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U-Pick Cherries & Strawberries | Nunn Better Farm
U-Pick Cherries & Strawberries | Nunn Better Farm
Published: 2016/05/15
Channel: Khatiya Korner
How to pick cherries properly
How to pick cherries properly
Published: 2015/07/09
Channel: MLive
How Many Of LaMelo Ball
How Many Of LaMelo Ball's 92 Were "Cherry Picked"? We Did the Math! Breakdown of EVERY Bucket!
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: BallerVisions
How to pick cherries
How to pick cherries
Published: 2013/06/07
Channel: CHANNEL MML
Girlpool - Cherry Picking (Official Audio)
Girlpool - Cherry Picking (Official Audio)
Published: 2015/05/27
Channel: wichitarecordings
Cherry Picking Gone Wrong Part 1
Cherry Picking Gone Wrong Part 1
Published: 2016/10/22
Channel: OfficeHanchoBoxing
Cherry picking dans l
Cherry picking dans l'Okanagan, Oliver, BC - Duarte Orchards (S1E1)
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: Gab & Maya Backpacking
FASTEST CHERRY PICKER
FASTEST CHERRY PICKER
Published: 2010/02/16
Channel: THE GRAND BOUCHARD
Cherry Fruits Picking 2015
Cherry Fruits Picking 2015
Published: 2015/06/07
Channel: Tokyo Pinay
Extremely Fast cherry picking from an experienced cherry picker
Extremely Fast cherry picking from an experienced cherry picker
Published: 2011/05/20
Channel: feilamsol4000
Cherry Pickers Be Like…
Cherry Pickers Be Like…
Published: 2016/07/07
Channel: BdotAdot5
U-Pick Cherries U-Pick Cherry Farm in California
U-Pick Cherries U-Pick Cherry Farm in California
Published: 2013/06/06
Channel: Leetopia
Neil deGrasse Tyson scolds cherry picking climate science
Neil deGrasse Tyson scolds cherry picking climate science
Published: 2017/09/17
Channel: CNN
CHERRY Picking Farm - Eric Meal Time #118
CHERRY Picking Farm - Eric Meal Time #118
Published: 2016/08/13
Channel: Ericsurf6
Shilpa Shetty - Cherry picking at the farm today.. Got all my fruit
Shilpa Shetty - Cherry picking at the farm today.. Got all my fruit
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: Eyes On Celeb
Cherry picking
Cherry picking
Published: 2014/08/25
Channel: Béluga Musique
Cherry Picking (Fallacy of the Week)
Cherry Picking (Fallacy of the Week)
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: Martymer 81
Tips for Picking Cherries off large trees June 2014
Tips for Picking Cherries off large trees June 2014
Published: 2014/06/25
Channel: Michigansnowpony
꿈의 라이브 프리즘스톤 김아람, 채우리 〈Cherry-Picking Days〉 (プリティーリズム・レインボーライブ Cherry-Picking Days 韓国版)
꿈의 라이브 프리즘스톤 김아람, 채우리 〈Cherry-Picking Days〉 (プリティーリズム・レインボーライブ Cherry-Picking Days 韓国版)
Published: 2015/01/26
Channel: SV-001/R
Cherry picking tips, tricks, and how to!
Cherry picking tips, tricks, and how to!
Published: 2017/08/09
Channel: Coin Opp
Baba highball cherry picking
Baba highball cherry picking
Published: 2016/02/07
Channel: Jeremi Bourassa Photographer
What is CHERRY PICKING? What does CHERRY PICKING mean? CHERRY PICKING meaning & explanation
What is CHERRY PICKING? What does CHERRY PICKING mean? CHERRY PICKING meaning & explanation
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: The Audiopedia
Cuộc sống Toronto - Đi hái Cherry - Cherry Picking at Cherry Avenue Farms, Niagara Falls, Canada
Cuộc sống Toronto - Đi hái Cherry - Cherry Picking at Cherry Avenue Farms, Niagara Falls, Canada
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: A Couple T
Pretty Rhythm Rainbow Live - Ann × Wakana - Cherry Picking Days - Lyrics - Full
Pretty Rhythm Rainbow Live - Ann × Wakana - Cherry Picking Days - Lyrics - Full
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: Lovemars1031
(HD) Pretty Rhythm Rainbow Live - ANN & WAKANA - 「cherry picking days」 (episode 40)
(HD) Pretty Rhythm Rainbow Live - ANN & WAKANA - 「cherry picking days」 (episode 40)
Published: 2014/01/11
Channel: Theblossomgirl25
CHERRY Picking ! Elsa and Anna toddlers, Romy and Nori !  Picnic - Outdoors adventure Fun
CHERRY Picking ! Elsa and Anna toddlers, Romy and Nori ! Picnic - Outdoors adventure Fun
Published: 2015/07/31
Channel: Come Play With Me
Pick own cherry at Ohashi Cherry Farms | Hokkaido, JAPAN (fruit pickking)
Pick own cherry at Ohashi Cherry Farms | Hokkaido, JAPAN (fruit pickking)
Published: 2015/11/26
Channel: 大橋さくらんぼ園
Cherry Picking Gone Wrong Part 2
Cherry Picking Gone Wrong Part 2
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: OfficeHanchoBoxing
Potty Mouth - Cherry Picking (Official Video)
Potty Mouth - Cherry Picking (Official Video)
Published: 2015/08/25
Channel: Potty Mouth
How fast can you pick cherries?
How fast can you pick cherries?
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Dunstan Hills
Game Theory: Why Cherry Picking Should Not Work In The NBA
Game Theory: Why Cherry Picking Should Not Work In The NBA
Published: 2014/12/18
Channel: MindYourDecisions
Cherry Picking in Western New York 2016
Cherry Picking in Western New York 2016
Published: 2016/07/16
Channel: FoodTravelEntertainment NC
CHERRY PICKING IN BRENTWOOD! - May 22, 2016
CHERRY PICKING IN BRENTWOOD! - May 22, 2016
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: MelBeezeeTV
016 Introduction to Git cherry-pick
016 Introduction to Git cherry-pick
Published: 2015/12/21
Channel: Dan Gitschooldude
Ukulele tutorial - cherry picking
Ukulele tutorial - cherry picking
Published: 2015/11/29
Channel: Ukulele Oxford
Metaphysical Cherry Picking - Scott Clifton (Theoretical Bullshit) - ReasonFest 2014
Metaphysical Cherry Picking - Scott Clifton (Theoretical Bullshit) - ReasonFest 2014
Published: 2014/07/03
Channel: HamboneProductions
Guy Verhofstadt: Theresa May
Guy Verhofstadt: Theresa May's 'cherry picking' on Brexit will not work - BBC Newsnight
Published: 2017/01/31
Channel: BBC Newsnight
Re: "Cherry Picking Christians" & Same Sex Marriage
Re: "Cherry Picking Christians" & Same Sex Marriage
Published: 2014/03/24
Channel: MrRepzion
Girlpool - "Cherry Picking" (Live Outside)
Girlpool - "Cherry Picking" (Live Outside)
Published: 2015/06/03
Channel: wichitarecordings
Episode 21 - Young, NSW, Australia - CHERRY PICKING!!
Episode 21 - Young, NSW, Australia - CHERRY PICKING!!
Published: 2017/02/13
Channel: Charlotte Choplin
Pick & Pom by Cherry Picking
Pick & Pom by Cherry Picking
Published: 2017/03/16
Channel: Cherry Picking
Cherry picking, Kaituna Valley, Canterbury, New Zealand
Cherry picking, Kaituna Valley, Canterbury, New Zealand
Published: 2012/01/06
Channel: visitcanterbury
LeBron James Caught Cherry Picking ! - CAVS vs NETS | Jan 6, 2017 | 16-17 NBA Season - New Best
LeBron James Caught Cherry Picking ! - CAVS vs NETS | Jan 6, 2017 | 16-17 NBA Season - New Best
Published: 2017/02/15
Channel: NBA Hotspot
Living in Australia: Cherry Picking Farm
Living in Australia: Cherry Picking Farm
Published: 2013/02/03
Channel: darifromoz
Tobias Elof Explains Cherry Picking (Ukulele Right Hand Technique)
Tobias Elof Explains Cherry Picking (Ukulele Right Hand Technique)
Published: 2014/01/10
Channel: Jo Goddard
NBA 2k17 MyCareer | No Spite | Buzzer Beater | Cherry Picking | Ep.19
NBA 2k17 MyCareer | No Spite | Buzzer Beater | Cherry Picking | Ep.19
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: mrjackson88real
Cherry Picking Review - with Tom Vasel
Cherry Picking Review - with Tom Vasel
Published: 2014/12/03
Channel: The Dice Tower
How Do I Know EXACTLY WHEN to Pick My Cherry Tomatoes? You Can
How Do I Know EXACTLY WHEN to Pick My Cherry Tomatoes? You Can't Go By Color.
Published: 2014/08/30
Channel: JuicingGardener (Sheryl Mann)
[HOW TO] LEARN HOW TO CHERRY-PICK FROM GITHUB
[HOW TO] LEARN HOW TO CHERRY-PICK FROM GITHUB
Published: 2016/06/22
Channel: stark droid
Tasselinchen- Das Tassel Werkzeug von Cherry Picking
Tasselinchen- Das Tassel Werkzeug von Cherry Picking
Published: 2017/06/26
Channel: Cherry Picking
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Cherry picking can be found in many logical fallacies.

Cherry picking, suppressing evidence, or the fallacy of incomplete evidence is the act of pointing to individual cases or data that seem to confirm a particular position, while ignoring a significant portion of related cases or data that may contradict that position. It is a kind of fallacy of selective attention, the most common example of which is the confirmation bias.[1][2] Cherry picking may be committed intentionally or unintentionally. This fallacy is a major problem in public debate.[3]

The term is based on the perceived process of harvesting fruit, such as cherries. The picker would be expected to only select the ripest and healthiest fruits. An observer who only sees the selected fruit may thus wrongly conclude that most, or even all, of the tree's fruit is in a likewise good condition. This can also give a false impression of the quality of the fruit (since it is only a sample and is not a representative sample).

Cherry picking has a negative connotation as it directly suppresses evidence that could lead to a more complete picture.

A concept sometimes confused with cherry picking is the idea of gathering only the fruit that is easy to harvest, while ignoring other fruit that is higher up on the tree and thus more difficult to obtain (see low-hanging fruit).

Cherry picking can be found in many logical fallacies. For example, the "fallacy of anecdotal evidence" tends to overlook large amounts of data in favor of that known personally, "selective use of evidence" rejects material unfavorable to an argument, while a false dichotomy picks only two options when more are available. Cherry picking can refer to the selection of data or data sets so a study or survey will give desired, predictable results which may be misleading or even completely contrary to reality.[4]

In science[edit]

Choosing to make selective choices among competing evidence, so as to emphasize those results that support a given position, while ignoring or dismissing any findings that do not support it, is a practice known as "cherry picking" and is a hallmark of poor science or pseudo-science.[5]

— Richard Somerville, Testimony before the US House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Energy and Power, March 8, 2011.

Rigorous science looks at all the evidence (rather than cherry picking only favorable evidence), controls for variables as to identify what is actually working, uses blinded observations so as to minimize the effects of bias, and uses internally consistent logic."[6]

— Steven Novella, "A Skeptic In Oz", April 26, 2011

In medicine[edit]

In a 2002 study, researchers "reviewed 31 antidepressant efficacy trials to identify the primary exclusion criteria used in determining eligibility for participation. Their findings suggest that patients in current antidepressant trials represent only a minority of patients treated in routine clinical practice for depression. Excluding potential clinical trial subjects with certain profiles means that the ability to generalize the results of antidepressant efficacy trials lacks empirical support, according to the authors."[7]

In argumentation[edit]

In argumentation, the practice of "quote mining" is a form of cherry picking,[5] in which the debater selectively picks some quotes supporting a position (or exaggerating an opposing position) while ignoring those that moderate the original quote or put it into a different context. Cherry picking in debates is a large problem as the facts themselves are true, but need to be put in context. Because research cannot be done live and is often untimely, cherry picked facts or quotes usually stick in the public mainstream and, even when corrected, lead to widespread misrepresentation of groups targeted.

One-sided argument[edit]

A one-sided argument (also known as card stacking, stacking the deck, ignoring the counterevidence, slanting, and suppressed evidence)[8] is an informal fallacy that occurs when only the reasons supporting a proposition are supplied, while all reasons opposing it are omitted.

Peter Suber has written: "The one-sidedness fallacy does not make an argument invalid. It may not even make the argument unsound. The fallacy consists in persuading readers, and perhaps ourselves, that we have said enough to tilt the scale of evidence and therefore enough to justify a judgment. If we have been one-sided, though, then we haven't yet said enough to justify a judgment. The arguments on the other side may be stronger than our own. We won't know until we examine them. So the one-sidedness fallacy doesn't mean that your premises are false or irrelevant, only that they are incomplete."[9]

"With rational messages, you need to decide if you want to use a one-sided argument or a two-sided argument. A one-sided argument only presents the pro side of the argument, while a two-sided argument presents both sides. Which one you use will depend on which one meets your needs and the type of audience. Generally, one-sided arguments are better with audiences already favorable to your message. Two-sided arguments are best with audiences who are opposed to your argument, are better educated or have already been exposed to counter arguments."[9]

Card stacking is a propaganda technique that seeks to manipulate audience perception of an issue by emphasizing one side and repressing another.[10] Such emphasis may be achieved through media bias or the use of one-sided testimonials, or by simply censoring the voices of critics. The technique is commonly used in persuasive speeches by political candidates to discredit their opponents and to make themselves seem more worthy.[11]

The term originates from the magician's gimmick of "stacking the deck", which involves presenting a deck of cards that appears to have been randomly shuffled but which is, in fact, 'stacked' in a specific order. The magician knows the order and is able to control the outcome of the trick. In poker, cards can be stacked so that certain hands are dealt to certain players.[12]

The phenomenon can be applied to any subject and has wide applications. Whenever a broad spectrum of information exists, appearances can be rigged by highlighting some facts and ignoring others. Card stacking can be a tool of advocacy groups or of those groups with specific agendas.[13] For example, an enlistment poster might focus upon an impressive picture, with words such as "travel" and "adventure", while placing the words, "enlist for two to four years" at the bottom in a smaller and less noticeable point size.[14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Fallacies", Bradley Dowden (2010)
  2. ^ Cherry Picking
  3. ^ Klass, Gary. "Just Plain Data Analysis: Common Statistical Fallacies in Analyses of Social Indicator Data. Department of Politics and Government, Illinois State University" (PDF). statlit.org. ~2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2014. Retrieved March 25, 2014. 
  4. ^ Goldacre, Ben (2008). Bad Science. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 97–99. ISBN 978-0-00-728319-4. 
  5. ^ a b "Devious deception in displaying data: Cherry picking", Science or Not, April 3, 2012, retrieved 16 February 2015
  6. ^ Novella, Steven (26 April 2011). "A Skeptic In Oz". Science-Based Medicine. Retrieved 16 February 2015. 
  7. ^ "Typical Depression Patients Excluded from Drug Trials; exclusion criteria: is it "cherry picking"?". The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update. Wiley Periodicals. 13 (5): 1–3. May 2002. ISSN 1068-5308.  Based on the studies:
    • Posternak, MA; Zimmerman, M; Keitner, GI; Miller, IW (February 2002). "A reevaluation of the exclusion criteria used in antidepressant efficacy trials". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (2): 191–200. PMID 11823258. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.2.191. 
    • Zimmerman, M; Mattia, JI; Posternak, MA (March 2002). "Are subjects in pharmacological treatment trials of depression representative of patients in routine clinical practice?". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 159 (3): 469–73. PMID 11870014. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.159.3.469. 
  8. ^ "One-Sidedness - The Fallacy Files". Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  9. ^ a b Peter Suber. "The One-Sidedness Fallacy". Retrieved 25 September 2012. 
  10. ^ The fine art of propaganda: a study of Father Coughlin's s=Institute for Propaganda Analysis. Harcourt Brace and Company. 1939. pp. 95–101. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 
  11. ^ C. S. Kim, John (1993). The art of creative critical thinking. University Press of America. pp. 317–318. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 
  12. ^ Ruchlis, Hyman; Sandra Oddo (1990). Clear thinking: a practical introduction. Prometheus Books. pp. 195–196. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 
  13. ^ James, Walene (1995). Immunization: the reality behind the myth, Volume 3. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 193–194. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 
  14. ^ Shabo, Magedah (2008). Techniques of Propaganda and Persuasion. Prestwick House Inc. pp. 24–29. Retrieved November 24, 2010. 

External links[edit]

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