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The Real Cause Of Brexit
The Real Cause Of Brexit
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: Ray Hammond
Why did England
Why did England's North vote to leave the European Union?
Published: 2016/07/01
Channel: VICE News
Why Does The UK Want To Leave The EU?
Why Does The UK Want To Leave The EU?
Published: 2016/02/09
Channel: NowThis World
Brexit - Causes and Consequences - Martin Wolf
Brexit - Causes and Consequences - Martin Wolf
Published: 2017/01/07
Channel: Arthur W. Page Society
Brexit: and my reasons for voting Leave. What now?
Brexit: and my reasons for voting Leave. What now?
Published: 2016/07/10
Channel: Arduino Tronic
Why Do Many Brits Want To Vote For #Brexit?
Why Do Many Brits Want To Vote For #Brexit?
Published: 2016/06/02
Channel: Thom Hartmann Program
Richard Dawkins: No, Not All Opinions Are Equal—Elitism, Lies, and the Limits of Democracy
Richard Dawkins: No, Not All Opinions Are Equal—Elitism, Lies, and the Limits of Democracy
Published: 2017/08/25
Channel: Big Think
Dear Brits: do us a favour & vote out on #Brexit
Dear Brits: do us a favour & vote out on #Brexit
Published: 2016/06/18
Channel: The Swan of Tuonela
Brexit Wins | UK Votes to Leave EU
Brexit Wins | UK Votes to Leave EU
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: ABC News
Remain Voter’s Argument Reminds Jacob Rees-Mogg Why He Backs Brexit
Remain Voter’s Argument Reminds Jacob Rees-Mogg Why He Backs Brexit
Published: 2017/10/23
Channel: gemini48
Brexit aftermath: Jeremy Corbyn losing confidence vote
Brexit aftermath: Jeremy Corbyn losing confidence vote
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: FRANCE 24 English
'How can we rely on you?' BBC host SKEWERS Bank of England for 'wrong' Brexit predictions
Published: 2017/11/03
Channel: BuzzyNews UK
What do UK people think of Brexit and quitting the EU?
What do UK people think of Brexit and quitting the EU?
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: 5 News
EU Referendum: Who
EU Referendum: Who's more likely to vote for Brexit?
Published: 2016/02/26
Channel: The Telegraph
EU vs. Brexit - Why Remaining Will Continue To Spell Disaster For Europe
EU vs. Brexit - Why Remaining Will Continue To Spell Disaster For Europe
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: World Alternative Media
UK BREAKING - Expert
UK BREAKING - Expert's BRILLIANT reason why setting a Brexit date in stone will give UK UPPER HAND
Published: 2017/11/17
Channel: News 2U
Sunderland votes in favour of leaving the European Union
Sunderland votes in favour of leaving the European Union
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: Guardian News
Brexit becomes reality: what do voters think now?
Brexit becomes reality: what do voters think now?
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: Sky News
Brexit explained: UK-EU exit vote, deal and referendum hinges on EU migration to Britain - TomoNews
Brexit explained: UK-EU exit vote, deal and referendum hinges on EU migration to Britain - TomoNews
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: TomoWorld
Brexit: reasons to stay in the EU part 2
Brexit: reasons to stay in the EU part 2
Published: 2016/06/12
Channel: videotruths
The Demonisation of the Elderly (and the exaltation of the young)
The Demonisation of the Elderly (and the exaltation of the young)
Published: 2017/11/01
Channel: On The Offensive
24th of June 2016 – BREXIT Vote Causes Sharp Volatility.
24th of June 2016 – BREXIT Vote Causes Sharp Volatility.
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: Blackwell Global
UK: PM May under pressure to soften Brexit stance after election
UK: PM May under pressure to soften Brexit stance after election
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: Al Jazeera English
WHAT IS BREXIT? - The Consequences of the United Kingdom Leaving The EU
WHAT IS BREXIT? - The Consequences of the United Kingdom Leaving The EU
Published: 2016/07/03
Channel: Question Time
New Brexit polls suggest shift in favour of leaving the EU
New Brexit polls suggest shift in favour of leaving the EU
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: euronews (in English)
Brexit: Political and Security Implications
Brexit: Political and Security Implications
Published: 2016/07/05
Channel: ANU TV
Will Brexit trigger a Scottish referendum?
Will Brexit trigger a Scottish referendum?
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: CNN
Calls for referendums in Scotland and Northern Ireland after Brexit vote
Calls for referendums in Scotland and Northern Ireland after Brexit vote
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: euronews (in English)
Latest News 365 - Russia trolls did not cause brexit-but their global interventions are a real dang
Latest News 365 - Russia trolls did not cause brexit-but their global interventions are a real dang
Published: 2017/11/18
Channel: Latest News 365
'Victory for Leavers' Theresa May's 'Brexit war cabinet' now dominated by Brexiteer MPs
Published: 2017/11/05
Channel: BuzzyNews UK
Tories Consider Revolt Over Parliament Brexit Vote
Tories Consider Revolt Over Parliament Brexit Vote
Published: 2017/10/27
Channel: Bloomberg Politics
It
It's called democracy!' Radio host slates Remainer who says Brexit 'nonsense' won't happen
Published: 2017/07/29
Channel: BuzzyNews UK
BREXIT "Yes" Vote Will Collapse EU
BREXIT "Yes" Vote Will Collapse EU
Published: 2016/06/06
Channel: Fabian4Liberty
How Bilderberg Plans to Defeat Brexit
How Bilderberg Plans to Defeat Brexit
Published: 2016/06/19
Channel: Ferhat Tuzun
A vote in favour of Britain’s EU exit is likely to unsettle global markets
A vote in favour of Britain’s EU exit is likely to unsettle global markets
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: CGTN Africa
Britain
Britain's Brexit Showdown
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: Journeyman Pictures
Brexit Old generation pummeled younger generation pitch to
Brexit Old generation pummeled younger generation pitch to 'Remain'
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: NYOOOZ TV
Why A Remain Vote May Leave UKIP In Control
Why A Remain Vote May Leave UKIP In Control
Published: 2016/06/05
Channel: Kezyma
Brexit vote will send euro
Brexit vote will send euro 'to parity' and create 'wild volatility' for sterling
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: IG UK
UK EU Referendum Part 2? Can the BREXIT be REVERSED?
UK EU Referendum Part 2? Can the BREXIT be REVERSED?
Published: 2016/06/26
Channel: The Money GPS
David Miliband: we need a second vote on Brexit deal
David Miliband: we need a second vote on Brexit deal
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: News 6
Brexit: Age Demographics Made It Inevitable
Brexit: Age Demographics Made It Inevitable
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: Jerry Liu
Stocks Surge on
Stocks Surge on 'Brexit' Votes Shifting in Favor of Remaining in Union
Published: 2016/06/20
Channel: TheStreet
The Brains Behind Brexit
The Brains Behind Brexit
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Mackinac Center
BREXIT - EU Referendum - what influences people to vote remain or leave? #Brexit
BREXIT - EU Referendum - what influences people to vote remain or leave? #Brexit
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: Limitless Serendipity
Baltic States Fear Brexit Would Embolden Aggressive Russia
Baltic States Fear Brexit Would Embolden Aggressive Russia
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: VOA News
Brexit Bill passes final Commons vote
Brexit Bill passes final Commons vote
Published: 2017/02/09
Channel: gemini48
Sorry Nicola! Fish industry DESTROYS Sturgeon
Sorry Nicola! Fish industry DESTROYS Sturgeon's hopes for second independence referendum
Published: 2017/08/16
Channel: BuzzyNews UK
Dennis Skinner MP: Full interview on EU, Brexit and Jeremy Corbyn
Dennis Skinner MP: Full interview on EU, Brexit and Jeremy Corbyn
Published: 2017/09/14
Channel: Westmonster
BREXIT Shock: 5 Ways to Protect your Portfolio after the U.K vote to leave the EU
BREXIT Shock: 5 Ways to Protect your Portfolio after the U.K vote to leave the EU
Published: 2016/06/24
Channel: Index Strategy Advisors, Inc.
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The result of the United Kingdom European Union Referendum of 2016 was a victory for the 'Leave' campaign, amassing a total of 51.9% of the vote.[1]

The result provoked considerable debate as to the factors that contributed to the victory,[2][3] with various theories and explanations being put forth. This page provides an overview of the different claims being made.

'Leave' represented more popular positions[edit]

The 'Leave' campaign campaigned primarily on issues relating to sovereignty and migration,[4] whereas the remain campaign focused on the economic impacts of leaving the EU. This choice of key positions is significant since Ipsos MORI survey data on which issues Britons felt to be 'important issues facing Britain today' shows that immediately prior to the vote, more people cited both the EU (32%) and migration (48%) as important issues than cited the economy (27%).[5]

Sovereignty[edit]

On the day of the referendum Lord Ashcroft's polling team questioned 12,369 people who had completed voting.[6] This poll produced data that showed that 'Nearly half (49%) of leave voters said the biggest single reason for wanting to leave the European Union was “the principle that decisions about the UK should be taken in the UK”.

Immediately prior to the vote, Ipsos MORI data showed that Europe was the third most highly ranked problem by Britons who were asked to name the most important issues facing the country, with 32% of respondents naming it as an issue.[7]

Immigration[edit]

Lord Ashcroft's election day poll of 12,369 voters also discovered that 'One third (33%) [of leave voters] said the main reason was that leaving “offered the best chance for the UK to regain control over immigration and its own borders.”'[8]

Immediately prior to the referendum data from Ipsos-Mori showed that immigration/migration was the most cited issue when Britons were asked 'What do you see as the most/other important issue facing Britain today?' with 48% of respondents mentioning it when surveyed.[9]

In the decade before the Brexit referendum there was a significant increase in migration from EU countries, as outlined by the Migration Observatory:

'Inflows of EU nationals migrating to the UK stood at 268,000 in 2014, up from 201,000 in 2013. EU inflows were mainly flat for the 1991-2003 period, averaging close to 61,000 per year.[10]'

According to The Economist, areas that saw increases of over 200% in foreign born population between 2001 and 2014 saw a majority of voters back leave in 94% of cases.[11] The Economist concluded 'High numbers of migrants don’t bother Britons; high rates of change do.' Consistent with that notion, research suggests that areas that saw significant influx of migration from Eastern Europe following the accession of 12 mainly Eastern European countries to the European Union in 2004 saw significant growth in support for UKIP and more likely to vote to leave the European Union.[12]

Demographic and cultural factors[edit]

Age of voters[edit]

It has been argued that the result was caused by differential voting patterns among younger and older people. According to Opinium, 64% of eligible people aged 18–24 voted, whereas 90% of eligible individuals over 65 voted.[13]

The 'order versus openness' divide[edit]

Academic Eric Kaufman notes the relatively strong correlation between a voter's support for the death penalty, and their choice to vote 'leave'.[14] He says that this highlights a social division that he calls 'order versus openness'. He further argues that 'The order-openness divide is emerging as the key political cleavage, overshadowing the left-right economic dimension'.

Data from the British Election Study shows that support for the death penalty was a more reliable predictor of voting behaviour than any standard demographic measure of age, income or social class.

The 'left behind'[edit]

Matthew Goodwin and Rob Ford coined the term 'The Left Behind' to refer to 'older, white, socially conservative voters in more economically marginal neighbourhoods'.[15] Analysing data the day after the Referendum, Ford concluded that 'Such voters had turned against a political class they saw as dominated by socially liberal university graduates with values fundamentally opposed to theirs, on identity, Europe – and particularly immigration.' This was described in as "if you've got money, you vote in... if you haven't got money, you vote out".[16] The left-behind hypothesis is furthered using data on the EU referendum result across electoral wards level as well as across local authorities, suggesting that especially areas with high degrees of social deprivation and low educational attainment strongly voted in favor of leaving the EU.[17]

Britons felt less integrated with the EU than other European citizens[edit]

Academics James Dennison and Noah Carl argue that 'the most important phenomenon to be explained vis-à-vis the referendum result in our view is that a sizable [sic] Eurosceptic faction has remained extant in Britain over the last four decades'.[18] Using data from the Eurobarometer survey they showed that fewer Britons considered themselves European than any other EU nationality. Furthermore, they show that British trading patterns, capital flows and emigration patterns were the least Europeanised of any EU member state.

General identity issues[edit]

The World Economic Forum 2017 acknowledged in its Global Risks Report that "the Brexit and President-elect Trump victories featured (...) appeals to sovereignty rooted in national identity and pride" and that it would "be challenging to find political narratives and policies that can repair decades-long cultural fault-lines".[19]

Presentational factors during the campaign[edit]

Lies and misleading information[edit]

A "Vote Leave" poster in Omagh saying "We send the EU £50 million every day. Let's spend it on our NHS instead."

Both sides in the referendum have been accused of using deliberate falsehoods during the campaign.[20] Perhaps the most commonly criticised claim by the Leave campaign was that voting to leave the EU would allow for increased spending on the NHS of £350m a week.[21][22]

Vote Leave claimed that the UK's contribution to the EU is £350 million per week.[23] The Treasury's own statement of the UK's contribution to the EU is that the net amount is £6.27 billion per annum. Divided by 52, this is approximately £120 million per week (net amount). Sir John Major claimed that Vote Leave had deliberately misled voters by using the gross contribution to the EU, £360 million.[24] The gross contribution is the total contribution paid, not including any discounts and rebates. The UK currently gets a 40% discount from the gross contribution which was negotiated by Margaret Thatcher in the 1980s (worth about £144 million) plus various agricultural, economic development and scientific research 'rebates' (worth approximately a further £96 million).[25]

The Remain campaign's predictions of economic disaster arising from leaving the EU, were termed 'Project Fear',[26][27] culminating in the threat by George Osborne (then Chancellor of the Exchequer) to impose emergency tax increases in a 'punishment budget' after a 'Leave' vote. At March 2017, the short-term predictions of Project Fear had proved false.[28] After the vote, no such budget was brought forward.[29]

Elements of the campaigns have been identified as exemplifying "post-truth politics", in which debate is framed largely by appeals to emotion rather than the details of policy or objective factual analysis.[30][31][32]

Branding and wording choices[edit]

It has been argued that the 'Leave' brand was stronger and more effective than the 'Remain' brand. According to Mike Hind, a marketing professional, 'The Britain Stronger In Europe brand was stillborn. On the basis of preparation, presentation and messaging, it deserved the kicking it got.[33]' Additionally behavioural practioner Warren Hatter argues that 'Leave' as a word places a lower cognitive load on observers than 'Remain a member of'.[34]

Prospect theory[edit]

Economics writer Chris Dillow has argued that, among other factors, Prospect Theory may explain in the surprising willingness of many voters to take a path widely viewed as the more risky of two (change vs status quo). In his words Prospect Theory 'Tells us that people who feel they’ve lost want to gamble to break even. This is why they back longshots on the last race of the day or why they hold onto badly performing stocks. The thing motivated many Leavers. People who had lost out from globalization, or felt discomfited by immigration, voted Leave because they felt they had little to lose from doing so.'[35]

Historic policy decisions[edit]

Decision not to impose tougher migration restrictions[edit]

It has been claimed that the role of migration as a key factor in driving voting behaviour at the referendum originates from the relatively high levels of net migration into the UK in the last decade.[36] In particular it is claimed that the decision not to impose restrictions on EU migrants after the addition of the 'A8' (Eastern European) countries to the EU in 2004[37] (at a time when other European countries did impose such restrictions) contributed to a spike in migration levels that underpins contemporary voter attitudes.

European Migrant Crisis[edit]

President of the United States Donald Trump stated that German Chancellor Angela Merkel's decision to open her country's borders for more than a million refugees and illegal immigrants was a "catastrophic mistake" and "the final straw that broke the camel's back", allowing the Leave campaign to win.[38][39][40] As a candidate for the office, Trump already made similar statements prior to the referendum and after it, for example at a rally in Ashburn, Virginia, where he also suggested that more countries would leave the EU because of Merkel's decision.[41][42]

Pro-Brexit party UKIP used images from the migrant crisis during their campaign, a decision that prompted criticism from Leave and Remain supporters.[43][44][45]

The role of the media[edit]

The Guardian journalist Jane Martinson noted that many of the UK's biggest selling newspapers, The Sun and the Daily Mail in particular, but also including The Daily Telegraph and Daily Express, have been Eurosceptic for many years.[46]

The BBC was also criticised by many remain-supporting pundits for false balance which helped give the leave campaign credibility.[47]

See also[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Erlanger, Steven (23 June 2016). "Britain Votes to Leave E.U.; Cameron Plans to Step Down". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  2. ^ "Explaining the Brexit vote". The Economist. 16 July 2016. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  3. ^ "It’s NOT the economy, stupid: Brexit as a story of personal values". 7 July 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  4. ^ "EU referendum: Vote Leave focuses on immigration". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  5. ^ "Ipsos MORI | Poll | Concern about immigration rises as EU vote approaches". www.ipsos-mori.com. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  6. ^ "How the United Kingdom voted on Thursday... and why - Lord Ashcroft Polls". lordashcroftpolls.com. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  7. ^ "Ipsos MORI | Poll | Concern about immigration rises as EU vote approaches". www.ipsos-mori.com. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  8. ^ "How the United Kingdom voted on Thursday... and why - Lord Ashcroft Polls". lordashcroftpolls.com. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  9. ^ "Ipsos MORI | Poll | Concern about immigration rises as EU vote approaches". www.ipsos-mori.com. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  10. ^ "EU Migration to and from the UK | The Migration Observatory". www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  11. ^ "Explaining the Brexit vote". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  12. ^ Becker and Fetzer (October 2016). "Does Migration Cause Extreme Voting?". University of Warwick. Retrieved 27 October 2016. 
  13. ^ Helm, Toby (10 July 2016). "EU referendum: youth turnout almost twice as high as first thought". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  14. ^ "It’s NOT the economy, stupid: Brexit as a story of personal values". 7 July 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  15. ^ Ford, Rob (25 June 2016). "Older ‘left-behind’ voters turned against a political class with values opposed to theirs". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-07-15. 
  16. ^ Harris, John (24 June 2016). "'If you've got money, you vote in ... if you haven't got money, you vote out'". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-07-27. 
  17. ^ Becker, Fetzer, Novy (October 2016). "'Who Voted for Brexit? A Comprehensive District-Level Analysis'" (PDF). University of Warwick. Retrieved 2016-10-31. 
  18. ^ "Ultimate causes of Brexit". 24 July 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-30. 
  19. ^ "Part 1 - Global Risks 2017". Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  20. ^ "Four Brexit fibs: Lies, damn lies, and the EU referendum campaign". The Courier. 27 June 2016. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  21. ^ "FactCheck: do we really send £350m a week to Brussels?". blogs.channel4.com. Archived from the original on 2016-07-08. Retrieved 2016-07-31. 
  22. ^ Vote Leave's early claim that the '350 million' will go to the NHS
  23. ^ "Let's give our NHS the £350 million the EU takes every week | LSE Digital Library". digital.library.lse.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-03-30. 
  24. ^ Major attacks Vote Leave 'deceit' as Johnson defends campaign
  25. ^ Source: HMRC
  26. ^ Spence, Alex (26 February 2016). "David Cameron unleashes 'project fear'". Politico. London, UK. Retrieved 31 May 2016. 
  27. ^ '"Project Fear" is back - and it's still Remain's best hope' – George Eaton, The New Statesman, 15 June 2016
  28. ^ Osborne’s ‘punishment’ budget is restoking Project Fear. But it may work’ - Anne Perkins, The Guardian, 15 June 2016
  29. ^ ''Project Fear is over' says Johnson as Osborne admits emergency budget unlikely' - The Herald, 27 June 2016
  30. ^ Daniel Z. Drezner (16 June 2016). "Why the post-truth political era might be around for a while". The Washington Post. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  31. ^ Michael Deacon (9 July 2016). "In a world of post-truth politics, Andrea Leadsom will make the perfect PM". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  32. ^ Ned Simons (8 June 2016). "Tory MP Sarah Wollaston Switches Sides in EU Referendum Campaign". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 July 2016. 
  33. ^ "#epicfail How Britain Stronger In Europe blew it on the basics of PR & marketing communications". 2016-07-18. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  34. ^ Hatter, Warren (2016-07-20). "The Brexit Referendum Through a Behavioural Lens". The Ripple Effect. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  35. ^ "Why Anger at Elites Was Channelled Towards Voting for Brexit - Evonomics". 2016-07-05. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  36. ^ "Eight reasons Leave won the UK's referendum on the EU". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-07-24. 
  37. ^ "EU Migration to and from the UK | The Migration Observatory". www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-07-23. 
  38. ^ "Donald Trump says Merkel made 'catastrophic mistake' on migrants". BBC. 16 January 2017. Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  39. ^ Nienaber, Michael (16 January 2017). "Donald Trump accuses Angela Merkel of making 'catastrophic mistake' on refugees". The Independent. Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  40. ^ Krieg, Gregory (January 16, 2017). "Trump hints at European immigration restrictions". CNN. Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  41. ^ "Trump’s Merkel Re-Election Jibe Batted Away by German Government". Bloomberg.com. 3 August 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  42. ^ "Obama Says Republicans Should Withdraw Support for Trump". The New York Times. 2 August 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  43. ^ "Nigel Farage's anti-migrant poster reported to police". The Guardian. 16 June 2016. Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  44. ^ Safdar, Anealla (28 June 2016). "Brexit: UKIP's 'unethical' anti-immigration poster". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  45. ^ Riley-Smith, Ben (19 June 2016). "EU referendum: George Osborne compares Ukip ‘breaking point’ migration poster to Nazi propaganda". The Telegraph. Retrieved 2017-02-10. 
  46. ^ Martinson, Jane (24 June 2016). "Did the Mail and Sun help swing the UK towards Brexit?". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 July 2016. 
  47. ^ Harding, James (24 September 2016). "A truly balanced view from the BBC: don’t blame us for Brexit". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 February 2017. 

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