of the Gulf of Cagliari (also known as Angels Gulf). Most of its city walls are intact, and feature the two early 14th-century white limestone towers, the Torre di San Pancrazio and the Torre dell'Elefante; they are both typical examples of Pisan military architecture. The local white limestone was also used to build the walls of the city and many buildings. D. H. Lawrence, in his memoir of a voyage to Sardinia, Sea and Sardinia, undertaken in January 1921, described the effect of the warm Mediterranean sun-light on the white limestone city and compared Cagliari to a "white Jerusalem". The city is said to be built on seven hills (Sant'Elia, Bonaria, Monte Urpinu, Castello, Monte Claro, Tuvixeddu and San Michele).
The Promenade Deck and the Terrazza Umberto I, the latter built on the old ramparts of the Spur, were designed in 1896 by engineer Joseph Costa and Fulgenzio Setti. The entire building is in the classical style, with Corinthian columns, and was built of white and yellow limestone. It was opened in 1901. The staircase with two flights, by which you enter from Constitution Square, is interrupted in a covered walkway, and ends beneath the Arc de Triomphe, in the Terrazza Umberto I. In 1943, during World War II, the staircase and the Arch of Triumph were severely damaged by aerial bombardment, but after the conflict's end they were faithfully reconstructed.
From the Terrazza Umberto I, accessed via a short flight of steps, is the Bastion of Santa Caterina, where there was an old Dominican convent, destroyed by fire in 1800. It is said that in the austere surroundings of the monastery, the conspiracy to kill the Viceroy Camarassa in 1668, the most dramatic episode of blood in the history of the city under Spanish rule, was laid.
The Promenade Deck, since it was inaugurated in 1902, has been variously used. At first it was used as a banqueting hall, then during the First World War was used as an infirmary. In the thirties, during the period of sanctions, it was an exhibition of autarchy. During the Second World War it was used as a shelter for displaced people whose homes had been destroyed by bombs. In 1948 it hosted the first Trade Fair of Sardinia. After many years of neglect, the Promenade was restored and re-evaluated as a cultural space reserved especially for art exhibitions.
The Cathedral was restored in the 1930s turning the former Baroque façade into a Medieval Pisan style façade, more akin to the original appearance of the church from the 13th century. The bell tower is original. The interior has a nave and two aisles, with a pulpit (1159–1162) sculpted for the Cathedral of Pisa but later donated to Cagliari. The crypt houses the remains of martyrs found in the Basilica of San Saturno (see below). Near the Cathedral is the palace of the Provincial Government (which used to be the island's governor's palace before 1900). In Castello is also the Sardinian Archaeological Museum, the biggest and most important regarding the prehistoric Nuragic civilisation of Sardinia. Finally, Castello hosts many craftsmen workshops in its tightened and scenic lanes.
The Basilica of San Saturnino is one of the most important Palaeo-Christian monuments in Sardinia. Dedicated to the martyr killed under Diocletian's reign, Saturninus of Cagliari (patron saint of the city), it was built in the 5th century. Of the original building the central part remain and the dome, to which two armes (one with a nave and two aisles) was added. A Palaeo-Christian crypt is also under the church of San Lucifero (1660), dedicated to Saint Lucifer, a bishop of the city. This has a Baroque façade with ancient columns and sculpted parts, some of which found in the nearby necropolis.
The Chiesa della Purissima is a church from the 16th century.
The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Bonaria was built by the Catalans in 1324–1329 during the siege to the Castle in which the Pisans had taken shelter. It has a small Gothic portal in the façade while the interior houses a wooden statue of the Madonna, which was thrown off a Spanish ship and landed at the foot of the Bonaria hill. The cloister of the convent is home to the Marinery Museum.
The other early districts of the town (Marina, Stampace, Villanova) retain much of their original appeal and still seem to function as distinct villages within the town.
Considerable other remains of the ancient city are still visible at Cagliari, the most striking of which are those of the Roman Amphitheatre, traditionally called Is centu scalas (one hundred steps), carved into a block of rock (the typical limestone from which Cagliari is built), and of an aqueduct; the latter a most important acquisition to the city, where fresh water is scarce. There exist also ancient cisterns of vast extent: the ruins of a small circular temple, and numerous sepulchres on a hill outside the modern town, which appears to have formed the necropolis of the ancient city. (Smyth's Sardinia, pp. 206, 215; Valery, Voyage en Sardaigne, c. 57.) The Amphitheatre still stages open-air operas and concerts during the summer.
The districts built in the 1930s sport some nice examples of Art Deco architecture and some controversial examples of Fascist neoclassicism, such as the Justice Court (Palazzo di Giustizia) in the Republic Square. The Justice Court is close to the biggest town park, Monte Urpinu, with its pine trees and artificial lakes. The park includes a vast area of a hill. The Orto Botanico dell'Università di Cagliari, the city's botanical garden, is also of interest.
Cagliari has one of the longest beaches in Italy. The Poetto beach stretches for 13 km and was famous for its white fine-grained sand. A recent controversial intervention to save the beach from erosion has slightly altered the original texture of the sand.
 In 2007, there were 158,041 people residing in Cagliari, of whom 46.7% were male and 53.3% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 13.36 percent of the population compared to pensioners who number 21.87 percent. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06 percent (minors) and 19.94 percent (pensioners). The average age of Cagliari residents is 46 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Cagliari declined by 3 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Cagliari is 6 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. This trend is proportionally inverse with Cagliari metropolitan areas and suburbs, where most younger families move.As of 2009, 96.91% of the population was Italian while the largest immigrant group came from East Asia and other European nations mostly from Ukraine and Romania. The overwhelming majority of persons are Roman Catholic.As of 2009, 96.91% of the population was Italian while the largest immigrant group came from East Asia and other European nations mostly from Ukraine and Romania. The overwhelming majority of persons are Roman Catholic.
Between the 1980s and the 1990s the population of Cagliari was around 220,000. During this period four municipal districts became autonomous municipalities with some local referendums. So, due to the separation of Quartucciu (12,527 inhabitants in 2009) in 1983, Elmas (8,977 inhabitants in 2009) in 1989, Monserrato (20,603 inhabitants in 2009) and Selargius (29,099 inhabitants in 2009) in 1991, Cagliari passed from circa 220,000 to 160,000 residents. Without this detachment the municipal population of Cagliari could be of 228,347.
ΉN νόμινη δέ πάτρη έτ φιλιο έ σσάντω ήσπήριτο. Εγω ιούδιχι Σαλούση περ βολουνάτε δέ δόννου Δέου πότεστάνδω πάρτη δε Κάραλις....[n 2]
The native language of Cagliari is the Sardinian (sardu), a Romance language, precisely the Campidanese dialect (campidanesu) in its local variant (casteddaiu). The variant of Cagliari in its high register has traditionally represented the linguistic model of reference for the entire southern area of the island, and the high social variant used by the middle class in the whole Campidanese domain, as well as the literary model of reference for writers and poets. This language is spoken less and less by the new generations in the city, which use Italian due to compulsory education and the means of mass communication. Italian has increasingly become predominant in social relations, formal but also informal, relegating Sardinian to the role of sociological dialect; young people often have just passive competence, due to their relationship with elderly relatives who still speak it, as their parents too often speak only Italian, or just speak a mixed juvenile slang. Sardinian, which is divided into two macro-dialect groups, northern (Logudoresu) and southern (Campidanesu), is characterized by a plural in -s similar to Spanish, Portuguese and French and different from Italian and the definite articles derived from the Latin IPSUM. The most important differences between the Campidanese and the Logudorese are the plural definite articles: Campidanese common-gender is versus Logudorese sos/sas; loss of ancient Latin plosive velars to plosive palatals: for example cena versus kena (supper); iotacism, probably from Byzantine Greek,[n 3] and assimilation of mid to close back vowels versus the original front middle vowels: for example cani versus cane (dog), gattus versus gattos (cats); preservation of Latin nexuses QU and GU versus the innovation as plosive labials: for example lingua versus limba (language); aqua versus abba (water), no regular i prostesis before preconsonantic s such as scala versus iscala (stairway) or scola versus iscola (school) but regular a prostesis before r- such as arrosa versus rosa (rose). Cagliari was the metropolis of the roman province, and accepted coming innovation from Rome, Carthage, Constantinople, and probably reflected late Latin urban dialects of the 5th-century core cities of the empire. Sardinian is so different from any other romance language that, even it had few literature developing and little social status, it must be considered an autonomous language. Sardinia is a little island, the most remote of the Mediterranean islands from any mainland, it historically had little population, and it is divided into several isolated cantons, so the language is subdivided into two groups of dialects, northern and southern that differ almost only in phonetics. So two literary and social models developed in the north and the south. These models have created not much, but very interesting literature. Example of Casteddaiu dialect from Efisiu Pintor Sirigu (1765-1814) Femmu cassadori (I was a hunter):,[n 4]
The vast majority of the people of Cagliari is Catholic, although religious practice is very low among the younger generations, but there are also minorities belonging to other faiths, primarily local, Romanian, Russian (in the ancient lended church of Our Lady of Hope, just next to the Catholic Cathedral) Orthodox church, and Muslims. The city is the seat of the Archdiocese of Cagliari, which has ancient origins, surely from the 4th century, although there are not documented news of the first bishop Sant'Avendrace as early as 70 AD; its territory has 133 parishes within its competence. Other Churches are the Evangelical church, the Evangelical Baptist Church, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Jehovah's Witnesses. There is a project to build a mosque for the large immigrant Muslim minority. The Patron saint of the city is Saint Saturninus, Santu Sadurru in Sardinian language, which probably means that, in the Middle Ages, there was a confusion between Saturnus of Cagliari and Saturninus of Toulouse. The Archdiocese of Cagliari manages a religious magazine, Il Portico, a radio station, Radio Karalitana, a website specifically dedicated to the teaching of Catholic Religion, the local Caritas, the local Azione Cattolica, a diocesan archive, the Pontifical Faculty of Theology of Sardinia, the regional Seminary, the Sant'Efisio Universitary College the local 'Acli' catholic workers association, the local catholic Scouting association Agesci and others.
Traditionally, the vote of Cagliari is oriented towards the center-right wing. Since the war all the mayors belonged to the party of Christian Democrats with the exception of Salvatore Ferrara, of the Socialist Party, in an alliance between Christian Democrats and Socialists. After the collapse of the traditional parties of the postwar period, the mayors belonged to the party or the coalition led by Silvio Berlusconi. The current economic and political crisis that crosses Italy has prompted the electorate toward a large abstention and toward a young mayor, Massimo Zedda, which, though belonging to a left-wing party, defeated for the first time the right-wing parties and changed the electoral orientation of Cagliari.
|Movimento 5 stelle||5 STELLE||24.642||26.74|
|Il Popolo della Libertà||PDL||19.830||21,52|
|Sinistra Ecologia Libertà||SINEC||5.260||5,71|
|Fratelli d'Italia Centro-destra nazionale||FLLITA||2.173||2,36|
|Unione dei democratici cristiani||UDC||1.482||1,61|
|Partito Sardo d'Azione||PSDAZ||870||0,94|
|Fare per fermare il declino||FARE||850||0,92|
|Futuro e libertà||FLI||565||0,61|
|Indipendenza per la Sardegna||INDSARD||452||0,49|
|Lista amnistia giustizia libertà||AGL||284||0,31|
|Partito Comunista dei lavoratori||PCDL||224||0,24|
|Meris Movimentu Europeu Rinaschida||MERIS||170||0,18|
|Moderati italiani in rivoluzione||MODITA||150||0,16|
|Grande Sud- Mpa||GRSUD||104||0,11|
|Lega Nord||LEGA N.||68||0,07|
The city of Cagliari had several coats of arms throughout its history. The first that we know dates back to Pisa, the symbol of Castel di Castro, whose relief can be seen on the walls of the tower of the elephant, and consists of a shield on which is represented a Gothic castle by the sea, with three crenellated towers and two gates.
During Aragonese-Spanish coat of arms was replaced with a new one made up of a shield quartered diamond in St. Andrew's cross on which boxes are represented two castles by the sea, a symbol of Cagliari medieval, alternating from the bars of Aragon. This coat of arms remained in use until 1766 when it was replaced by the current degree by royal coat of arms .
The current coat of arms looks like a shield oval quartered, in the first and the fourth field is the cross of Savoy, while the second and third is a castle with three towers founded on a rock emerging from the sea, all natural. The shield is supported by two young newts and stamped by crown marquis.
So the torreted castle by the sea is the symbol of the town from almost eight hundred years. Other symbols of the town are the little elephant on the omonymous tower, the outline of the Sella del Diavolo, the Devil's Saddle Hill; modern identification icons are the flamingoes that nest in lagoons with almost 4000 pairs, the Iris planifolia, a little blue flowering plant that grows on the limestone hills of the city and, although not a native plant of Sardinia, also the Jacaranda mimosifolia can be considered a symbol of Cagliari, which is decorated in June by its spectacular blue flowering of thousands of specimens.
According to 2010 data of Italian Ministry of Economy, the inhabitants of Cagliari returned an individual income tax per capita that was 127% of National average, while entire Sardinia returned only 81%. Among Italian Regional Capitals, average income of Cagliari, was superior to that of Perugia, the same as Ancona and very close to that of Turin and Venice, very far from that of Naples that was only 80,6% of National average but quite far as well from that of Milan, the highest, that was 178% of national average. The metropolitan area returned 97% of National average. As usual, urban area income is greater than that of boroughs or countryside but in Sardinia the occurrence is particularly acute.
Cagliari is the capital city of the Autonomous Region of Sardinia. It is its administrative hub and headquarters, as well as of the regional and provincial offices of the Italian central administration. Cagliari is also the main commercial and industrial center of the island, with many commercial centres and factories within its metropolitan boundaries. File:Porto canale cagliari.JPG|Western port and international container terminal The first department store was opened in 1931, (La Rinascente), in Via Roma, in the center of the city, still opened. Nowadays there are many commercial centers in the metropolitan area (Le Vele, Santa Gilla, La Corte del Sole, Marconi) with most European chains of stores such as Auchan, MediaWorld, Euronics, Carrefour, Bata Shoes etc.
It is the principal operational headquarters of the Banco di Sardegna that belongs to BPER Group and is listed on the Milan Stock Exchange (BSRP), of the Banca di Cagliari and The Banca di Credito Sardo that belongs to the Intesa Sanpaolo Group.
The Macchiareddu-Grogastru area between Cagliari and Capoterra, in conjunction with great international container terminal port at Giorgino is one of the most important industrial areas of Sardinia. Cagliari also has one of the largest fish markets in Italy with a vast array of fish for sale to both the public and trade. The communications provider Tiscali has its headquarters in town, and Cagliari also has one of the biggest container terminals on the Mediterranean sea.
Many multinational corporations like Coca Cola, Heineken, Unilever, Bridgestone and Eni Group have factories in town. Within its metropolitan area there is one of the only six oil refinery supersites in all Europe, the Saras, in Sarroch.
Tourism is one of the major industries of the city, although historical venues such as its monumental Middle Ages and Early modern period defence system, its punic, roman and Byzantine ruins, are not highlighted enough, in favor of the recreational beaches and coastline. Cruise ships touring the Mediterranean often make Cagliari a stop off for passengers and the city is a traffic hub to the nearest beaches of Villasimius, Chia, Pula and Costa Rei, and the urban beach of Poettu as well. In Pula there is also the important archeological site of the Punic and Ro/man city of Nora. At only 60 km (37 mi) we can find the most impressive expression of the Nuragic civilization Su Nuraxi di Barumini, inscribed in the World Heritage Site list in 1997. The town has more than 300 restaurants and pizzerias and nearly 250, including hotels, B&B and guest houses.
The city is currently served by a modern international airport International Airport (Cagliari-Elmas, Mario Mameli), which is located a few kilometers from the center of Cagliari and links the city with more than 50 destinations all over in Italy and Europe. A high-frequency railway line connects the city to the airport; treadmills joint the railway station to the air terminal. The terminal is also connected to the city by the highway SS 130 and by bus with the ARST company to Bus Station in Matteotti square, in the centre of the town. In 2012 the airport handled 3.592.020 passengers, the 13th more traficated in Italy. There are also other nearby airports or a not too distant from the city: Deciomannu airport, a NATO military airport, and three fields for AirSports, Serdiana particularly for skydiving, Castiadas, Decimoputzu.
From Cagliari the most important Sardinian roads depart: SS 131 highway Carlo Felice to Sassari - Porto Torres (motorway like until Oristano) and to Olbia (SS131 Central Nuorese Branch). SS 130 Iglesiente Highway to Iglesias and Carbonia. SS 125 eastern highway, which connects the east of Cagliari to Tortolì by a modern layout, and ending near Palau in front of Corsica. SS 195 Sulcitana highway, which connects Cagliari with Sulcis all coast long. SS 554 Cagliaritana highway, which connects externally to the center, the various roads that branch out from the city and hinterland, very congested in rush hours. SS 387 to Ballao and Ogliastra. From Poetto through the Provincial Road 17 to Villasimius.
Road distances Alghero - 266 km Arbatax / Tortolì - 135 km Carbonia - 67 km Iglesias - 58 km Nuoro - 181 km Olbia - 301 km Oristano - 93 km Porto Torres - 229 km Santa Teresa di Gallura - 326 km Sassari - 213 km Dorgali - 213 km Macomer - 150 km
Cagliari is served by the Port passenger, commercial and cruise terminal in front of via Roma. From Cagliari there are scheduled services by passenger ship to Civitavecchia, Naples, Palermo and Trapani, and c to Genoa and Livorno. A harbor area of Via Roma is reserved for tourist boats. In the city there are two other touristic marinas: Su Siccu (Navy League) and Marina Piccola.
Cagliari railway station is in Piazza Matteotti; from there only one line departs to Porto Torres with branches to Iglesias/Carbonia and to Olbia/Golfo Aranci. From the station of the nearby town of Montserrat began the line narrow-gauge railway arise to Arbatax managed by ARST; its a regular public transport is limited to is up to Isili, while the remaining sections are traveled by tourist trains known as the Green Train.
Bus and trolleybus services, managed by CTM  (more than 30 lines) and ARST, connect all neighborhod within the city and the metropolitan municipalities; Cagliari is one of the few Italian cities has an extensive trolleybus network, whose fleet has been recently renovated. The Network of regional bus transport is operated by ARST, which station is in Piazza Matteotti, just between the railway station and the port. Piazza Matteotti is the hub of any kind of public transport in and out the city. A Metrotranvia (Metro-Cagliari) connects Piazza Repubblica to Monserrato. In a few months an extension to the Monserrato University Compound and the University General Hospital will be operating and, on the other side, the extension from Piazza Repubblica to Piazza Matteotti is in project. Trenitalia runs instead a suburban rail link to Decimomannu with 7 stations from the Central Station; the airport station is operating from June 2013.
A public service of bike-sharing is operating in these stationig points: Via Sonnino - Palazzo Civico, Piazza Repubblica, Piazza Giovanni 23, Marina Piccola.
Although there was a public hospital in Cagliari since the 17th century, the first modern structure was built in the middle of the 19th century by the architect Gaetano Cima. The hospital is still running even if all departments are gradually transferred to the new University Hospital in Monserrato.
Among the other public hospitals, the hospital Brotzu  (by the Sardinian scientist whose name is linked to the discovery of Cephalosporins), stands and it was recognized in 1993 as a High Specialization National Relevant Hospital, particularly in liver transplantation.
There are in the city others public hospitals: a general hospital Santissima Trinità or commonly Is Mirrionis, the Binaghi, specilized in Pulmonology, Marino specialized in Traumatology, in Hyperbaric medicine and in Spinal cord injuries, Businco specialized in Oncology and Microcitemico specialized in Thalassemia, genetic and Rare diseases.
Furthermore there are many private hospital.
Cagliari is home of the University of Cagliari, the greatest public university in Sardinia, founded in 1607 by Papal seal and by Philip III of Spain royal decree in 1620. Now, after the last reform, it has six faculties: Engineering and Architecture, Medicine and Surgery, Economical, Juridical and Political Sciences, Basic Scienses, Biology and Pharmacy, Humanistic Studies.
It is attended by about 35,000 students. All scientific faculties of the university, as well as the university hospital, has been transferred to a new citadel located in the Municipality of Monserrato. In the city center remain the engineering and the humanities poles and, in the Castle, the seat of the Rector, in an 18th-century palace with a contemporary library of thousands of ancient books.
The University of Cagliari is the school of medicine researchers of great value, particularly in the branch of Neurosciences: it formed Giuseppe Brotzu, Gian Luigi Gessa, Erminio Costa, Paola Leone, that are working or have worked in Italian and U.S. universities.
In Pula, in the metropolitan area of Cagliari has settled the most important seat of Polaris, the Science and Technology Park of Sardinia, which is a system of advanced infrastructure and services for innovation, development and industrialization of research. With more than 60 companies and research centers located, Polaris is one of the largest science parks Italian and is the first in the country for number of biotech companies established. Polaris focuses on three areas: - Information and communications Technologies; Biotechnology: from biomedicine to biotechnology agribusiness, unnear a til you get to bioinformatics; Renewable Energy.
Cagliari is also the seat of the Pontifical Faculty of Theology of Sardinia.
Cagliari was already an important cultural and particularly thelogical center in the late Roman era: here were born Saint Lucifer,known for his passionate opposition to Arianism in defence of ortodoxy, and Saint Eusebius. Fulgentius of Ruspe, esilieted in Cagliari by the Vandal'Arian Kings with many others African Bishops, created a monastery near the already famous Saint Saturninus Basilica, near a cemetery area procul a strepitu civitatis, away from the city clamour. It is probable that almost two of three Sardinian Popes, Pope Eusebius and Pope Hilarius were born in Cagliari.
The city has numerous libraries and is also house of the State Archive, that contains thousand of handwritten documents from the foundation of the Kingdom of Sardinia (1325 AD) to the present. In addition to numerous local and university department libraries, the most important libraries are the old University Library, with thousands of ancient books, the Provincial Library, the Regional Library, and the Mediateca of the Mediterranean, which contains the archival and library collection belonging to the Municipality.
Life in Cagliari has been depicted by many writers: a part Claudian, just few words in Latin authors underlining its role as the capital and largest city and most populous of Sardinia. In the moder era Roderigo Hunno Baeza dedicated to his town a didactic Latin poem, Caralis Panegyricus, at the end of the 16th century, Jacinto Arnal De Bolea published in 1636, in Spanish, the first novel set in Cagliari titled El Forastero..; David Herbert Lawrence in his Sea and Sardinia, wrote beautiful words about the city.[n 5]
Cagliari was home of the composer Ennio Porrino, the film, theatre and TV director Nanni Loy, and the famous Italian actors Gianni Agus Amedeo Nazzari and Pier Angeli (born Anna Maria Pierangeli), who had romantic relationships with actors Kirk Douglas and James Dean.
Excluding the Roman era amphitheater, the first theater was inaugurated in Cagliari in 1767; it was the Teatro Zapata that then became the Civic Theatre. Devastated by bombing in 1943, it was recently restored, but the roof was not rebuilt, so today it is a particular structure of an 18th-century palace open-air theatre. The Politeama Regina Margherita, inaugurated in 1859, was destroyed by fire in 1942 and never rebuilt.
The city was left without a true theater until 1993 when the new Opera House the Teatro Lirico was inaugurated, despite the opera has had in town, and in part still has, a solid tradition. It is inside a music compound with the Music Conservatory, that has its owns Auditorium, and the Music Park. Cagliari is and was home of some famous Opera singer such as the tenors Giovanni Matteo Mario (Giovanni Matteo De Candia, 1810-1883) and Piero Schiavazzi (1875-1949), the Baritone Angelo Romero (born 1940), the contralto Bernadette Manca di Nissa, born 1954 and the recently died soprano Giusy Devinu (1960-2007). The young Italian pop singer Marco Carta also was born in Cagliari in 1985.
The old Teatro Massimo was only recently renovated and now it is seat of the Teatro Stabile of Sardinia. The Municipal Auditorium, in the former 17th-century church of Santa Teresa, is the seat of the Scuola di Arte Drammatica (School of Dramatic Art) di Cagliari, while the Teatro delle Saline (Saltworks Theatre), is home of Akroama, Teatro Stabile di Innovazione (Permanent Theater of Innovation).
Founded by Beppi Vigna, Antonio Serra and Michele Medda, a school of comic strep the Centro Internazionale del Fumetto (Comic streep International Centre)  has been active for several decades. Its founders have invented and designed cartoon characters well known in Italy and in other European countries such as Nathan Never and Legs Weaver and cooperate in other streps like Dylan Dog, Tex Willer, Martin Mystery and Nick Raider.
The Feast of Sant'Efisio, Sant'Efis (the glorious) in Sardinian language, is the most important religious procession of Cagliari and Sardinia, which takes place every year on May 1. In this festival, are involved groups wearing their traditional costumes from all over Sardinia. In addition to being one of the oldest is also the longest Italian religious procession, with about 65 km walks in 4 days and the largest in the Mediterranean.
It is said that in 1656 the Sardinians prayed Sant'Efis to defeating the terrible wave of plague, propagated on the island since 1652. The epidemic infected the whole of Sardinia, Cagliari in particular, that killed about ten thousand inhabitants, with almost half the city's population. The first victim was the Archbishop of Cagliari Don Bernardo De La Cabra. Meanwhile Cagliari was turning into a huge cemetery. The legend says that at this point Sant'Efisio appeared to the Viceroy Count of Lemos to request, in order to liberate the city from the plague, the vote of the procession on 1 May. Just the Municipality of Cagliari in 1656, made a vow to Sant'Efisio: if he could defeat the plague each year would be held a procession and festivities in his honor, starting from Stampace district, until you get to Nora, where the saint was martyred. In September, the heavy rains made the disappearance of the plague, and the following year so far, on 1 May, we respect the vow made to him years before. May was chosen as a symbol of regeneration of nature.
The preparations for the procession, managed dall'Arciconfaternita of the Banner, starting April 30 with the clothing of the saint and the addition of gems gold offered as ex voto. After, the President of the Archconfraternity and the Sacristan lay the statue inside the chariot. On the morning of May 1 "Su Corradori" decorates the oxen that will carry the chariot to Nora. Then the Third Guardian, accompanied by "Sa Guardianìa" goes to town where he waits for the Alter Nos, once the delegate of the King. Together then they go to the church of Stampace where Mass is celebrated. The procession, which takes place May 1 is open from traccas (usually about 40), festively decorated wagons, drawn by oxen. Then come the dancers, about 5,500 people with the traditional Sardinian costume, from all over the island that usually recite the rosary or sing goccius (religious songs). After the knights follow, the knights of the Campidano open then followed by the militia. After them the members of Guardianìa march and in the front row the Third Guardian holding the Banner of the brotherhood. Then comes the Alter Nos, the representative of the Mayor. After the riders parade members of the Arch preceded by a brother holding a crucifix of 1700. The arrival of the chariot is preceded by the sound of launeddas. When the chariot arrives in via Roma is greeted by the sirens of ships docked in the port of Cagliari, and walks on a carpet of rose petals. Left Cagliari, the coach arrives at the church of Giorgino that is stripped of jewelery and clothes are replaced with simpler ones. The statue is then transferred to the chariot country and continues to Nora where he arrived on May 3. On May 4 the Saint starts to Cagliari, where it will arrive at about 21,00 in the evening. The return is the most intimate and dear to the people of Cagliari, less crowded and more felt.
On 1 May 1794 the saint did not leave. In fact, the previous April 28 a revolt broke out in Cagliari caused by civil arrests. The turmoiland and the military displacement cause the municipal authorities to decided not to make the event. However, the municipal council decided to celebrate the holiday for that year on June 1, when the revolt had subsided.
The Feast of Sant'Efis was also made in 1943, in the midst of the ruins of the city of Cagliari destroyed by Allied bombing occurred about two months earlier. The statue of the saint, covered with written prayers, notes and photographs, was carried in procession on a milk truck, followed by a few but faithful devotees.
The Basilica of Bonaria is a church, composed by a Sanctury, a gotic building of the 15th century, and a Basilica, built in the 18th century, that faces the sea and was allegedly built where a sailor landed after the Lady of Bonaria had appeared in the midst of a tempest and saved the sailor and his ship from sinking. It was march the 25th 1370. The Basilica is supervised by the Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy. The Sanctuary of the Basilica, is frequently attended by devotes who want to touch the Madonna, which in 1907 was declared by the Pope Highest Patron Saint of Sardinia. The first Sunday of July, we celebrate the summer festival in honor of Our Lady of Bonaria. It is a popular festival, founded by some young veterans of the war fought against the Austrians in 1866. The statue of the Virgin, protector of sailors, goes out of her house and, crossing Viale Bonaria between two rows of people cheering, heads to the port where comes up on board of a tug boat and, together with the clergy and many of the faithful, placed on other boats, thet follow the boat that brings the Madonna. Together they tour the wide gulf of Angels. Once off, from a military helicopter laurel wreaths, precedentetnente blessed, are thrown overboard in memory of the fallen of all wars. Then back to the Sanctuary, where the Archbishop concludes the celebrations with a speech and blessing. The Basilica of Bonaria of Cagliari gives its name to Buenos Aires. The Spaniard who founded Buenos Aires visited the church of Bonaria (fair winds, from Catalan Bon Aire) and asked for help from the Lady of Bonaria, to whom the church is dedicated.
Spanish heritage are the events that take place in the city during Easter Holy Week. Each historic district organizes processions. Particularly fascinating those organized by Archconfraternities of the medieval quarter of Villanova (Biddanoa in Sardinian language, New Town), culminating in the processions of Cricified Jesus, the Dead Christ, Our Lady of Sorrows, of su Scravamentu (removal of the dead Christ from the cross, literally unrivetting),and finally S'incontru (the meeting) between the Risen Christ and the Virgin Mary.
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In Cagliari there is the main regional headquarters of RAI, the Italian State radio and television, with its local broadcasting. There are also two regional television and radio companies as well as numerous information internet sites.
Polo museale di Cagliari "Cittadella dei musei" (Citadel of Museums) with:
Cagliari is home to the football team Cagliari Calcio, winner of the Italian league championship in 1970, with the team was led by Gigi Riva. Cagliari is an ideal location for water sports such as surfing, kitesurfing, windsurfing and sailing due to strong and reliable favourable winds. Field hockey is also popular, with two teams in the top division Italian, G.S. Amsicora and C.U.S. Cagliari, the first of which won the league title more than any other Italian team in the men's championship (20) and is also the protagonist in the women's one.
Sport venues in Cagliari include:
Cagliari has some peculiar gastronomic traditions: unlike the rest of the island its cuisin is mostly based on seafood but not only. Many dishes are based on the wide variety of fish and seafood available. Although it is possible to trace influences from Spanish, Sicilian and Genoese cuisine, Cagliaritan food has a distinctive and unique character.
Very good wines are also part of Cagliaritanians' dinners: excellent wines are in fact produced in the nearby vineyards of the Campidano plain: Cannonau, Nuragus, Nasco, Monica, Moscau, Girò, Malvasia. At the end the famous Mirto, myrtle liquor;
Cagliari is a tourist city, and especially in summer a lot of clubs and pubs are goals for youth and tourists, pubs and night-clubs are concentrated in the Corso Vittorio Emanuele II, a narrow street in Stampace district, Marina district, near to the port and Castello district, as for clubs they are mostly on the Poetto beach (in summer), or in Viale Marconi (in winter).
Consulates located in Cagliari:
Cagliari is twinned with:
Tomba dei Giganti (Giant's grave of Is Concias, in the mountains few km east from Cagliari
Saint Michael baroque Church, Cagliari
Examples of Art Nouveau in Cagliari (Via Roma Palaces, Balletto Palace, Valdès Palace)
|Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Cagliari.|
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