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The Spinning and Wobbling of the Earth
The Spinning and Wobbling of the Earth
Published: 2014/11/26
Channel: Benno Giesecke
What is CHANDLER WOBBLE? What does CHANDLER WOBBLE mean? CHANDLER WOBBLE meaning
What is CHANDLER WOBBLE? What does CHANDLER WOBBLE mean? CHANDLER WOBBLE meaning
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: The Audiopedia
The Earth Is Wobbling: The Precession of the Equinoxes
The Earth Is Wobbling: The Precession of the Equinoxes
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: It's Just Astronomical!
Wobbly Earth - Sixty Symbols
Wobbly Earth - Sixty Symbols
Published: 2011/08/16
Channel: Sixty Symbols
Educating a Heliocentric Astronomer About Chandler Wobble (LSC Earth)
Educating a Heliocentric Astronomer About Chandler Wobble (LSC Earth)
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
Chandler wobble
Chandler wobble
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
The REAL Chandler Wobble - LSC Concave Earth
The REAL Chandler Wobble - LSC Concave Earth
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012
Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012
Published: 2012/08/13
Channel: SolarWatcher
Precession of the earth
Precession of the earth
Published: 2013/11/10
Channel: Steven Sanders
Planet X Inbound Affecting Earth Wobble Pole Shift Accelerating
Planet X Inbound Affecting Earth Wobble Pole Shift Accelerating
Published: 2017/03/20
Channel: Malcolm Burmeister
International Earth Rotation Service tilt Chandler’s 1861 earth y x mas pole shift Wobble Plot
International Earth Rotation Service tilt Chandler’s 1861 earth y x mas pole shift Wobble Plot
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: WAPTEK
EARTH WOBBLE
EARTH WOBBLE
Published: 2016/05/01
Channel: Soul Evolution
Extreme Weather - TORNADO, Climate Change and Chandler
Extreme Weather - TORNADO, Climate Change and Chandler's Wobble
Published: 2012/02/29
Channel: JCVdude
Climate Change Update ( 01 March 2011 )
Climate Change Update ( 01 March 2011 ) 'Chandler's Wobble' May Usher in a New Ice Age
Published: 2011/03/01
Channel: NibiruMagick2012
Earth
Earth's Axis Has Shifted - The Sky has Changed
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: nemesis maturity
Chandler
Chandler's Wobble - Bokito Song
Published: 2009/05/13
Channel: TsoojpaH
How Often Does The Earth Change Its Axis?
How Often Does The Earth Change Its Axis?
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Uwerg Ued
4 degree earth tilt extreme axis pole shift wobble polar weather planet X nibiru 2016
4 degree earth tilt extreme axis pole shift wobble polar weather planet X nibiru 2016
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: WAPTEK
How to Pronounce Chandler Wobble
How to Pronounce Chandler Wobble
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: Dictionary Voice
How Often Does The Earth Change Its Axis?
How Often Does The Earth Change Its Axis?
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: Folipuy Ftis
The Fall of the Heliotards part 1
The Fall of the Heliotards part 1
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
Geophysics: Magnetics - General introduction - the Earth
Geophysics: Magnetics - General introduction - the Earth's magnetic field continued
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: Tom's Geophysics
EARTH POLE WOBBLE MOVEMENT REVIEW 2013-NOW
EARTH POLE WOBBLE MOVEMENT REVIEW 2013-NOW
Published: 2015/10/12
Channel: justin roberts
LSC Kindly Calling Charles, Jeran, Flat Earth Asshole
LSC Kindly Calling Charles, Jeran, Flat Earth Asshole
Published: 2017/10/27
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
How I Fooled Astronomy - LSC Concave Earth
How I Fooled Astronomy - LSC Concave Earth
Published: 2017/10/30
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
David Wilcock ~ The 2012 Enigma ~ Full Version
David Wilcock ~ The 2012 Enigma ~ Full Version
Published: 2012/09/08
Channel: Love Transmissions
Earth has started its wobble feb 12th 2014
Earth has started its wobble feb 12th 2014
Published: 2014/02/13
Channel: josiah hardy
Precession Nutation and Wobble of the Earth
Precession Nutation and Wobble of the Earth
Published: 2017/01/04
Channel: Francois
the white t gurls 2 doin a diff version of wobble.... no rude comments!!!
the white t gurls 2 doin a diff version of wobble.... no rude comments!!!
Published: 2012/03/14
Channel: Chandler Bynum
Thanksgiving Brings The "Wobble Wobble"
Thanksgiving Brings The "Wobble Wobble"
Published: 2012/12/02
Channel: WildFamily225
Meditation Music - Bliss Bag
Meditation Music - Bliss Bag
Published: 2012/01/16
Channel: ShaktipatSeer2
Toddler "Wobble"
Toddler "Wobble"
Published: 2013/06/02
Channel: Ashley Braselton
Polar motion - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Polar motion - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Wiz Science™
Wobble of the Earth | Lecture by Dr. Hersh Chadha ARPS
Wobble of the Earth | Lecture by Dr. Hersh Chadha ARPS
Published: 2015/05/10
Channel: hershchadha
The 2012 Enigma - David Wilcock Pt. 06
The 2012 Enigma - David Wilcock Pt. 06
Published: 2011/02/17
Channel: Profanumx
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 04
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 04
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: AstralPossibilities
03 - Asian Tsunami - McNeil-Lehrer - 20041227
03 - Asian Tsunami - McNeil-Lehrer - 20041227
Published: 2008/10/24
Channel: asiantsunami51
The Wobble with family
The Wobble with family
Published: 2013/12/30
Channel: LaShawn Chandler
REGRESSION OF AGE AND TIME TRAVEL - REGRESION DE EDAD Y VIAJE EN EL TIEMPO - La divulgacion cosmica
REGRESSION OF AGE AND TIME TRAVEL - REGRESION DE EDAD Y VIAJE EN EL TIEMPO - La divulgacion cosmica
Published: 2016/09/21
Channel: El Nuevo Amanecer
TRY NOT TO LAUGH + ELECTRICITY CHALLENGE!
TRY NOT TO LAUGH + ELECTRICITY CHALLENGE!
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: Guava Juice
What does wobble mean
What does wobble mean
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: botcaster inc. bot
How to Pronounce Ship-chandler
How to Pronounce Ship-chandler
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: Dictionary Voice
Patch Adams - End of Capitalism - Revolution of Love
Patch Adams - End of Capitalism - Revolution of Love
Published: 2011/10/20
Channel: ShaktipatSeer2
Project Black Star Overview
Project Black Star Overview
Published: 2017/01/20
Channel: Terral BlackStar
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 08
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 08
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: AstralPossibilities
The Wobble Dance
The Wobble Dance
Published: 2017/10/21
Channel: Bryn Chandler
Lethal Bizzle - Wobble bass boosted
Lethal Bizzle - Wobble bass boosted
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Kuqhi
Earth Wobble Cause of Sinkholes, Disasters & Synthia in Gulf Mutating
Earth Wobble Cause of Sinkholes, Disasters & Synthia in Gulf Mutating
Published: 2012/11/15
Channel: Terese C
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 05
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 05
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: AstralPossibilities
How to Pronounce Jordan Chandler
How to Pronounce Jordan Chandler
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: Dictionary Voice
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Chandler wobble or variation of latitude is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth,[1] which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891. It amounts to change of about 9 metres (30 ft) in the point at which the axis intersects the Earth's surface and has a period of 433 days.[2][3] This wobble, which is a nutation, combines with another wobble with a period of one year, so that the total polar motion varies with a period of about 7 years.

The Chandler wobble is an example of the kind of motion that can occur for a spinning object that is not a sphere; this is called a free nutation. Somewhat confusingly, the direction of the Earth's spin axis relative to the stars also varies with different periods, and these motions—caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and Sun—are also called nutations, except for the slowest, which are precessions of the equinoxes.

Predictions[edit]

The existence of Earth's free nutation was predicted by Isaac Newton in Corollaries 20 to 22 of Proposition 66, Book 1 of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, and by Leonhard Euler in 1765 as part of his studies of the dynamics of rotating bodies. Based on the known ellipticity of the Earth, Euler predicted that it would have a period of 305 days. Several astronomers searched for motions with this period, but none was found. Chandler's contribution was to look for motions at any possible period; once the Chandler wobble was observed, the difference between its period and the one predicted by Euler was explained by Simon Newcomb as being caused by the non-rigidity of the Earth. The full explanation for the period also involves the fluid nature of the Earth's core and oceans—the wobble, in fact, produces a very small ocean tide with an amplitude of approximately 6 mm (14 in), called a "pole tide", which is the only tide not caused by an extraterrestrial body. Despite the small amplitude, the gravitational effect of the pole tide is easily detected by the superconducting gravimeter.[4]

Attempts at measurement[edit]

The International Latitude Observatories were established in 1899 to measure the wobble. These provided data on the Chandler and annual wobble for most of the 20th century, though they were eventually superseded by other methods of measurement. Monitoring of the polar motion is now done by the International Earth Rotation Service.

The wobble's amplitude has varied since its discovery, reaching its largest size in 1910 and fluctuating noticeably from one decade to another. In 2009, Malkin & Miller's analysis of International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Pole coordinates time series data from January 1946 to January 2009 showed three phase reversals of the wobble, in 1850, 1920, and 2005.[2]

Theories[edit]

While it has to be maintained by changes in the mass distribution or angular momentum of the Earth's outer core, atmosphere, oceans, or crust (from earthquakes), for a long time the actual source was unclear, since no available motions seemed to be coherent with what was driving the wobble.

One promising theory for the source of the wobble was proposed in 2001 by Richard Gross at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed by the California Institute of Technology. He used angular momentum models of the atmosphere and the oceans in computer simulations to show that from 1985 to 1996, the Chandler wobble was excited by a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes, with the dominant excitation mechanism being ocean‐bottom pressure fluctuations. Gross found that two-thirds of the "wobble" was caused by fluctuating pressure on the seabed, which, in turn, is caused by changes in the circulation of the oceans caused by variations in temperature, salinity, and wind. The remaining third is due to atmospheric fluctuations.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ e.g. Mueller, I.I. (1969). Spherical and Practical Astronomy as Applied to Geodesy. Frederick Ungar Publishing, NY, pp. 80.
  2. ^ a b Zinovy Malkin and Natalia Miller (2009). "Chandler wobble: two more large phase jumps revealed". Earth, Planets and Space. 62 (12): 943–947. arXiv:0908.3732Freely accessible. doi:10.5047/eps.2010.11.002. 
  3. ^ "Earth's Chandler Wobble Changed Dramatically in 2005". TechnologyReview.com. MIT Technology Review. 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  4. ^ See, e.g., Fig. 2.3. Virtanen, H. (2006). Studies of Earth Dynamics with the Superconducting Gravimeter (PDF) (Academic Dissertation at the University of Helsinki). Geodetiska Institutet. Retrieved September 21, 2009. 
  5. ^ Gross, Richard S. (2000). "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble". Geophysical Research Letters. 27 (15): 2329–2332. Bibcode:2000GeoRL..27.2329G. doi:10.1029/2000gl011450. Retrieved January 17, 2011. Some scientists predict the last wobble to have happened nearly 4000 to 7500 years ago during a time when there were dramatic changes in the pattern of monsoons across northern Africa. The researchers claim that it has transformed the Great Saharan Desert into somewhat greener territory. Further, they expect the wobble to happen once in nearly 20000 years, which implies that the next can be expected after a period of 16000 years; these estimates are short compared to the life of earth. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Carter, B. and M. S. Carter, 2003, "Latitude, How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation," Naval Institute Press, Annapolis.
  • Gross, Richard S (2000). "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble". Geophysical Research Letters. 27 (15): 2329–2332. Bibcode:2000GeoRL..27.2329G. doi:10.1029/2000gl011450. 
  • Lambeck, Kurt, 1980, The Earth's Variable Rotation: Geophysical Causes and Consequences (Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics), Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Munk, W. H. and MacDonald, G. J. F., 1960, The Rotation of the Earth, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Moritz, H. and I.I. Mueller, 1987, Earth Rotation: Theory and Observation, Continuum International Publishing Group, London.

External links[edit]

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