Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012

Channel: SolarWatcher   |   2012/08/13
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Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012
Polar Motion Animation 1973-2012
::2012/08/13::
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Extreme Weather - TORNADO, Climate Change and Chandler
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Climate Change Update ( 01 March 2011 )
Climate Change Update ( 01 March 2011 ) 'Chandler's Wobble' May Usher in a New Ice Age
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Chandler
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& THE I.V.Y. GROWS OV:ER THE DOOR
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Wobble by GVSU West B
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Santana Ridge Condominiums - 3330 S. Gilbert Rd. Chandler, AZ 85286
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Patch Adams - End of Capitalism - Revolution of Love
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The 2012 Enigma - New in March 2008 Pt 9 of 10
The 2012 Enigma - New in March 2008 Pt 9 of 10
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The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock
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The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 03
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titty wobble
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The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 04
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The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 10
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The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 02
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 02
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The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 06
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 06
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The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 07
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 07
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Carl Sagan
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The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 08
The 2012 Enigma by David Wilcock Pt. 08
::2008/03/15::
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Toddler Wobble
Toddler Wobble
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Su wobble
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2012 NYE Chandler guys funny video
2012 NYE Chandler guys funny video
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Wobble- SSS 2011-2012
Wobble- SSS 2011-2012
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8 maart 2008
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NaSa QuaKe - Destruction Montage Trailer - By Rayzon
NaSa QuaKe - Destruction Montage Trailer - By Rayzon
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I'm from Texas Y'all
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DST Vlog #2: Sorors Doing the Wobble at Centennial Step Show
DST Vlog #2: Sorors Doing the Wobble at Centennial Step Show
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Wobble with Boyd Orthodontics in Columbia SC!
Wobble with Boyd Orthodontics in Columbia SC!
::2011/12/06::
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NW Softball Wobble
NW Softball Wobble
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chandler
chandler's rescue
::2012/02/07::
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wobble baby
wobble baby
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Oil Change Center Chandler
Oil Change Center Chandler
::2012/07/02::
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Weather Extremes = Crop Failures
Weather Extremes = Crop Failures
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wobble?
wobble?
::2012/10/05::
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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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The Chandler wobble is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth,[1] which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891. It amounts to change of about 9 metres (30 ft) in the point at which the axis intersects the Earth's surface and has a period of 433 days.[2] This wobble, which is a nutation, combines with another wobble with a period of one year, so that the total polar motion varies with a period of about 7 years.

The Chandler wobble is an example of the kind of motion that can occur for a spinning object that is not a sphere; this is called a free nutation. Somewhat confusingly, the direction of the Earth's spin axis relative to the stars also varies with different periods, and these motions—caused by the tidal forces of the Moon and Sun—are also called nutations, except for the slowest, which are precessions of the equinoxes.

Predictions[edit]

The existence of Earth's free nutation was predicted by Isaac Newton in Corollaries 20 to 22 of Proposition 66, Book 1 of the Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, and by Leonhard Euler in 1755 as part of his studies of the dynamics of rotating bodies. Based on the known ellipticity of the Earth, Euler predicted that it would have a period of 305 days. Several astronomers searched for motions with this period, but none was found. Chandler's contribution was to look for motions at any possible period; once the Chandler wobble was observed, the difference between its period and the one predicted by Euler was explained by Simon Newcomb as being caused by the non-rigidity of the Earth. The full explanation for the period also involves the fluid nature of the Earth's core and oceans—the wobble, in fact, produces a very small ocean tide with an amplitude of approximately 6 mm, called a "pole tide", which is the only tide not caused by an extraterrestrial body. Despite the small amplitude, the gravitational effect of the pole tide is easily detected by the superconducting gravimeter.[3]

Attempts at measurement[edit]

The International Latitude Observatories were established in 1899 to measure the wobble; incidentally, the wobble is also called the variation of latitude. These provided data on the Chandler and annual wobble for most of the 20th century, though they were eventually superseded by other methods of measurement. Monitoring of the polar motion is now done by the International Earth Rotation Service.

The wobble's amplitude has varied since its discovery, reaching its largest size in 1910 and fluctuating noticeably from one decade to another. While it has to be maintained by changes in the mass distribution or angular momentum of the Earth's outer core, atmosphere, oceans, or crust (from earthquakes), for a long time the actual source was unclear, since no available motions seemed to be coherent with what was driving the wobble.

Theories[edit]

One promising theory for the source of the wobble was proposed in 2001 by Richard Gross at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory managed by the California Institute of Technology. He used angular momentum models of the atmosphere and the oceans in computer simulations to show that from 1985 to 1996, the Chandler wobble was excited by a combination of atmospheric and oceanic processes, with the dominant excitation mechanism being ocean‐bottom pressure fluctuations. Gross found that two-thirds of the "wobble" was caused by fluctuating pressure on the seabed, which, in turn, is caused by changes in the circulation of the oceans caused by variations in temperature, salinity, and wind. The remaining third is due to atmospheric fluctuations.[4]

See also[edit]

  • Carter, B. and M. S. Carter, 2003, "Latitude, How American Astronomers Solved the Mystery of Variation," Naval Institute Press, Annapolis.
  • Gross, Richard S., 2000, "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble", Geophysical Research Letters, vol. 27 (15), pp. 2329–2332.
  • Lambeck, Kurt, 1980, The Earth's Variable Rotation: Geophysical Causes and Consequences (Cambridge Monographs on Mechanics), Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Munk, W. H. and MacDonald, G. J. F., 1960, The Rotation of the Earth, Cambridge University Press, London.
  • Moritz, H. and I.I. Mueller, 1987, Earth Rotation: Theory and Observation, Continuum International Publishing Group, London.

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ e.g. Mueller, I.I., Spherical and Practical Astronomy as Applied to Geodesy, 1969, Frederick Ungar Publishing, NY, pp. 80.
  2. ^ "Earth's Chandler Wobble Changed Dramatically in 2005". MIT Technology Review. MIT Technology Review. 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2013. 
  3. ^ See, e.g., Fig. 2.3. Virtanen, H. (2006). Studies of Earth Dynamics with the Superconducting Gravimeter. Academic Dissertation at the University of Helsinki. Retrieved September 21, 2009. 
  4. ^ Gross, Richard S. (2000). "The Excitation of the Chandler Wobble". Geophysical Research Letters 27 (15): 2329–2332. Retrieved January 17, 2011. 
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