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The Spinning and Wobbling of the Earth
The Spinning and Wobbling of the Earth
Published: 2014/11/26
Channel: Benno Giesecke
What is CHANDLER WOBBLE? What does CHANDLER WOBBLE mean? CHANDLER WOBBLE meaning
What is CHANDLER WOBBLE? What does CHANDLER WOBBLE mean? CHANDLER WOBBLE meaning
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: The Audiopedia
Wobbly Earth - Sixty Symbols
Wobbly Earth - Sixty Symbols
Published: 2011/08/16
Channel: Sixty Symbols
Educating a Heliocentric Astronomer About Chandler Wobble (LSC Earth)
Educating a Heliocentric Astronomer About Chandler Wobble (LSC Earth)
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
Chandler wobble
Chandler wobble
Published: 2016/09/16
Channel: WikiWikiup
The Earth Is Wobbling: The Precession of the Equinoxes
The Earth Is Wobbling: The Precession of the Equinoxes
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: It's Just Astronomical!
Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012
Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012
Published: 2012/08/13
Channel: SolarWatcher
Extreme Weather - TORNADO, Climate Change and Chandler
Extreme Weather - TORNADO, Climate Change and Chandler's Wobble
Published: 2012/02/29
Channel: JCVdude
Proof of Earth Wobble - Response to Neo Terra - Updated
Proof of Earth Wobble - Response to Neo Terra - Updated
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: dazzathecameraman
Earth
Earth's Axis Has Shifted - The Sky has Changed
Published: 2017/07/04
Channel: nemesis maturity
Climate Change Update ( 01 March 2011 )
Climate Change Update ( 01 March 2011 ) 'Chandler's Wobble' May Usher in a New Ice Age
Published: 2011/03/01
Channel: NibiruMagick2012
How Precession Causes Climate Change
How Precession Causes Climate Change
Published: 2016/11/12
Channel: Janet Hull, PhD
THE EARTHS WOBBLE
THE EARTHS WOBBLE
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: ELEKTRIK
EARTH WOBBLE
EARTH WOBBLE
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: Joseph Kawamoto
Precession Nutation and Wobble of the Earth
Precession Nutation and Wobble of the Earth
Published: 2017/01/04
Channel: Francois
Chandler
Chandler's Wobble - Bokito Song
Published: 2009/05/13
Channel: TsoojpaH
EARTH WOBBLE
EARTH WOBBLE
Published: 2016/05/01
Channel: Soul Evolution
Evidence of Earth wobble
Evidence of Earth wobble
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Brian Smythe
Antarctica Moon Video Response/Earth Wobble?
Antarctica Moon Video Response/Earth Wobble?
Published: 2012/02/08
Channel: MrMBB333
Orbital Wobble
Orbital Wobble
Published: 2009/07/11
Channel: wolframmathematica
Planet X Approaches Perihelion-Earth Wobble Intensifies-Celestial Signs Of Great Changes
Planet X Approaches Perihelion-Earth Wobble Intensifies-Celestial Signs Of Great Changes
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: Xuan Dinh
International Earth Rotation Service tilt Chandler’s 1861 earth y x mas pole shift Wobble Plot
International Earth Rotation Service tilt Chandler’s 1861 earth y x mas pole shift Wobble Plot
Published: 2017/06/21
Channel: WAPTEK
How to Pronounce Chandler Wobble
How to Pronounce Chandler Wobble
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: Dictionary Voice
Planet X Approaches Perihelion-Earth Wobble Intensifies-Celestial Signs of Great Changes
Planet X Approaches Perihelion-Earth Wobble Intensifies-Celestial Signs of Great Changes
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Xuan Dinh
Planet X Approaches Perihelion,Earth Wobble Intensifies,Celestial Signs of Great Changes
Planet X Approaches Perihelion,Earth Wobble Intensifies,Celestial Signs of Great Changes
Published: 2017/10/09
Channel: Trang Tron
Planet X Inbound -Affecting Earth Wobble -Pole Shift Accelerating
Planet X Inbound -Affecting Earth Wobble -Pole Shift Accelerating
Published: 2017/10/13
Channel: Xuan Dinh
Toddler Wobble
Toddler Wobble
Published: 2013/06/02
Channel: Ashley Braselton
the white t gurls 2 doin a diff version of wobble.... no rude comments!!!
the white t gurls 2 doin a diff version of wobble.... no rude comments!!!
Published: 2012/03/14
Channel: Chandler Bynum
Planet X Inbound -Affecting Earth Wobble -Pole Shift Accelerating
Planet X Inbound -Affecting Earth Wobble -Pole Shift Accelerating
Published: 2017/03/23
Channel: Fernando Gaver
Earth Wobble? Orbs Captured by Canadian Webcams 3 July 2016
Earth Wobble? Orbs Captured by Canadian Webcams 3 July 2016
Published: 2017/04/06
Channel: Parker Reiko
The Fall of the Heliotards part 1
The Fall of the Heliotards part 1
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: Lord Steven Christ
Toddler "Wobble"
Toddler "Wobble"
Published: 2013/06/02
Channel: Ashley Braselton
BREAKING! Planet X Nibiru Double Sunrise Footage, Earth Wobble Recorded ? 2016 Report
BREAKING! Planet X Nibiru Double Sunrise Footage, Earth Wobble Recorded ? 2016 Report
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Alex Baker
Earth Wobble? Orbs Captured by Canadian Webcams 3 July 2016
Earth Wobble? Orbs Captured by Canadian Webcams 3 July 2016
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: Stroppy Me
The 2012 Enigma - New in March 2008 Pt 9 of 10
The 2012 Enigma - New in March 2008 Pt 9 of 10
Published: 2008/08/03
Channel: PortalForYou
Polar motion - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Polar motion - Video Learning - WizScience.com
Published: 2015/09/24
Channel: Wiz Science™
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 08
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 08
Published: 2008/03/15
Channel: Larry Seyer
How to Pronounce Chandler
How to Pronounce Chandler
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: Dictionary Voice
David Wilcock ~ The 2012 Enigma ~ Full Version
David Wilcock ~ The 2012 Enigma ~ Full Version
Published: 2012/09/08
Channel: Love Transmissions
Planet X Inbound Affecting Earth Wobble Pole Shift Accelerating
Planet X Inbound Affecting Earth Wobble Pole Shift Accelerating
Published: 2017/01/17
Channel: Victor Skeels
Meditation Music - Bliss Bag
Meditation Music - Bliss Bag
Published: 2012/01/16
Channel: ShaktipatSeer2
The EARTH Wobbles
The EARTH Wobbles
Published: 2010/08/24
Channel: doncudneyphoto
TRY NOT TO LAUGH + ELECTRICITY CHALLENGE!
TRY NOT TO LAUGH + ELECTRICITY CHALLENGE!
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: Guava Juice
The 2012 Enigma - David Wilcock Pt. 01
The 2012 Enigma - David Wilcock Pt. 01
Published: 2011/02/17
Channel: Profanumx
How to Pronounce Wobble Job
How to Pronounce Wobble Job
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Dictionary Voice
03 - Asian Tsunami - McNeil-Lehrer - 20041227
03 - Asian Tsunami - McNeil-Lehrer - 20041227
Published: 2008/10/24
Channel: asiantsunami51
How to Pronounce Wobble-Cocked
How to Pronounce Wobble-Cocked
Published: 2016/11/19
Channel: Dictionary Voice
WOBBLE TV Cubist LIVE @ WOBBLE June 2012
WOBBLE TV Cubist LIVE @ WOBBLE June 2012
Published: 2012/07/12
Channel: WOBBLEMELBOURNE
How to Pronounce Wobble
How to Pronounce Wobble
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Dictionary Voice
How to Pronounce Death Wobble
How to Pronounce Death Wobble
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: Dictionary Voice
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Chandler wobble or variation of latitude is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth,[1] which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891. It amounts to change of about 9 metres (30 ft) in the point at which the axis intersects the Earth's surface and has a period of 433 days.[2][3] This wobble, which is a nutation, combines with another wobble with a period of one year, so that the total polar motion varies with a period of about 7 years.

The Chandler wobble is an example of the kind of motion that can occur for a spinning object that is not a sphere; this is called a free nutation. Somewhat confusingly, the direction of the Earth's spin axis relative to the stars also varies with different periods, and these motions—caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and Sun—are also called nutations, except for the slowest, which are precessions of the equinoxes.

Predictions[edit]

The existence of Earth's free nutation was predicted by Isaac Newton in Corollaries 20 to 22 of Proposition 66, Book 1 of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, and by Leonhard Euler in 1765 as part of his studies of the dynamics of rotating bodies. Based on the known ellipticity of the Earth, Euler predicted that it would have a period of 305 days. Several astronomers searched for motions with this period, but none was found. Chandler's contribution was to look for motions at any possible period; once the Chandler wobble was observed, the difference between its period and the one predicted by Euler was explained by Simon Newcomb as being caused by the non-rigidity of the Earth. The full explanation for the period also involves the fluid nature of the Earth's core and oceans—the wobble, in fact, produces a very small ocean tide with an amplitude of approximately 6 mm (14 in), called a "pole tide", which is the only tide not caused by an extraterrestrial body. Despite the small amplitude, the gravitational effect of the pole tide is easily detected by the superconducting gravimeter.[4]

Attempts at measurement[edit]

The International Latitude Observatories were established in 1899 to measure the wobble. These provided data on the Chandler and annual wobble for most of the 20th century, though they were eventually superseded by other methods of measurement. Monitoring of the polar motion is now done by the International Earth Rotation Service.

The wobble's amplitude has varied since its discovery, reaching its largest size in 1910 and fluctuating noticeably from one decade to another. In 2009, Malkin & Miller's analysis of International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) Pole coordinates time series data from January 1946 to January 2009 showed three phase reversals of the wobble, in 1850, 1920, and 2005.[2]

Theories[edit]

While it has to be maintained by changes in the mass distribution or angular momentum of the Earth's outer core, atmosphere, oceans, or crust (from earthquakes), for a long time the actual source was unclear, since no available motions seemed to be coherent with what was driving the wobble.

One promising theory for the source of the wobble was proposed in 2001 by Richard Gross at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed by the California Institute of Technology. He used angular momentum models of the atmosphere and the oceans in computer simulations to show that from 1985 to 1996, the Chandler wobble was excited by a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes, with the dominant excitation mechanism being ocean‐bottom pressure fluctuations. Gross found that two-thirds of the "wobble" was caused by fluctuating pressure on the seabed, which, in turn, is caused by changes in the circulation of the oceans caused by variations in temperature, salinity, and wind. The remaining third is due to atmospheric fluctuations.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ e.g. Mueller, I.I. (1969). Spherical and Practical Astronomy as Applied to Geodesy. Frederick Ungar Publishing, NY, pp. 80.
  2. ^ a b Zinovy Malkin and Natalia Miller (2009). "Chandler wobble: two more large phase jumps revealed". Earth, Planets and Space. 62 (12): 943–947. arXiv:0908.3732Freely accessible. doi:10.5047/eps.2010.11.002. 
  3. ^ "Earth's Chandler Wobble Changed Dramatically in 2005". TechnologyReview.com. MIT Technology Review. 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  4. ^ See, e.g., Fig. 2.3. Virtanen, H. (2006). Studies of Earth Dynamics with the Superconducting Gravimeter (PDF) (Academic Dissertation at the University of Helsinki). Geodetiska Institutet. Retrieved September 21, 2009. 
  5. ^ Gross, Richard S. (2000). "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble". Geophysical Research Letters. 27 (15): 2329–2332. Bibcode:2000GeoRL..27.2329G. doi:10.1029/2000gl011450. Retrieved January 17, 2011. Some scientists predict the last wobble to have happened nearly 4000 to 7500 years ago during a time when there were dramatic changes in the pattern of monsoons across northern Africa. The researchers claim that it has transformed the Great Saharan Desert into somewhat greener territory. Further, they expect the wobble to happen once in nearly 20000 years, which implies that the next can be expected after a period of 16000 years; these estimates are short compared to the life of earth. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Carter, B. and M. S. Carter, 2003, "Latitude, How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation," Naval Institute Press, Annapolis.
  • Gross, Richard S (2000). "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble". Geophysical Research Letters. 27 (15): 2329–2332. Bibcode:2000GeoRL..27.2329G. doi:10.1029/2000gl011450. 
  • Lambeck, Kurt, 1980, The Earth's Variable Rotation: Geophysical Causes and Consequences (Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics), Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Munk, W. H. and MacDonald, G. J. F., 1960, The Rotation of the Earth, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Moritz, H. and I.I. Mueller, 1987, Earth Rotation: Theory and Observation, Continuum International Publishing Group, London.

External links[edit]

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