Play Video
1
War in the Central African Republic (Full Length Documentary)
War in the Central African Republic (Full Length Documentary)
::2014/03/25::
Play Video
2
Central African Republic: On the Brink of Genocide
Central African Republic: On the Brink of Genocide
::2014/02/15::
Play Video
3
Understanding the Central African Republic
Understanding the Central African Republic
::2014/04/22::
Play Video
4
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch One
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch One
::2013/12/13::
Play Video
5
Chaos in the Central African Republic (Part 1) - #F24Debate
Chaos in the Central African Republic (Part 1) - #F24Debate
::2013/09/26::
Play Video
6
The forgotten crisis: What is going on in the Central African Republic? - Truthloader
The forgotten crisis: What is going on in the Central African Republic? - Truthloader
::2013/12/13::
Play Video
7
Ethnic cleansing in the Central African Republic
Ethnic cleansing in the Central African Republic
::2014/02/12::
Play Video
8
Is the Central African Republic at breaking point? - #REPORTERS
Is the Central African Republic at breaking point? - #REPORTERS
::2014/01/09::
Play Video
9
Horror in the Central African Republic, Tim Whewell reports - Newsnight
Horror in the Central African Republic, Tim Whewell reports - Newsnight
::2014/03/18::
Play Video
10
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Six
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Six
::2014/02/26::
Play Video
11
Violence in CAR - The Central African Republic conflict
Violence in CAR - The Central African Republic conflict 'is not a religious one' - Truthloader
::2014/02/11::
Play Video
12
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Three
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Three
::2013/12/20::
Play Video
13
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Two
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Two
::2013/12/17::
Play Video
14
War in the Central African Republic: Part 4/5 (Documentary)
War in the Central African Republic: Part 4/5 (Documentary)
::2014/03/22::
Play Video
15
War in the Central African Republic: Part 2/5 (Documentary)
War in the Central African Republic: Part 2/5 (Documentary)
::2014/03/20::
Play Video
16
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Seven
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Seven
::2014/03/08::
Play Video
17
War in the Central African Republic: Part 1/5 (Documentary)
War in the Central African Republic: Part 1/5 (Documentary)
::2014/03/19::
Play Video
18
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Five
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Five
::2014/01/03::
Play Video
19
The Central African Republic: a country abandoned to its fate
The Central African Republic: a country abandoned to its fate
::2013/07/29::
Play Video
20
Africa News: Violence rages in the Central African Republic isolated from the world
Africa News: Violence rages in the Central African Republic isolated from the world
::2013/09/16::
Play Video
21
The Shocking History Of The Million Displaced In CAR
The Shocking History Of The Million Displaced In CAR
::2013/03/25::
Play Video
22
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Four
Crisis in the Central African Republic: Dispatch Four
::2013/12/27::
Play Video
23
War in the Central African Republic: Part 5/5 (Documentary)
War in the Central African Republic: Part 5/5 (Documentary)
::2014/03/23::
Play Video
24
The Secretary-General
The Secretary-General's message to the people of the Central African Republic
::2014/04/21::
Play Video
25
Displaced families tell their stories, in the Central African Republic
Displaced families tell their stories, in the Central African Republic
::2014/04/03::
Play Video
26
Central African Republic (Part 2) - #TWTW
Central African Republic (Part 2) - #TWTW
::2014/04/05::
Play Video
27
Africa 360 | Central African Republic
Africa 360 | Central African Republic
::2014/02/12::
Play Video
28
Muslims slaughtering Christians  like chickens  in Central African Republic
Muslims slaughtering Christians like chickens in Central African Republic
::2013/12/09::
Play Video
29
France to act in Central African Republic
France to act in Central African Republic
::2013/12/06::
Play Video
30
Crisis in Central African Republic: Three Things to Know
Crisis in Central African Republic: Three Things to Know
::2014/02/25::
Play Video
31
War in the Central African Republic: Part 3/5 (Documentary)
War in the Central African Republic: Part 3/5 (Documentary)
::2014/03/21::
Play Video
32
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC CRISIS EXPLAINED IN 60 SECONDS - BBC NEWS
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC CRISIS EXPLAINED IN 60 SECONDS - BBC NEWS
::2013/12/11::
Play Video
33
Central African Republic crisis
Central African Republic crisis
::2013/12/25::
Play Video
34
United Nations: Central African Republic in total collapse
United Nations: Central African Republic in total collapse
::2014/01/12::
Play Video
35
Anti-Balaka militia on the revenge path in the Central African Republic - BBC News
Anti-Balaka militia on the revenge path in the Central African Republic - BBC News
::2014/02/18::
Play Video
36
Christian militia moves into Muslim area of Central African Republic
Christian militia moves into Muslim area of Central African Republic
::2014/01/27::
Play Video
37
INfocus - Central African Republic: on the brink of genocide (P.2)
INfocus - Central African Republic: on the brink of genocide (P.2)
::2014/02/13::
Play Video
38
Central African Republic: fighting could spill into genocide
Central African Republic: fighting could spill into genocide
::2013/12/09::
Play Video
39
Central African Republic faces
Central African Republic faces 'descent into chaos'
::2013/12/05::
Play Video
40
Security Council establishes UN peacekeeping mission in Central African Republic
Security Council establishes UN peacekeeping mission in Central African Republic
::2014/04/10::
Play Video
41
Central African Republic
Central African Republic's Economy On Its Knees
::2014/04/07::
Play Video
42
War in the Central African Republic (Documentary Trailer)
War in the Central African Republic (Documentary Trailer)
::2014/03/25::
Play Video
43
Muslims under siege in Central African Republic
Muslims under siege in Central African Republic
::2014/04/18::
Play Video
44
Central African Republic: a country in distress -  FOCUS 06/18/2013
Central African Republic: a country in distress - FOCUS 06/18/2013
::2013/06/20::
Play Video
45
Malnutrition
Malnutrition's "Perfect Storm" in Central African Republic
::2014/03/18::
Play Video
46
THE DEBATE - Why the coup? Old story, new players in Central African Republic (part 1)
THE DEBATE - Why the coup? Old story, new players in Central African Republic (part 1)
::2013/03/28::
Play Video
47
C.A.R. Can
C.A.R. Can't Wait: Central African Republic is on the brink of catastrophe
::2014/04/02::
Play Video
48
Bodies burnt in street in Central African Republic
Bodies burnt in street in Central African Republic
::2014/01/20::
Play Video
49
French troops start to disarm militias in Central African Republic
French troops start to disarm militias in Central African Republic
::2013/12/09::
Play Video
50
USAF C-17 Prepares to Airlift Rwandan Soldiers to Central African Republic
USAF C-17 Prepares to Airlift Rwandan Soldiers to Central African Republic
::2014/01/31::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Central African Republic
  • Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka
  • République centrafricaine
Flag Coat of arms
Motto: "Unité, Dignité, Travail" (French)
"Unity, Dignity, Work"
Anthem: E Zingo  (Sango)
La Renaissance  (French)
The Renaissance
La Renaissance
Capital
and largest city
Bangui
4°22′N 18°35′E / 4.367°N 18.583°E / 4.367; 18.583
Official languages Sango and French
Ethnic groups
Demonym Central African
Government Provisional republic
 -  Head of State of the Transition (Acting President) Catherine Samba-Panza
 -  Acting Prime Minister André Nzapayeké
Legislature National Assembly (suspended)
Independence
 -  from France 13 August 1960 
Area
 -  Total 622,984 km2 (45th)
240,534 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0
Population
 -  2009 estimate 4,422,000[1] (124th)
 -  2003 census 3,895,150
 -  Density 7.1/km2 (223rd)
18.4/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $3.891 billion[2]
 -  Per capita $800[2]
GDP (nominal) 2012 estimate
 -  Total $2.172 billion[2]
 -  Per capita $446[2]
Gini (2008) 56.3[3]
high
HDI (2011) 0.343
low · 179th
Currency Central African CFA franc (XAF)
Time zone WAT (UTC+1)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+1)
Drives on the right[4]
Calling code +236
ISO 3166 code CF
Internet TLD .cf

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; French: République centrafricaine  pronounced: [ʁepyblik sɑ̃tʁafʁikɛn], or Centrafrique [sɑ̃tʀafʁik]) is a landlocked country in Central Africa. It is bordered by Chad in the north, Sudan in the northeast, South Sudan in the east, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo in the south and Cameroon in the west. The CAR covers a land area of about 620,000 square kilometres (240,000 sq mi) and has an estimated population of about 4.4 million as of 2008. The capital is Bangui.

France called the colony it carved out in this region Oubangui-Chari, as most of the territory was located in the Ubangi and Chari river basins. From 1910 until 1960 it was part of French Equatorial Africa. It became a semi-autonomous territory of the French Community in 1958 and then an independent nation on 13 August 1960, taking its present name. For over three decades after independence, the CAR was ruled by presidents or an emperor, who either were unelected or who took power by force. Local discontent with this system was eventually reinforced by international pressure, following the end of the Cold War.

The first multi-party democratic elections in the CAR were held in 1993, with the aid of resources provided by the country's donors and help from the United Nations. The elections brought Ange-Félix Patassé to power, but he lost popular support during his presidency and was overthrown in 2003 by General François Bozizé, who went on to win a democratic election in May 2005.[5] Bozizé's inability to pay public sector workers led to strikes in 2007, which led him to appoint a new government on 22 January 2008, headed by Faustin-Archange Touadéra. In February 2010, Bozizé signed a presidential decree which set 25 April 2010 as the date for the next presidential election. This was postponed, but elections were held in January and March 2011, which were won by Bozizé and his party. Despite maintaining a veneer of stability, Bozizé's rule was plagued with heavy corruption, underdevelopment, nepotism and authoritarianism, which led to an open rebellion against his government. The rebellion was led by an alliance of armed opposition factions known as the Séléka Coalition during the Central African Republic Bush War (2004–2007) and the 2012–2013 Central African Republic conflict. This eventually led to his overthrow on 24 March 2013. As a result of the coup d'etat and resulting chaos, governance in the CAR has all but disappeared and Prime Minister Nicolas Tiangaye has said the country is "anarchy, a non-state."[6] Both the president and prime minister resigned in January, 2014, to be replaced by an interim leader.[7][8]

Most of the CAR consists of Sudano-Guinean savannas but it also includes a Sahelo-Sudanian zone in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. Two thirds of the country lies in the basins of the Ubangi River, which flows south into the Congo, while the remaining third lies in the basin of the Chari, which flows north into Lake Chad.

Despite its significant mineral and other resources, such as uranium reserves in Bakouma, crude oil in Vakaga, gold, diamonds, lumber and hydropower,[9] as well as arable land, the Central African Republic is one of the poorest countries in the world and is among the ten poorest countries in Africa. The Human Development Index for the Central African Republic is 0.343, which puts the country at 179th out of those 187 countries with data.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

Between about 1000 BC and 1000 AD, Ubangian-speaking people spread eastward from Cameroon to Sudan, settling in most of what is now known as the Central African Republic. During the same period, a much smaller number of Bantu-speaking immigrants settled in south-western CAR and a number of Central Sudanic-speaking people settled along the Oubangi.

As a result of these early migrations, the majority of the CAR's present population speak Ubangian languages, or Bantu languages that belong to the Niger–Congo family. A minority speak Central Sudanic languages of the Nilo-Saharan family.

Exposure to the outside world[edit]

Before the 19th century, the people living in what is now the CAR lived beyond the expanding Islamic frontier in the Sudanic zone of Africa and thus had relatively little contact with Abrahamic religions or northern economies. During the first decades of the 19th century, Muslim traders entered the region and cultivated relations with local leaders to facilitate trade and settlement in the region.

The arrival of Muslim traders in the early 19th century was relatively peaceful and depended upon the support of local peoples, but after about 1850, Arab slave traders with well-armed soldiers began to expand in the region. The Bobangi people became major slave traders, they sold their captives to the Americas using the Ubangi river to reach the coast.[10] From about 1860 to 1910, slave traders from Sudan, Chad, Cameroon, Dar al-Kuti in northern CAR and Nzakara and Zande states in southeastern CAR permanently depopulated the eastern CAR.[11]

French colonial period[edit]

The European penetration of Central African territory began in the late 19th century, during the so-called Scramble for Africa.[12] Count Savorgnan de Brazza established the French Congo and sent expeditions up the Ubangi River from Brazzaville in an effort to expand France's claims to territory in Central Africa. Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom also competed to establish their claims to territory in the region.

In 1889, the French established a post on the Ubangi River at Bangui. In 1890–91, De Brazza sent expeditions up the Sangha River, in what is now south-western CAR, up the center of the Ubangi basin toward Lake Chad, and eastward along the Ubangi River toward the Nile, with the intention of expanding the borders of the French Congo to link up the other French territories in Africa. In 1894, the French Congo's borders with Leopold II of Belgium's Congo Free State and German Cameroon were fixed by diplomatic agreements. In 1899, the French Congo's border with Sudan was fixed along the Congo-Nile divide. This situation left France without her much coveted outlet on the Nile.

Once European negotiators had agreed upon the borders of the French Congo, France had to decide how to pay for the costly occupation, administration and development of the territory it had acquired. The reported financial successes of Leopold II's concessionary companies in the Congo Free State convinced the French government to grant 17 private companies large concessions in the Ubangi-Shari region in 1899. In return for the right to exploit these lands by buying local products and selling European goods, the companies promised to pay rent to France and to promote the development of their concessions. The companies employed European and African agents, who frequently used brutal methods to force the Africans to work for them.

At the same time, the French colonial administration began to force the local population to pay taxes and to provide the state with free labor. The companies and the French administration at times collaborated in forcing the Central Africans to work for them. Some French officials[who?] reported abuses committed by private company militias, and their own colonial colleagues and troops, but efforts to hold these people accountable almost always failed. When any news of atrocities committed against Central Africans reached France and caused an outcry, investigations were undertaken and some feeble attempts at reform were made[by whom?], but the situation on the ground in Ubangi-Shari remained essentially the same.[citation needed]

During the first decade of French colonial rule, from about 1900 to 1910, the rulers of the Ubangi-Shari region increased both their slave-raiding activities and the selling of local produce to Europe. They took advantage of their treaties with the French to procure more weapons, which were used to capture more slaves: much of the eastern half of Ubangi-Shari was depopulated as a result of slave-trading by local rulers during the first decade of colonial rule. After the power of local African rulers was destroyed by the French, slave raiding greatly diminished.[citation needed]

In 1911, the Sangha and Lobaye basins were ceded to Germany, as part of an agreement which gave France a free hand in Morocco. Western Ubangi-Shari remained under German rule until World War I, after which France reconquered this territory using Central African troops.

Charles de Gaulle in Bangui, 1940.

From 1920 to 1930, a network of roads was built, cash crops were promoted and mobile health services were formed to combat sleeping sickness. Protestant missions were established in different parts of the country. New forms of forced labor were also introduced, however, as the French conscripted large numbers of Ubangians to work on the Congo-Ocean Railway, and many of these recruits died of exhaustion and illness.

In 1925, the French writer André Gide published Voyage au Congo, in which he described the alarming consequences of conscription for the Congo-Ocean railroad. He exposed the continuing atrocities committed against Central Africans in Western Ubangi-Shari by such employers as the Forestry Company of Sangha-Ubangi. In 1928 a major insurrection, the Kongo-Wara rebellion or 'war of the hoe handle', broke out in Western Ubangi-Shari, which continued for several years. The extent of this insurrection, which was perhaps the largest anti-colonial rebellion in Africa during the interwar years, was carefully hidden from the French public, because it provided evidence of strong opposition to French colonial rule and forced labor.

During the 1930s, cotton, tea, and coffee emerged as important cash crops in Ubangi-Shari and the mining of diamonds and gold began in earnest. Several cotton companies were granted purchasing monopolies over large areas of cotton production and were able to fix the prices paid to cultivators, which assured profits for their shareholders. In September 1940, during the Second World War, pro-Gaullist French officers took control of Ubangi-Shari.[13]

Independence (1960)[edit]

On 1 December 1958 the colony of Ubangi-Shari became an autonomous territory within the French Community and took the name Central African Republic. The founding father and president of the Conseil de Gouvernement, Barthélémy Boganda, died in a mysterious plane accident in 1959, just eight days before the last elections of the colonial era.

On 13 August 1960, the Central African Republic gained its independence and two of Boganda's closest aides, Abel Goumba and David Dacko, became involved in a power struggle. With the backing of the French, Dacko took power and soon had Goumba arrested. By 1962, President Dacko had established a one-party state.

Jean-Bédel Bokassa, self-crowned Emperor of the Central African Republic.[14]

Bokassa and the Central African Empire (1965-1979)[edit]

On 31 December 1965, Dacko was overthrown in the Saint-Sylvestre coup d'état by Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa, who suspended the constitution and dissolved the National Assembly. President Bokassa declared himself President For Life in 1972, and named himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire (as the country was renamed) on 4 December 1976. A year later, Emperor Bokassa crowned himself in a lavish and expensive ceremony that was ridiculed by much of the world.[14]

In April 1979, young students protested against Bokassa's decree that all school attendees would need to buy uniforms from a company owned by one of his wives. The government violently suppressed the protests, killing 100 children and teenagers. Bokassa himself may have been personally involved in some of the killings.[15] In 1979, France carried out a coup against Bokassa and "restored" Dacko to power (the name of the country was subsequently restored to Central African Republic). Dacko, in turn, was overthrown in a coup by General André Kolingba on 1 September 1981.

Central African Republic under Kolingba[edit]

Kolingba suspended the constitution and ruled with a military junta until 1985. He introduced a new constitution in 1986 which was adopted by a nationwide referendum. Membership in his new party, the Rassemblement Démocratique Centrafricain (RDC) was voluntary. In 1987, semi-competitive elections to parliament were held and municipal elections were held in 1988. Kolingba's two major political opponents, Abel Goumba and Ange-Félix Patassé, boycotted these elections because their parties were not allowed to compete.

By 1990, inspired by the fall of the Berlin Wall, a pro-democracy movement became very active. In May 1990, a letter signed by 253 prominent citizens asked for the convocation of a National Conference but Kolingba refused this request and detained several opponents. Pressure from the United States, more reluctantly from France, and from a group of locally represented countries and agencies called GIBAFOR (France, USA, Germany, Japan, EU, World Bank and UN) finally led Kolingba to agree, in principle, to hold free elections in October 1992, with help from the UN Office of Electoral Affairs.

After using the excuse of alleged irregularities to suspend the results of the elections as a pretext for holding on to power, President Kolingba came under intense pressure from GIBAFOR to establish a "Conseil National Politique Provisoire de la République" (Provisional National Political Council, CNPPR) and to set up a "Mixed Electoral Commission" which included representatives from all political parties.

When elections were finally held in 1993, again with the help of the international community, Ange-Félix Patassé led in the first round and Kolingba came in fourth behind Abel Goumba and David Dacko. In the second round, Patassé won 53% of the vote while Goumba won 45.6%. Most of Patassé's support came from Gbaya, Kare and Kaba voters in seven heavily populated prefectures in the northwest while Goumba's support came largely from ten less-populated prefectures in the south and east. Furthermore, Patassé's party, the Mouvement pour la Libération du Peuple Centrafricain (MLPC) or Movement for the Liberation of the Central African People gained a simple but not an absolute majority of seats in parliament, which meant Patassé needed coalition partners.

Patassé Government (1993–2003)[edit]

Patassé relieved former President Kolingba of his military rank of general in March 1994 and then charged several former ministers with various crimes. Patassé also removed many Yakoma from important, lucrative posts in the government. Two hundred mostly Yakoma members of the presidential guard were also dismissed or reassigned to the army. Kolingba's RDC loudly proclaimed that Patassé's government was conducting a "witch hunt" against the Yakoma.

A new constitution was approved on 28 December 1994 and promulgated on 14 January 1995, but this constitution, like those before it, did not have much impact on the practice of politics. In 1996–1997, reflecting steadily decreasing public confidence in its erratic behaviour, three mutinies against Patassé's government were accompanied by widespread destruction of property and heightened ethnic tension. On 25 January 1997, the Bangui Agreements were signed which provided for the deployment of an inter-African military mission, the Mission Interafricaine de Surveillance des Accords de Bangui (MISAB). Mali's former president, Amadou Touré, served as chief mediator and brokered the entry of ex-mutineers into the government on 7 April 1997. The MISAB mission was later replaced by a U.N. peacekeeping force, the Mission des Nations Unies en RCA (MINURCA).

Rebel in northern Central African Republic

In 1998, parliamentary elections resulted in Kolingba's RDC winning 20 out of 109 seats, constituting a comeback. However, in 1999, notwithstanding widespread public anger in urban centers at his corrupt rule, Patassé won free elections to become president for a second term.

On 28 May 2001, rebels stormed strategic buildings in Bangui in an unsuccessful coup attempt. The army chief of staff, Abel Abrou, and General François N'Djadder Bedaya were shot, but Patassé regained the upper hand by bringing in at least 300 troops of the rebel leader Jean-Pierre Bemba (from across the river in the Democratic Republic of the Congo) and by Libyan soldiers.

In the aftermath of this failed coup, militias loyal to Patassé sought revenge against rebels in many neighborhoods of the capital, Bangui, that resulted in the destruction of many homes as well as the torture and murder of many opponents. Eventually Patassé came to suspect that General François Bozizé was involved in another coup attempt against him and so Bozizé fled with loyal troops to Chad. In March 2003, Bozizé launched a surprise attack against Patassé, who was out of the country. Libyan troops and some 1,000 soldiers of Bemba's Congolese rebel organization failed to stop the rebels, who took control of the country and thus succeeded in overthrowing Patassé.

Central African Republic since 2003[edit]

François Bozizé suspended the constitution and named a new cabinet which included most opposition parties. Abel Goumba, known as "Mr. Clean",[citation needed] was named vice-president, which gave Bozizé's new government a positive image. Bozizé established a broad-based National Transition Council to draft a new constitution and announced that he would step down and run for office once the new constitution was approved. A national dialogue was held from 15 September to 27 October 2003, and Bozizé won a fair election that excluded Patassé, to be elected president on a second ballot, in May 2005.

In November 2006, the Bozizé government requested French military support to fend off rebels who had taken control of towns in the country's north.[16] Though the initially public details of the agreement pertained to logistics and intelligence, the French assistance eventually included strikes by Mirage jets against rebel positions.[17]

Bozizé was reelected in an election in 2011 which was widely considered fraudulent.[18]

A Rwandan soldier near a refugee camp full of displaced residents

In November 2012, a coalition of rebel groups took over towns in the north and center of the country. These groups eventually reached a peace deal with the Bozizé's government in January 2013 involving a power sharing government.[18] This peace deal was later broken when the rebels who had joined the power sharing government left their posts and rebel groups stormed the capital. Bozizé fled the country and Michel Djotodia took over the presidency. In September 2013, Djotodia officially disbanded Seleka but many rebels refused to disarm and veered further out of government control.[19]

In November 2013, the UN warned the country was at risk of spiraling into genocide[20] and France described the country as "..on the verge of genocide."[21] The increasing violence was largely from reprisal attacks on civilians from Seleka's mainly Muslim fighters and Christian militias called "anti-balaka", meaning 'anti-machete' or 'anti-sword'.[19] Christians make up half the population and Muslims 15 percent, according to the CIA World Factbook. As many Christians have sedentary lifestyles and many Muslims are nomadic, claims to the land were yet another dimension of the conflict.[22]

On 13 December 2013, the UNHCR stated 610 people had been killed in the sectarian violence.[23] Nearly 1 million people, a quarter of the population, were displaced.[24] Anti-balaka Christian militiamen were targeting Bangui's Muslim neighborhoods[24] and Muslim ethnic groups such as the Fula people.[25]

Violence broke out Christmas Day, 2013 in Bangui, the capital of Central African Republic. Six Chadian soldiers from the African Union peacekeeping force were killed on Christmas Day in the Gobongo neighborhood and a mass grave of 20 bodies was discovered near the presidential palace. A spokesman for the president of the Central African Republic confirmed that assailants had attempted to attack the presidential palace as well, but were pushed back.[26]

On 18 February 2014 United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon called on the UN Security Council to immediately deploy 3,000 troops to the country to combat what he described as innocent civilians being deliberately targeted and murdered in large numbers. Noting the violent overthrow of the government in 2013, the collapse of state institutions and a descent into lawlessness and sectarian brutality, Ban said, "The situation in the country has been on the agenda of the Security Council for many years now. But today's emergency is of another, more disturbing magnitude. It is a calamity with a strong claim on the conscience of humankind." The secretary-general outlined a six-point plan, including the addition of 3,000 peacekeepers to bolster the 6,000 African Union soldiers and 2,000 French troops already deployed in the country.[27]

Geography[edit]

A map of the Central African Republic.

The Central African Republic is a landlocked nation within the interior of the African continent. It is bordered by Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Republic of the Congo. The country lies between latitudes and 11°N, and longitudes 14° and 28°E.

Much of the country consists of flat or rolling plateau savanna, typically about 500 metres (1,640 ft) above sea level, of which most of the northern half lies within the World Wildlife Fund's East Sudanian savanna ecoregion. As well as the Fertit Hills in the northeast of the CAR, there are scattered hills in the southwest. To the northwest is the Yade Massif, a granite plateau with an altitude of 1,143 feet (348 m).

At 622,941 square kilometres (240,519 sq mi), the Central African Republic is the world's 45th-largest country. It is comparable in size to Ukraine.

Much of the southern border is formed by tributaries of the Congo River, with the Mbomou River in the east merging with the Uele River to form the Ubangi River. In the west, the Sangha River flows through part of the country. The eastern border lies along the edge of the Nile River watershed.

It has been estimated that up to 8% of the country is covered by forest, with the densest parts in the south. The forest is highly diverse in nature and includes commercially important species of Ayous, Sapelli and Sipo.[28] The deforestation rate is 0.4% per annum, and lumber poaching is commonplace.[29]

In the November 2008 issue of National Geographic, the Central African Republic was named the country least affected by light pollution.

Ubangi River on the outskirts of Bangui
Falls of Boali on the Mbali River
A village in the Central African Republic

Climate[edit]

The climate of the Central African Republic is generally tropical, with a wet season that lasts from June to September in the north of the country, and from May to October in the south. During the wet season there are rainstorms on an almost daily basis and there is often early morning fog. Maximum annual precipitation is 71 inches (1,800 mm) in the upper Ubangi region.[30]

The northern areas are hot and humid from February to May,[31] but can be subject to the hot, dry and dusty trade wind known as the Harmattan. The southern regions have a more equatorial climate but are subject to desertification, while the northeast of the country already is a desert.

Demographics[edit]

Fula women in Paoua

The population of the Central African Republic has almost quadrupled since independence. In 1960, the population was 1,232,000; as of a 2009 UN estimate, it was 4,422,000.[1]

The United Nations estimates that approximately 11% of the population aged between 15 and 49 is HIV positive.[32] Only 3% of the country has antiretroviral therapy available, compared to a 17% coverage in the neighbouring countries of Chad and the Republic of the Congo.[33]

The nation is divided into over 80 ethnic groups, each having its own language. The largest ethnic groups are the Baya, Banda, Mandjia, Sara, Mboum, M'Baka, Yakoma, and Fula or Fulani,[34] with others including Europeans of mostly French descent [9]

Religion[edit]

According to the 2003 national census, 80.3% of the population is Christian—51.4% Protestant and 28.9% Roman Catholic—and 15% is Muslim.[35] Animism (9.6%)[citation needed] is also practiced.

The CIA World Factbook reports that fifty percent of the population of CAR are Christians (Protestant 25%, Roman Catholic 25%), while 35% of the population maintain indigenous beliefs. and 15% practice Islam,[9] though it is unclear how up-to-date this information is.

There are many missionary groups operating in the country, including Lutherans, Baptists, Catholics, Grace Brethren, and Jehovah's Witnesses. While these missionaries are predominantly from the United States, France, Italy and Spain, many are also from Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and other African countries. Missionaries left the country when fighting broke out between rebel and government forces in 2002–3, but many of them have now returned to continue their work.[36]

Language[edit]

The Central African Republic's two official languages are Sangho, a Ngbandi-based creole, and French.

Government and politics[edit]

Like many other former French colonies, the Central African Republic's legal system is based upon French law.[37]

A new constitution was approved by voters in a referendum held on 5 December 2004. Full multiparty presidential and parliamentary elections were held in March 2005,[38] with a second round in May. Bozizé was declared the winner after a run-off vote.[39]

A couple of years later, the Central African Republic fell victim to one of Africa's many civil wars, rebellions and revolutions. In February 2006, there were reports of widespread violence in the northern part of the country.[40] Thousands of refugees fled their homes, caught up in the crossfire between government troops and rebel forces. More than 7,000 people fled to neighboring Chad. Those who remained in the CAR told how government troops systematically killed men and boys that they suspected of cooperation with the rebels.[41] The French military supported the Bozizé government's response to the rebels in November 2006.[16][17]

In March 2010, Bozizé signed a decree declaring that presidential elections were to be held on 25 April 2010.[42] The elections were postponed, firstly until 16 May and then indefinitely.[43] Finally, the general election was set for 23 January 2011. Despite serious organizational problems,[44] the election proceeded as scheduled.[citation needed] A second round was held on 27 March 2011.[citation needed] The general elections were partly funded by the European Union and United Nations Development Programme. The 'Observatoire National des Elections' monitored the election process.[45] Both Bozizé and his party scored major victories.[citation needed]

Prefectures and sub-prefectures[edit]

Bangui Sangha-Mbaéré Mambéré-Kadéï Nana-Mambéré Ouham-Pendé Ouham Ombella-M'Poko Lobaye Nana-Grébizi Kémo Ouaka Basse-Kotto Bamingui-Bangoran Vakaga Haute-Kotto Mbomou Haut-Mbomou
A clickable map of the fourteen prefectures of the Central African Republic.


The Central African Republic is divided into 16 administrative prefectures (préfectures), two of which are economic prefectures (préfectures economiques), and one autonomous commune. The prefectures are further divided into 71 sub-prefectures (sous-préfectures).

The prefectures are Bamingui-Bangoran, Basse-Kotto, Haute-Kotto, Haut-Mbomou, Kémo, Lobaye, Mambéré-Kadéï, Mbomou, Nana-Mambéré, Ombella-M'Poko, Ouaka, Ouham, Ouham-Pendé and Vakaga. The economic prefectures are Nana-Grébizi and Sangha-Mbaéré, while the commune is the capital city Bangui.

Recent events[edit]

Refugees of the fighting in the Central African Republic, January 2014

Despite the veneer of stability during that era, Bozizé's rule was plagued with heavy corruption, underdevelopment, nepotism, and authoritarianism, leading to an open rebellion against the Bozizé government by an alliance of armed opposition factions known as the Séléka Coalition during the Central African Republic Bush War and the 2012–2013 Central African Republic conflict that eventually led to his overthrow on 24 March 2013.

In December 2012, Séléka Coalition rebels advanced towards the capital, prompting protests at the French embassy and the evacuation of the US embassy.[46] After several days of clashes and rebel advances, and following the refusal by the French government to intervene, the Bozizé government agreed to holding talks with rebels.[47] On 24 March 2013, the Séléka rebels marched into the capital and stormed the presidential palace, forcing Bozizé to flee to Cameroon via the Democratic Republic of Congo.[48][49]

The rebel leader Djotodia proclaimed himself President after conquering the capital of Bangui. Nicolas Tiangaye remained as the prime minister: he was recently appointed and was allowed by the Séléka rebels to retain his post, as he was endorsed by the opposition.[50]

Resistance against the new rulers consisted mostly of armed youths, and soldiers in a base 60 kilometres (37 mi) from the capital. By 27 March, normal life in the capital had begun to be resumed.[51] Top military and police officers recognized Djotodia as President on 28 March 2013, in what was viewed as "a form of surrender".[52]

A new government was appointed on 31 March 2013, which consisted of members of Séléka and representatives of the opposition to Bozizé, one pro-Bozizé individual[53][54] and a number representatives of civil society. On 1 April, the former opposition parties declared that they would boycott the government.[55] After African leaders in Chad refused to recognize Djotodia as President, proposing instead the formation of a transitional council and the holding of new elections, Djotodia accordingly signed a decree on 6 April for the formation of a council that would act as a transitional parliament. The council was tasked with electing a president to serve prior to elections in 18 months.[56]

In November 2013 United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon noted that the security situation in the country remained precarious with government authority nonexistent outside of Bangui[57] and Jan Eliasson, the UN deputy secretary general said that the CAR was "...descending into complete chaos.."[58] Both the president and prime minister resigned through an announcement at a regional summit in January, 2014, after which interim leader and speaker for the provisional parliament took over.[7][8]

In 2014, Amnesty International reported several massacres committed by the Christian group called Anti-balaka against Muslim civilians, forcing thousands of Muslims to flee the country.[59][60] Several reports warned that what is going on is a genocide and a wide ethnic-cleansing against Muslims in Central African Republic.

Human rights[edit]

The 2009 Human Rights Report by the United States Department of State noted that, in general, the CAR's human rights record remained poor. Concerns were expressed over numerous government abuses.[61] Freedom of speech is addressed in the country's constitution, but there were incidents of government intimidation with the intent to limit media criticism.[61] A report by the International Research & Exchanges Board's media sustainability index noted that "the country minimally met objectives, with segments of the legal system and government opposed to a free media system".[61]

From 1972 to 1990, and in 2002 and 2003, the CAR was rated 'Not Free' by Freedom House. It was rated 'Partly Free' in 1991–2001 and from 2004 to the present.[62] On the United Nations Human Development Index, it ranks 179 out of 187 countries.[63]

According to the U.S. State Department, major human rights abuses occur in the country. These include: extrajudicial executions by security forces; the torture, beating and rape of suspects and prisoners; impunity, particularly among the armed forces; harsh and life-threatening conditions in prisons and detention centers; arbitrary arrest and detention, prolonged pretrial detention and denial of a fair trial; restrictions on freedom of movement; official corruption; and restrictions on workers' rights. The State Department report also cites: widespread mob violence that often results in fatalities; the prevalence of female genital mutilation; discrimination against women and Pygmies; trafficking in persons; forced labor; and child labor. Freedom of movement is limited in the northern part of the country "because of actions by state security forces, armed bandits, and other nonstate armed entities" and due to fighting between government and anti-government forces, many persons have been internally displaced.[64] 68 percent of the marriages in Central African Republic fall under the category of child marriages.[65]

Foreign relations and military[edit]

Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama with Faustin-Archange Touadéra at a 2009 reception in New York City.

The Central African Armed Forces were established in 1960. In 2009, the Central African Republic began seeking investments from China.

Foreign aid[edit]

The Central African Republic is heavily dependent upon multilateral foreign aid and the presence of numerous NGOs which provide services which the government fails to provide. As one UNDP official put it, the CAR is a country "sous serum", or a country metaphorically hooked up to an IV. (Mehler 2005:150). The very presence of numerous foreign personnel and organizations in the country, including peacekeepers and even refugee camps, provides an important source of revenue for many Central Africans.[citation needed]

Much of the country is self-sufficient in food crops. Livestock development is hindered by the presence of the tsetse fly.

In 2006, due to ongoing violence, over 50,000 people in the country's northwest were at risk of starvation.[66] This was only averted thanks to United Nations support.[citation needed]

Peacebuilding Commission[edit]

On 12 June 2008, the Central African Republic became the fourth country to be placed on the agenda of the UN Peacebuilding Commission,[67] which was set up in 2005 to help countries emerging from conflict avoid the slide back into war or chaos. The 31-member body agreed to take up the situation after a request from the government.

Peacebuilding Fund[edit]

On 8 January 2008, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon declared that the Central African Republic was eligible to receive assistance from the Peacebuilding Fund.[68] Three priority areas were identified: firstly, the reform of the security sector; secondly, the promotion of good governance and the rule of law; and, thirdly, the revitalization of communities affected by conflicts.

Economy[edit]

Bangui shopping district
Lettuce plantation in northern CAR

Banks in the Central African Republic dispense the CFA franc, which is accepted in a number of different countries. Agriculture is dominated by the cultivation and sale of food crops such as cassava, peanuts, maize, sorghum, millet, sesame, and plantain. The annual real GDP growth rate is just above 3%. The importance of food crops over exported cash crops is indicated by the fact that the total production of cassava, the staple food of most Central Africans, ranges between 200,000 and 300,000 tonnes a year, while the production of cotton, the principal exported cash crop, ranges from 25,000 to 45,000 tonnes a year. Food crops are not exported in large quantities, but they still constitute the principal cash crops of the country, because Central Africans derive far more income from the periodic sale of surplus food crops than from exported cash crops such as cotton or coffee.[citation needed]

Graphical depiction of Central African Republic's product exports in 28 color-coded categories

The Republic's primary import partner is Netherlands (19.5%). Other imports come from Cameroon (9.7%), France (9.3%) and South Korea (8.7%). Its largest export partner is Belgium (31.5%), followed by China (27.7%), the Democratic Republic of Congo (8.6%), Indonesia (5.2%) and France (4.5%).[9]

The per capita income of the Republic is often listed as being around $400 a year, said to be one of the lowest in the world, but this figure is based mostly on reported sales of exports and largely ignores such unregistered sale of foods, locally produced alcohol, diamonds, ivory, bushmeat and traditional medicine. For most Central Africans, the informal economy of the CAR is more important than the formal economy.[citation needed] Among the mining industry, diamonds constitute the country's most important export, accounting for 40–55% of export revenues, but it is estimated that between 30% and 50% of those produced each year leave the country clandestinely. Export trade is hindered by poor economic development and the country's location away from the coast.[citation needed]

The wilderness regions of this country represent potential ecotourist destinations. In the southwest, the Dzanga-Sangha National Park is located in a rain forest area. The country is noted for its population of forest elephants and western lowland gorillas. To the north, the Manovo-Gounda St Floris National Park is well-populated with wildlife, including leopards, lions, and rhinos. The Bamingui-Bangoran National Park is located in the north-east of CAR. The parks have been badly affected by the activities of poachers, in particular from Sudan, over the past two decades.[citation needed]

CAR is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA).[69] In the 2009 World Bank Group's report Doing Business, it was ranked 183rd of 183 as regards 'ease of doing business', a composite index that takes into account regulations that enhance business activity and those that constrain it.[70]

Infrastructure[edit]

Science and technology[edit]

Presently, The Central African Republic has active television services, radio stations, internet service providers, and mobile phone carriers. Socatel is the leading provider for both internet and mobile phone access throughout the country. The primary governmental regulating bodies of telecommunications are both Ministère des Postes, and Télécommunications et des Nouvelles Technologies. In addition, The Central African Republic receives international support on telecommunication related operations from ITU Telecommunication Development Sector (ITU-D) within the International Telecommunication Union to improve infrastructure.

Transportation[edit]

Trucks in Bangui

The Central African Republic has over 1,800 motor vehicles on the road, although a limited quantity of land has been developed into highways.

Energy[edit]

The Central African Republic primarily uses hydroelectricity because there are few resources for energy.

Education[edit]

Classroom in Sam Ouandja

Public education in the Central African Republic is free and compulsory from ages 6 to 14.[71] However, approximately half the adult population of the country is illiterate.[72]

Higher education[edit]

The University of Bangui, a public university located in Bangui which includes a medical school, and Euclid University, an international university in Bangui are the two institutions of higher education in the Central African Republic.

Health[edit]

The largest hospitals are located in the Bangui district. Fortunately, there are also Air Ambulances which provide transportation to larger hospitals for citizens outside of the area. As a member of the World Health Organization, The Central African Republic also receives various vaccination assistance, such as a 2014 intervention for the prevention of a measles epidemic.[73] In 2007, female life expectancy at birth was 48.2 years and male life expectancy at birth was 45.1 years.[74] The fertility rate is about five births per woman.[74] According to 2009 estimates, the HIV/AIDS prevalence rate is about 4.7% of the adult population (ages 15–49).[75] Government expenditure on health was at US$ 20 (PPP) per person in 2006.[74] There were 0.05 physicians per 1000 people in 2009.[76] Government expenditure on health was at 10.9% of total government expenditure in 2006.[74]

Culture[edit]

Music[edit]

Sports[edit]

The Central African Republic national football team, which is governed by the Fédération Centrafricaine de Football, stage matches at Barthelemy Boganda Stadium.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b World Population Prospects, Table A.1 (PDF). 2008 revision. United Nations. 2009. Retrieved 12 March 2009. 
    "Note: estimates for this country take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected."
  2. ^ a b c d "Central African Republic". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 17 April 2013. 
  3. ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 March 2011. 
  4. ^ Which side of the road do they drive on? Brian Lucas. August 2005. Retrieved 28 January 2009.
  5. ^ CELEBRATING, LOOTING FOLLOW COUP, U.N. CONDEMNS TAKEOVER IN CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC. Lexington Herald-Leader, 18 March 2003
  6. ^ Violent and Chaotic, Central African Republic Lurches Toward a Crisis. (August 7, 2013) Adam Nossiter. New York Times.
  7. ^ a b "CAR interim President Michel Djotodia resigns". BBC. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 January 2014. 
  8. ^ a b "Central African Republic leader says chaos is over". BBC. 13 January 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d "CIA World Factbook Central African Republic". Retrieved 14 August 2012. 
  10. ^ "Central African Republic". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  11. ^ Culture of Central African Republic – history, people, clothing, women, beliefs, food, family, social, dress. Everyculture.com. Retrieved on 6 April 2013.
  12. ^ French Colonies – Central African Republic. Discoverfrance.net. Retrieved on 6 April 2013.
  13. ^ Central African Republic: The colonial era – Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Britannica.com. Retrieved on 6 April 2013.
  14. ^ a b 'Cannibal' dictator Bokassa given posthumous pardon. The Guardian. 3 December 2010
  15. ^ "'Good old days' under Bokassa?". BBC News. 2 January 2009
  16. ^ a b "CAR hails French pledge on rebels". BBC. 14 November 2006. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  17. ^ a b "French planes attack CAR rebels". BBC. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  18. ^ a b "Central African Republic". CIA. Retrieved 22 April 2013. 
  19. ^ a b Smith, David (22 November 2013) Unspeakable horrors in a country on the verge of genocide The Guardian, Retrieved 23 November 2013
  20. ^ "UN warning over Central African Republic genocide risk". bbcnews.com. 4 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  21. ^ "France says Central African Republic on verge of genocide". reuters.com. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  22. ^ "'We Live and Die Here Like Animals'". foreignpolicy.com. 13 November 2013. Retrieved 25 November 2013. 
  23. ^ More than 600 killed in week of Central African Republic violence: UN
  24. ^ a b "Eight dead in Central African Republic capital, rebel leaders flee city". Reuters. January 26, 2014.
  25. ^ "Central African Republic militia 'killed' children". BBC News. December 4, 2013.
  26. ^ AP (26 December 2013). "Attack On Presidential Palace Thwarted In Bangui". Leaker. Retrieved 26 December 2013. 
  27. ^ "More military help sought by UN to protect CAR civilians". The Africa News.Net. Retrieved 22 February 2014. 
  28. ^ Sold Down the River (English) March 2001, Forests Monitor
  29. ^ The Forests of the Congo Basin: State of the Forest 2006 at the Wayback Machine (archived July 5, 2008). CARPE 13 July 2007
  30. ^ Central African Republic: Country Study Guide volume 1, p. 24.
  31. ^ Ward, Inna, ed. (2007). Whitaker's Almanack (139th ed.). London: A & C Black. p. 796. ISBN 0-7136-7660-4. 
  32. ^ "Central African Republic". Unaids.org. 29 July 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  33. ^ ANNEX 3: Country progress indicators. 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic. unaids.org
  34. ^ In Fula: Fulɓe; in French: Peul
  35. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2010". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved February 12, 2014. 
  36. ^ "Central African Republic. International Religious Freedom Report 2006". U.S. Department of State. 
  37. ^ "Legal System". The World Factbook (Central Intelligence Agency). 
  38. ^ "Reuters AlertNet – CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC: Poll results to be announced on 22 May, official says". Alertnet.org. 11 May 2005. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  39. ^ "Timeline: Central African Republic". BBC News. 9 March 2010. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  40. ^ "Thousands flee new CAR 'rebels'". BBC News. 24 February 2006. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  41. ^ "Thousands flee from CAR violence". BBC News. 25 March 2006. Retrieved 28 April 2010. 
  42. ^ "Central African Republic to hold April 25 elections | Top News | Reuters". Af.reuters.com. 25 February 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  43. ^ "BozizĂŠ prend ses prĂŠcautions Afrique Subsaharienne, Politique". Jeuneafrique.com. 15 May 2010. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  44. ^ "Les problèmes de gestion à la Commission Electorale Indépendante seraient-ils un frein au bon déroulement du processus électoral?". Journal des Elections. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010. 
  45. ^ "Les publications de l'ONE". Journal des Elections. 20 December 2010. Retrieved 20 December 2010. 
  46. ^ "Central African Republic's Bozize in US-France appeal". BBC. 27 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  47. ^ "Central African Republic to hold talks with rebels". BBC. 28 December 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2012. 
  48. ^ "Central African Republic president flees capital amid violence, official says". CNN. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 24 March 2013. 
  49. ^ Polgreen, Lydia (25 March 2013). "Leader of Central African Republic Fled to Cameroon, Official Says". The New York Times. 
  50. ^ Fort, Patrick (26 March 2013). "Looters rampage in CAR as strongman set to unveil government". Mail and Guardian. Retrieved 27 March 2013. 
  51. ^ Pockets of resistance still in Central African Republic
  52. ^ Ange Aboa, "C.African Republic army chiefs pledge allegiance to coup leader", Reuters, 28 March 2013.
  53. ^ "Rebels, opposition form government in CentrAfrica: decree", Agence France-Presse, 31 March 2013.
  54. ^ "Centrafrique : Nicolas Tiangaye présente son gouvernement d'union nationale", Jeune Afrique, 1 April 2013 (French).
  55. ^ Ange Aboa, "Central African Republic opposition says to boycott new government", Reuters, 1 April 2013.
  56. ^ "C. Africa strongman forms transition council", AFP, 6 April 2013.
  57. ^ Rick Gladstone (18 November 2013), Central African Republic Stirs Concern The New York Times
  58. ^ (26 November 2013) Central African Republic 'descending into chaos' – UN BBC News Africa, Retrieved 26 November 2013
  59. ^ http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/feb/14/muslim-convoy-central-african-republic-exodus
  60. ^ http://www.globalresearch.ca/france-and-the-militarization-of-central-africa-thousands-of-muslims-fleeing-the-central-african-republic/5369276
  61. ^ a b c 2009 Human Rights Report: Central African Republic. U.S. Department of State, 11 March 2010.
  62. ^ "FIW Score". Freedom House. Retrieved January 26, 2013. 
  63. ^ "Central African Republic". International Human Development Indicators. Retrieved January 26, 2013. 
  64. ^ "2010 Human Rights Report: Central African Republic". US Department of State. Retrieved January 26, 2013. 
  65. ^ "Child brides around the world sold off like cattle". USA Today. March 8, 2013. 
  66. ^ CAR: Food shortages increase as fighting intensifies in the northwest. irinnews.org, 29 March 2006
  67. ^ "Peacebuilding Commission Places Central African Republic On Agenda; Ambassador Tells Body 'CAR Will Always Walk Side By Side With You, Welcome Your Advice'". Un.org. 2 July 2008. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  68. ^ Central African Republic Peacebuilding Fund – Overview. United Nations.
  69. ^ "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa". Retrieved 22 March 2009. 
  70. ^ Doing Business 2010. Central African Republic at the Wayback Machine (archived April 7, 2010), The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8213-7961-5, doi:10.1596/978-0-8213-7961-5. |accessdate=22 November 2013
  71. ^ "Central African Republic". Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor (2001). Bureau of International Labor Affairs, U.S. Department of Labor (2002). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  72. ^ "Central African Republic – Statistics". UNICEF. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  73. ^ http://www.who.int/hac/crises/caf/en/
  74. ^ a b c d "Human Development Report 2009 – Central African Republic". Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 
  75. ^ CIA World Factbook: HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate. Cia.gov. Retrieved on 6 April 2013.
  76. ^ "WHO Country Offices in the WHO African Region – WHO | Regional Office for Africa". Afro.who.int. Retrieved 27 June 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Doeden, Matt, Central African Republic in Pictures (Twentyfirst Century Books, 2009).
  • Kalck, Pierre, Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic, 2004.
  • Petringa, Maria, Brazza, A Life for Africa (2006). ISBN 978-1-4259-1198-0.
  • Titley, Brian, Dark Age: The Political Odyssey of Emperor Bokassa, 2002.
  • Woodfrok, Jacqueline, Culture and Customs of the Central African Republic (Greenwood Press, 2006).

External links[edit]

Government
Overviews
News
Other
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014