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The Chess Records Story 01
The Chess Records Story 01
Published: 2013/01/08
Channel: corporalhenshaw
Chess Club Rhythm & Soul
Chess Club Rhythm & Soul
Published: 2014/04/23
Channel: LombardMod
Cadillac Records - I
Cadillac Records - I'd Rather Go Blind
Published: 2011/03/08
Channel: Martin Novák
FUNERAL PHOTOS-Phil Chess, legendary founder of Chess Records, dead at 95
FUNERAL PHOTOS-Phil Chess, legendary founder of Chess Records, dead at 95
Published: 2016/10/19
Channel: News world
Etta & Harvey  "If I Can
Etta & Harvey "If I Can't Have You" - 1960 Chess Records
Published: 2013/11/14
Channel: Ken Strange
Little Walter "My Babe"
Little Walter "My Babe"
Published: 2012/11/10
Channel: Oleg Puchkov
Chess Records - 2120 South Michigan Avenue
Chess Records - 2120 South Michigan Avenue
Published: 2011/04/01
Channel: Better With A Drone
Chess Records - 19. 1964: Electric Blues Rebirth, Little Red Rooster by The Rolling Stones
Chess Records - 19. 1964: Electric Blues Rebirth, Little Red Rooster by The Rolling Stones
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: art/research
Chess Records - 04. Little Walter: Blues Harmonica, Juke (1952), Boom Boom (Out Go The Lights)
Chess Records - 04. Little Walter: Blues Harmonica, Juke (1952), Boom Boom (Out Go The Lights)
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: art/research
A Tour of Chess Records
A Tour of Chess Records
Published: 2008/12/02
Channel: TheBluesmobile
Howlin
Howlin' Wolf - Smoke Stack Lightning
Published: 2010/01/13
Channel: voutoreenie
Cadillac Records 2008  Full Movie
Cadillac Records 2008 Full Movie
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: Jerrold Jung
Chess Records - 01. 1945: Black People Love Alcohol, 1947: White Polish Salesman Meets Muddy Waters
Chess Records - 01. 1945: Black People Love Alcohol, 1947: White Polish Salesman Meets Muddy Waters
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: art/research
The Chess Records Story 02
The Chess Records Story 02
Published: 2013/01/11
Channel: corporalhenshaw
The Chess Records Story 03
The Chess Records Story 03
Published: 2013/01/13
Channel: corporalhenshaw
Muddy Waters - "I
Muddy Waters - "I'm Ready" - (1954) - Chess Records
Published: 2014/01/16
Channel: Ken Strange
Chess Records
Chess Records
Published: 2014/08/13
Channel: Garland Floyd
Chuck Berry - Chess 45 RPM Records - 1955 - 1958
Chuck Berry - Chess 45 RPM Records - 1955 - 1958
Published: 2014/10/28
Channel: Patrick Teater
Chess Records - 22. 1968: Things Fall Apart, 1969: Leonard Chess Passes Away
Chess Records - 22. 1968: Things Fall Apart, 1969: Leonard Chess Passes Away
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: art/research
Spinning Blues Into Gold: The Chess Brothers and the Legendary Chess Records
Spinning Blues Into Gold: The Chess Brothers and the Legendary Chess Records
Published: 2012/05/15
Channel: iconoclassicbooks
Chess Records - 03. Muddy Waters: Rollin
Chess Records - 03. Muddy Waters: Rollin' Stone (1950), I Just Want To Make Love To You (1954)
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: art/research
Chess Records: The Southside
Chess Records: The Southside's Sad Soul
Published: 2010/03/02
Channel: whatsernamelove
The Chess Records Story 04
The Chess Records Story 04
Published: 2013/01/25
Channel: corporalhenshaw
Chuck Berry-Maybelline Chess Records-78
Chuck Berry-Maybelline Chess Records-78
Published: 2013/08/15
Channel: RPMmanToledo Ohio
Chess Records - 21. Charles Stepney, Rotary Connection (1967), Electric Mud (1968), The Dells
Chess Records - 21. Charles Stepney, Rotary Connection (1967), Electric Mud (1968), The Dells
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: art/research
Bobby Womack and the Valentinos Full Album Chess Records
Bobby Womack and the Valentinos Full Album Chess Records
Published: 2017/03/18
Channel: Dark Matter
Chess Records - 11. Bo Diddley
Chess Records - 11. Bo Diddley's Unique Sound & Image: Maracas, Hambone Beats & Female Guitarists
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: art/research
Chuck Berry - Maybellene, 1955 Chess Records.
Chuck Berry - Maybellene, 1955 Chess Records.
Published: 2016/11/15
Channel: VinylOldiesJukebox
Have A Merry CHESS Christmas - Full Vinyl LP - Various Artists
Have A Merry CHESS Christmas - Full Vinyl LP - Various Artists
Published: 2017/11/06
Channel: ThreeMinutesAday
All I Could Do Was Cry - Beyoncé Knowles (Cadillac Records)
All I Could Do Was Cry - Beyoncé Knowles (Cadillac Records)
Published: 2010/02/19
Channel: Amy's
Remembering Phil Chess and Chess Records, Eddie Applegate
Remembering Phil Chess and Chess Records, Eddie Applegate
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Rememberingthepassed
Bo Diddley, DIDDLEY DADDY, 1955 Chess Records in Chicago.
Bo Diddley, DIDDLEY DADDY, 1955 Chess Records in Chicago.
Published: 2017/06/28
Channel: Bobby Gass
World Chess Simultaneous Blind 50x Game 1 Timur Gareyev (Gareev) - How does he do it? 3 Dec16
World Chess Simultaneous Blind 50x Game 1 Timur Gareyev (Gareev) - How does he do it? 3 Dec16
Published: 2016/12/04
Channel: GM Thechesspuzzler
The Best of Moms (Mabley) and Pigmeat, Volume 1 by Chess Records
The Best of Moms (Mabley) and Pigmeat, Volume 1 by Chess Records
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Quentin T.
WILLIE DIXON BASS JAM at CHESS RECORDS by KISS THE SKY
WILLIE DIXON BASS JAM at CHESS RECORDS by KISS THE SKY
Published: 2017/01/29
Channel: KISS THE SKY - the Jimi Hendrix RE-Experience Tribute
chess records   bo   chuck
chess records bo chuck
Published: 2011/07/08
Channel: GBCbrad
Muddy Waters -  I Can
Muddy Waters - I Can't Be Satisfied (Chess/Aristocrat 1948)
Published: 2010/04/25
Channel: cojwat
Cadillac Records - Howlin
Cadillac Records - Howlin' Wolf Sings
Published: 2012/04/10
Channel: TubeMovieTrailer
Chess Records - 08. Willie Dixon, Hoochie Coochie Man (1954) by Muddy Waters
Chess Records - 08. Willie Dixon, Hoochie Coochie Man (1954) by Muddy Waters
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: art/research
Gene Ammons - Jug Head Ramble - chess records 1950 - jump blues R&B jazz
Gene Ammons - Jug Head Ramble - chess records 1950 - jump blues R&B jazz
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: Kingstoned - soundzz
Chuck Berry-Rock & Roll Music Chess Records-78
Chuck Berry-Rock & Roll Music Chess Records-78
Published: 2013/08/15
Channel: RPMmanToledo Ohio
Howling Wolf - Chess Records 78 - I
Howling Wolf - Chess Records 78 - I'm Leaving You
Published: 2009/08/27
Channel: Rich Hynes
The Best Of Chess Records:  Ray "Rocket 88"
The Best Of Chess Records: Ray "Rocket 88"
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: sheba2211
The Howlin
The Howlin' Wolf - Chess Records 78 - Forty Four
Published: 2009/09/03
Channel: Rich Hynes
4.1 Business Project- Leonard Chess
4.1 Business Project- Leonard Chess
Published: 2013/05/15
Channel: Donogh Lane
Chess Records - 12. Chuck Berry: Maybellene (1955), White Radio Crossover Success, Hamburgers
Chess Records - 12. Chuck Berry: Maybellene (1955), White Radio Crossover Success, Hamburgers
Published: 2015/10/23
Channel: art/research
Who Was The Best Chess Player In History - Chess Records
Who Was The Best Chess Player In History - Chess Records
Published: 2013/11/09
Channel: iccSlayer
Willie Mabon - The Seventh Son (Chess Records - 1955)
Willie Mabon - The Seventh Son (Chess Records - 1955)
Published: 2014/08/03
Channel: John1948ThirteenD
Chess Records - Willie Dixon
Chess Records - Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation - Chicago, Illinois
Published: 2017/03/06
Channel: PJ Adventures
Guinness World records in chess 2017.
Guinness World records in chess 2017.
Published: 2017/04/11
Channel: Chess Art
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Chess Records
Chessrecordslogo.gif
Parent company Universal Music Group
Founded 1950 (1950)
Founder Leonard Chess
Phil Chess
Defunct 1975 (1975)
Status Inactive
Distributor(s) Geffen
Genre Various
Country of origin United States
Location Chicago, Illinois

Chess Records was an American record company, founded in 1950 in Chicago and specializing in blues and rhythm and blues. Over time it expanded into soul music, gospel music, early rock and roll, and occasional jazz and comedy recordings, released on the Chess, Checker, Argo, and Cadet labels. The Chess catalogue is currently owned by Universal Music Group and managed by Geffen Records.

Founded and run by Jewish immigrant brothers from Poland, Leonard and Phil Chess, the company produced and released many singles and albums regarded as central to the rock music canon. The musician and critic Cub Koda described Chess as "America's greatest blues label."[1]

Chess was based at several different locations on the south side of Chicago, initially at two different locations on South Cottage Grove Ave.[2] The most famous location was 2120 S. Michigan Avenue from around 1956 to 1965, immortalized by the Rolling Stones in "2120 South Michigan Avenue", an instrumental recorded there during the group's first U.S. tour in 1964. The Stones recorded at Chess Studios on two more occasions. The building is now the home of Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation.[3] In the mid-1960s, Chess relocated to a much larger building, at 320 E. 21st Street, the label's final Chicago home.[2]

History[edit]

Chess brothers' company[edit]

The Chess Records logo, as featured on a Memphis Slim single

Leonard bought a stake in Aristocrat Records in 1947. in 1950, he brought his brother, Phil, into the operation, and they became the sole owners of the company. In the same year they brought in a third partner, Evelyn Aron, and renamed the company Chess Records.

The first release from Chess was a 78 RPM single, "My Foolish Heart", backed with "Bless You", by Gene Ammons, issued as Chess 1425 in June 1950, which became the label's biggest hit of the year.[4]

In 1951, the Chess brothers began an association with Sam Phillips, of the Memphis Recording Service, the forerunner of Sun Records.[4] One of the most important recordings that Phillips gave to Chess was "Rocket 88", by Ike Turner and His Delta Cats, which topped Billboard magazine's R&B Records chart[5] and was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 1998 in recognition of its influence on rock and roll.[6] One of the most important artists that came out of Memphis was Howlin' Wolf,[7] who stayed with the label until his death in 1976. Many songs created by Chess artists were later covered by many famous rock-and-roll artists, including the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Beach Boys and Eric Clapton. Musical figures created for Chess by Bo Diddley, Willie Dixon, Chuck Berry, Howlin Wolf, Muddy Waters, Buddy Guy and others were the basis of much subsequent rock and roll.

In 1952, the brothers started Checker Records as an alternative label for radio play (radio stations would only play a limited number of records from any one imprint).[8] In December 1955, they launched a jazz and pop label, Marterry, a name created from the first names of Leonard and Phil's sons, Marshall and Terry.[2] This was quickly renamed Argo Records, but the name was changed again in 1965 to Cadet Records to end confusion with a British spoken-word label.

In 1953, Leonard Chess and Gene Goodman set up Arc Music BMI, a publishing company, which published songs by many rhythm and blues artists.[9]

In the mid-1950s, the Chess brothers received two doo-wop groups by Alan Freed, the Coronets and the Moonglows; the former group was not very popular but the latter achieved several crossover hits including "Sincerely", which was inducted into the Grammy Hall of Fame in 2002.[6] Several of Chess's releases gave a writing credit to Alan Freed.

During the 1950s, Leonard and Phil Chess handled most of the production. They brought in producer Ralph Bass in 1960 to handle the gospel output and some of the blues singers. Bassist and songwriter Willie Dixon was also heavily involved in organizing blues sessions for the label and is now credited retroactively as a producer on some re-releases.[2] During the 1960s, the company's A&R manager and chief producer for soul and R&B recordings was Roquel "Billy" Davis, who had previously worked with Motown founder Berry Gordy on songs for Jackie Wilson, Etta James, Marv Johnson and other early Motown releases.

Chess Studios, 2120 South Michigan Ave., Chicago, later Willie Dixon's Blues Heaven Foundation (photo 2009)

In 1958, Chess began producing their first LP records[10] which included such albums as The Best of Muddy Waters, Best of Little Walter, and Bo Diddley.

Chess Records was also known for its regular band of session musicians who played on most of the company's Chicago soul recordings, including the drummer Maurice White and the bassist Louis Satterfield, both of whom later shaped the funk group Earth, Wind, & Fire; the guitarists Pete Cosey, Gerald Sims and Phil Upchurch; the pianist Leonard Caston, later a producer for Motown; and the organist Sonny Thompson. In 1962, Chess Records was sued by Peacock Records for recording their artists Reverend Robert Ballinger and the Five Blind Boys of Mississippi.[11]

In 1969, Chess Records established a subsidiary, Middle Earth Records, in the U.K., which was distributed by Pye Records. The subsidiary specialized in Psychedelic rock and was a joint venture with the Middle Earth Club in London. The Middle Earth label released only four albums and about a dozen singles before it closed in 1970.[12]

The company was briefly run by Marshall Chess, Leonard's son, in his position as vice president between January and October 1969 and then as president following its acquisition by GRT, before he went on to found Rolling Stones Records.

Under GRT and All Platinum[edit]

In 1969, the Chess brothers sold the label to General Recorded Tape (GRT) for $6.5 million. In October 1969, Leonard Chess died and by 1972, the only part of Chess Records still operating in Chicago was the recording studio, Ter-Mar Studios. Following the sale of Chess to GRT, Phil left the label to run radio station WVON. In the 1970s, Chess Records and its publishing arm, Arc Music, were successfully sued by Muddy Waters[13] and Willie Dixon[14] for nonpayment of royalties due to them.

Some of the other artists who contributed to the legacy of Chess Records were the Flamingos, the Moonglows, Fontella Bass, Billy Stewart, the Dells and the Ramsey Lewis Trio.

Although Chess had produced many R&B number-one records and major pop hits over the years, it was in 1972 that the label finally reached the top of the Billboard Hot 100, with Chuck Berry's "My Ding-a-Ling", a live recording from a concert in Coventry, England. It was the company's swan song. GRT had moved the label to New York City, operating it as a division of Janus Records.[citation needed]

Later incarnations[edit]

In the early 1980s, noticing that much of the Chess catalogue was unavailable, Marshall Chess was able to convince Joe and Sylvia Robinson, who ran All Platinum, to reissue the catalogue themselves under his supervision (All Platinum had been licensing selected tracks to other companies, which ultimately resulted in the disappearance of some original master tapes).[2] The reissued singles and LPs sold well, but by the mid-80s All Platinum had fallen into financial difficulties, and the Chess master recordings were acquired by MCA Records, which itself was later merged with Geffen Records. a Universal Music imprint.

In February 1997, MCA started releasing eleven compilation albums for the 50th anniversary of Chess Records.[15]

In the 1990s, MCA Records sued Charly Records for selling CDs which contained copyrighted material by Chess artists.[16]

In the 2000s, Universal's limited-edition reissue label, Hip-O Select, began releasing a series of comprehensive box sets devoted to such Chess artists as Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Bo Diddley and Chuck Berry.

Chess Records was the subject of two films produced in 2008, Cadillac Records and Who Do You Love?. In addition to the Chess brothers, both films feature portrayals of or characters based on Willie Dixon, Muddy Waters, Little Walter, Chuck Berry, Howlin' Wolf and Etta James. Cadillac Records was directed by Darnell Martin and features an ensemble cast including Adrien Brody, Mos Def, Beyoncé Knowles and Jeffrey Wright. Who Do You Love was directed by Tony Award winner Jerry Zaks and stars Alessandro Nivola playing Leonard Chess "as a complicated, driven man, hard on both his musicians and his family, yet with a real love for some of America's greatest music." The world premiere of the latter film was at the Toronto International Film Festival, September 11, 2008.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Cub Koda (1967-08-23). "Chess Blues, Various Artists | Songs, Reviews, Credits". AllMusic. Retrieved 2016-10-19. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Cohodas, Nadine (2000). "Spinning Blues into Gold: The Chess Brothers and the Legendary Chess Records". Bluestogold.com. New York: St. Martins. Archived from the original on 2017-02-04. Retrieved 2016-10-19. 
  3. ^ Adams, Ginger (2015-12-22). "Architecture, Food and Music Keep Tourists Coming to Chicago". New York Daily News. Retrieved 2016-10-19. 
  4. ^ a b White, George R.; Campbell, Robert L.; Kelly, Tom. "The Chess Label Part I (1950–1952)". Clemson, South Carolina: Clemson University. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  5. ^ Whitburn, Joel (2004). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles (1942–2004). Record Research. p. 800. 
  6. ^ a b "Grammy Hall of Fame". Recording Academy. Archived from the original on January 22, 2011. Retrieved March 12, 2011. 
  7. ^ Leonard Chess and Howlin' Wolf interviewed on the Pop Chronicles (1969)
  8. ^ Dahl, Bill Chess Records and the Ten 73s That Helped Shape Modern Music Vinyl Factory. August 5, 2015.
  9. ^ "Chess, Goodman in New Firm". Billboard: 16. August 1, 1953. Retrieved December 31, 2010. 
  10. ^ Howard Mandel, ed. (2005). The Billboard Illustrated Encyclopedia of Jazz & Blues. Billboard Books. pp. 176, 182. ISBN 0-8230-8266-0. 
  11. ^ "Accuse Chesses in Court Suit". Billboard: 11. December 8, 1962. Retrieved December 31, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Middle Earth Records Discography". Rateyourmusic.com. Retrieved 2012-03-21. 
  13. ^ "American Masters: Muddy Waters – Can't Be Satisfied". PBS. 2006-05-24. Retrieved 2012-03-21. 
  14. ^ Snowden, Don (1990). I Am the Blues. DaCapo Press. p. 186. ISBN 978-0306804151.
  15. ^ Reece, Doug (December 7, 1996). "Vital Reissues – A Selected Guide to Fourthcoming Releases". Billboard: 52. Retrieved December 31, 2010. 
  16. ^ Holland, Bill (October 8, 1997). "MCA Is Victor in Supreme Ct. Refusal to Hear Charly Case". Billboard: 7. Retrieved December 31, 2010. 
  17. ^ Anderson, John (September 17, 2008). "Who Do You Love - Review". Variety. Retrieved November 6, 2012. 

External links[edit]

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