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The Spinning and Wobbling of the Earth
The Spinning and Wobbling of the Earth
Published: 2014/11/26
Channel: Benno Giesecke
What is CHANDLER WOBBLE? What does CHANDLER WOBBLE mean? CHANDLER WOBBLE meaning
What is CHANDLER WOBBLE? What does CHANDLER WOBBLE mean? CHANDLER WOBBLE meaning
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: The Audiopedia
Chandler wobble
Chandler wobble
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
Educating a Heliocentric Astronomer About Chandler Wobble (LSC Earth)
Educating a Heliocentric Astronomer About Chandler Wobble (LSC Earth)
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012
Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012
Published: 2012/08/13
Channel: SolarWatcher
Wobbly Earth - Sixty Symbols
Wobbly Earth - Sixty Symbols
Published: 2011/08/16
Channel: Sixty Symbols
Climate Change Update ( 01 March 2011 )
Climate Change Update ( 01 March 2011 ) 'Chandler's Wobble' May Usher in a New Ice Age
Published: 2011/03/01
Channel: NibiruMagick2012
Extreme Weather - TORNADO, Climate Change and Chandler
Extreme Weather - TORNADO, Climate Change and Chandler's Wobble
Published: 2012/02/29
Channel: JCVdude
TRY NOT TO LAUGH + ELECTRICITY CHALLENGE!
TRY NOT TO LAUGH + ELECTRICITY CHALLENGE!
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: Guava Juice
Toddler "Wobble"
Toddler "Wobble"
Published: 2013/06/02
Channel: Ashley Braselton
Toddler Wobble
Toddler Wobble
Published: 2013/06/02
Channel: Ashley Braselton
Earth Wobble on Satellite
Earth Wobble on Satellite
Published: 2010/03/06
Channel: beenthdonedat
Wobble Beat
Wobble Beat
Published: 2011/04/04
Channel: Chandler Pobis
Chandler
Chandler's Wobble - Bokito Song
Published: 2009/05/13
Channel: TsoojpaH
How to Pronounce Chandler-wobble
How to Pronounce Chandler-wobble
Published: 2016/11/26
Channel: Dictionary Voice
CCC Mrs  Snipkin and Mrs  Wobblechin 2014
CCC Mrs Snipkin and Mrs Wobblechin 2014
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Chandler Children's Choir
wobble?
wobble?
Published: 2012/10/05
Channel: Morgan Chandler
How to Pronounce Chandler Wobble
How to Pronounce Chandler Wobble
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: Dictionary Voice
David Wilcock ~ The 2012 Enigma ~ Full Version
David Wilcock ~ The 2012 Enigma ~ Full Version
Published: 2012/09/08
Channel: Love Transmissions
The Fall of the Heliotards part 1
The Fall of the Heliotards part 1
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
the white t gurls 2 doin a diff version of wobble.... no rude comments!!!
the white t gurls 2 doin a diff version of wobble.... no rude comments!!!
Published: 2012/03/14
Channel: Chandler Bynum
AND THE I.V. GROWS OVR THE DOOR
AND THE I.V. GROWS OVR THE DOOR
Published: 2012/01/14
Channel: BookOvKeLLs
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 09
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 09
Published: 2008/03/15
Channel: Larry Seyer
Wobble for a whopper😂😂
Wobble for a whopper😂😂
Published: 2016/09/22
Channel: CHANDLER #25 For Live
The Wobble with family
The Wobble with family
Published: 2013/12/30
Channel: LaShawn Chandler
Project Black Star Overview
Project Black Star Overview
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Terral BlackStar
Transformacion terrestre - Alex Collier - Conferencia Earth Transformation parte 1
Transformacion terrestre - Alex Collier - Conferencia Earth Transformation parte 1
Published: 2016/10/11
Channel: El Nuevo Amanecer
The 2012 Enigma - David Wilcock Pt. 07
The 2012 Enigma - David Wilcock Pt. 07
Published: 2011/02/17
Channel: Profanumx
Polar motion - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Polar motion - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Wiz Science™
Plano East SO Bball 040812 halftime
Plano East SO Bball 040812 halftime
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: Allie Chandler
Transformacion terrestre - Alex Collier - Conferencia Earth Transformation parte 2
Transformacion terrestre - Alex Collier - Conferencia Earth Transformation parte 2
Published: 2016/10/11
Channel: El Nuevo Amanecer
The 2012 Enigma - David Wilcock Pt. 06
The 2012 Enigma - David Wilcock Pt. 06
Published: 2011/02/17
Channel: Profanumx
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 03
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 03
Published: 2008/03/14
Channel: Larry Seyer
wobble baby
wobble baby
Published: 2014/01/16
Channel: Seth Hodges
How to Pronounce Chuck Chandler
How to Pronounce Chuck Chandler
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: Dictionary Voice
How to Pronounce Chandler Dabbs
How to Pronounce Chandler Dabbs
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: Dictionary Voice
How to Pronounce Mollie Chandler
How to Pronounce Mollie Chandler
Published: 2016/11/24
Channel: Dictionary Voice
How to Pronounce Charles Frederick Chandler
How to Pronounce Charles Frederick Chandler
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: Dictionary Voice
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 05
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 05
Published: 2008/03/15
Channel: Larry Seyer
Hutch chiropractic wobble chair
Hutch chiropractic wobble chair
Published: 2014/07/07
Channel: Krista Chandler
How to Pronounce Chandler-period
How to Pronounce Chandler-period
Published: 2017/01/25
Channel: Dictionary Voice
How to Pronounce Kyle Chandler
How to Pronounce Kyle Chandler
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Dictionary Voice
Wobble by GVSU West B
Wobble by GVSU West B
Published: 2013/04/01
Channel: Joshua Chandler
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 04
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 04
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: AstralPossibilities
Brillante discurso de David Icke - TIENES QUE SABER LA VERDAD - SUB ESPAÑOL
Brillante discurso de David Icke - TIENES QUE SABER LA VERDAD - SUB ESPAÑOL
Published: 2016/10/02
Channel: El Nuevo Amanecer
How to Pronounce Chandler Hall
How to Pronounce Chandler Hall
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: Dictionary Voice
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 10
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 10
Published: 2008/03/15
Channel: Larry Seyer
How to Pronounce Chandler-girl
How to Pronounce Chandler-girl
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: Dictionary Voice
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 08
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 08
Published: 2008/03/15
Channel: Larry Seyer
How to Pronounce Fuck-wobble
How to Pronounce Fuck-wobble
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Dictionary Voice
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Chandler wobble or variation of latitude is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth,[1] which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891. It amounts to change of about 9 metres (30 ft) in the point at which the axis intersects the Earth's surface and has a period of 433 days.[2][3] This wobble, which is a nutation, combines with another wobble with a period of one year, so that the total polar motion varies with a period of about 7 years.

The Chandler wobble is an example of the kind of motion that can occur for a spinning object that is not a sphere; this is called a free nutation. Somewhat confusingly, the direction of the Earth's spin axis relative to the stars also varies with different periods, and these motions—caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and Sun—are also called nutations, except for the slowest, which are precessions of the equinoxes.

Predictions[edit]

The existence of Earth's free nutation was predicted by Isaac Newton in Corollaries 20 to 22 of Proposition 66, Book 1 of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, and by Leonhard Euler in 1765 as part of his studies of the dynamics of rotating bodies. Based on the known ellipticity of the Earth, Euler predicted that it would have a period of 305 days. Several astronomers searched for motions with this period, but none was found. Chandler's contribution was to look for motions at any possible period; once the Chandler wobble was observed, the difference between its period and the one predicted by Euler was explained by Simon Newcomb as being caused by the non-rigidity of the Earth. The full explanation for the period also involves the fluid nature of the Earth's core and oceans—the wobble, in fact, produces a very small ocean tide with an amplitude of approximately 6 mm (14 in), called a "pole tide", which is the only tide not caused by an extraterrestrial body. Despite the small amplitude, the gravitational effect of the pole tide is easily detected by the superconducting gravimeter.[4]

Attempts at measurement[edit]

The International Latitude Observatories were established in 1899 to measure the wobble; incidentally, the wobble is also called the variation of latitude. These provided data on the Chandler and annual wobble for most of the 20th century, though they were eventually superseded by other methods of measurement. Monitoring of the polar motion is now done by the International Earth Rotation Service.

The wobble's amplitude has varied since its discovery, reaching its largest size in 1910 and fluctuating noticeably from one decade to another.

In 2009, Malkin & Miller's analysis of International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Pole coordinates time series data from January 1946 to January 2009 showed three phase reversals of the wobble, in 1850, 1920, and 2005.[2]

Theories[edit]

While it has to be maintained by changes in the mass distribution or angular momentum of the Earth's outer core, atmosphere, oceans, or crust (from earthquakes), for a long time the actual source was unclear, since no available motions seemed to be coherent with what was driving the wobble.

One promising theory for the source of the wobble was proposed in 2001 by Richard Gross at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed by the California Institute of Technology. He used angular momentum models of the atmosphere and the oceans in computer simulations to show that from 1985 to 1996, the Chandler wobble was excited by a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes, with the dominant excitation mechanism being ocean‐bottom pressure fluctuations. Gross found that two-thirds of the "wobble" was caused by fluctuating pressure on the seabed, which, in turn, is caused by changes in the circulation of the oceans caused by variations in temperature, salinity, and wind. The remaining third is due to atmospheric fluctuations.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ e.g. Mueller, I.I. (1969). Spherical and Practical Astronomy as Applied to Geodesy. Frederick Ungar Publishing, NY, pp. 80.
  2. ^ a b Zinovy Malkin and Natalia Miller (2009). "Chandler wobble: two more large phase jumps revealed". arXiv:0908.3732Freely accessible. 
  3. ^ "Earth's Chandler Wobble Changed Dramatically in 2005". TechnologyReview.com. MIT Technology Review. 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  4. ^ See, e.g., Fig. 2.3. Virtanen, H. (2006). Studies of Earth Dynamics with the Superconducting Gravimeter (PDF) (Academic Dissertation at the University of Helsinki). Geodetiska Institutet. Retrieved September 21, 2009. 
  5. ^ Gross, Richard S. (2000). "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble". Geophysical Research Letters. 27 (15): 2329–2332. doi:10.1029/2000gl011450. Retrieved January 17, 2011. Some scientists predict the last wobble to have happened nearly 4000 to 7500 years ago during a time when there were dramatic changes in the pattern of monsoons across northern Africa. The researchers claim that it has transformed the Great Saharan Desert into somewhat greener territory. Further, they expect the wobble to happen once in nearly 20000 years, which implies that the next can be expected after a period of 16000 years; these estimates are short compared to the life of earth. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Carter, B. and M. S. Carter, 2003, "Latitude, How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation," Naval Institute Press, Annapolis.
  • Gross, Richard S., 2000, "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble", Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 27 (15), pp. 2329–2332.
  • Lambeck, Kurt, 1980, The Earth's Variable Rotation: Geophysical Causes and Consequences (Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics), Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Munk, W. H. and MacDonald, G. J. F., 1960, The Rotation of the Earth, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Moritz, H. and I.I. Mueller, 1987, Earth Rotation: Theory and Observation, Continuum International Publishing Group, London.

External links[edit]

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