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The Chicago Black Renaissance Documentary
The Chicago Black Renaissance Documentary
Published: 2017/02/23
Channel: Joyce Shelton
Harlem Renaissance   Vs. Chicago Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance Vs. Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: jaied2009
Timuel Black: Growing up in Chicago’s “Black Belt”
Timuel Black: Growing up in Chicago’s “Black Belt”
Published: 2014/10/20
Channel: The University of Chicago
Chicago Renaissance & Harlem Renaissance
Chicago Renaissance & Harlem Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: helenesther92
Why African-Americans left the south in droves — and what
Why African-Americans left the south in droves — and what's bringing them back
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: Vox
Chicago Black Renaissance
Chicago Black Renaissance
Published: 2006/11/05
Channel: queomega
Chicago  Harlem Renaissance.wmv
Chicago Harlem Renaissance.wmv
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: ramiezholmes
The Black Renaissance Project
The Black Renaissance Project ''Black Renaissance''
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: SoulStylistJukeBox
Black Renaissance - Elevate Your Now
Black Renaissance - Elevate Your Now
Published: 2016/11/09
Channel: CBS SF Bay Area
The Chicago Black Renaissance
The Chicago Black Renaissance
Published: 2006/11/05
Channel: queomega
THE BLACK RENAISSANCE PART 1
THE BLACK RENAISSANCE PART 1
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: HEBREW HISTORY CHANNEL
History Brief: The Great Migration
History Brief: The Great Migration
Published: 2015/07/04
Channel: Reading Through History
Wall of Respect... Chicago Artists Document Black Culture
Wall of Respect... Chicago Artists Document Black Culture
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Tony Smith
Harlem and Chicago renaissance
Harlem and Chicago renaissance
Published: 2011/03/22
Channel: Jessica Spann
My Black Chicago-A Renaissance Musical Promo
My Black Chicago-A Renaissance Musical Promo
Published: 2010/07/29
Channel: David Weathersby
Harlem renaissance VS. Chicago renaissance.wmv
Harlem renaissance VS. Chicago renaissance.wmv
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: AmberChevone92
Changing of the Tides: A New Black Renaissance
Changing of the Tides: A New Black Renaissance
Published: 2017/08/29
Channel: REVOLT TV
Tony Cazeau
Tony Cazeau's New Black Renaissance - Buddy Guy's Legend - Chicago
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: Regina Rice
Harlem Renaissance Vs Chicago Renaissance
Harlem Renaissance Vs Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: Terrance Branch
Gay Harlem and Chicago Renaissance
Gay Harlem and Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: geff231
Women Artists of the Harlem Renaissance
Women Artists of the Harlem Renaissance
Published: 2016/03/31
Channel: karataev
The Harlem Renaissance
The Harlem Renaissance
Published: 2015/10/16
Channel: Joseph Walker
The Harlem Renaissance - Bryan Carter
The Harlem Renaissance - Bryan Carter
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: Humanities Seminars Program
Eldzier Cortor
Eldzier Cortor
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: Clyde Winters
Harlem v.s. Chicago Renaissance
Harlem v.s. Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: jasminetwenty
Harlem and Chicago Renaissance
Harlem and Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/22
Channel: Colton Lee
Black Renaissance: Echo Brown
Black Renaissance: Echo Brown
Published: 2015/07/20
Channel: CBS SF Bay Area
Black Music Renaissance:  Tribute To The Women And Men Of Gospel Set 1
Black Music Renaissance: Tribute To The Women And Men Of Gospel Set 1
Published: 2016/03/03
Channel: WERKSTATT DER KULTUREN
Black Renaissance:: BAC Theatre
Black Renaissance:: BAC Theatre
Published: 2015/01/20
Channel: CBS SF Bay Area
Taking a look at the Chicago and Harlem Renaissance
Taking a look at the Chicago and Harlem Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: kimmykim010
the Chicago Renaissance #TagSomebody
the Chicago Renaissance #TagSomebody
Published: 2015/08/13
Channel: Marissa Herrod
Chicago Renaissance vs. Harlem Renaissance
Chicago Renaissance vs. Harlem Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: DJmistamist3
NAHSE Chicago 2015 Spring Fling Gala featuring New Black Renaissance
NAHSE Chicago 2015 Spring Fling Gala featuring New Black Renaissance
Published: 2015/03/17
Channel: BonhART Designs
The Harlem Chicago Renaissance   Fixed Video
The Harlem Chicago Renaissance Fixed Video
Published: 2011/06/10
Channel: John Smith
The New Harlem & Chicago Renaissance
The New Harlem & Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/06/10
Channel: dream58
Harlem Renaissance Librarian: Regina Andrews Documentary.m4v
Harlem Renaissance Librarian: Regina Andrews Documentary.m4v
Published: 2012/12/13
Channel: ewhitmire1
Why Was The Harlem Renaissance Important To The United States?
Why Was The Harlem Renaissance Important To The United States?
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: sri sparky
Harlem Vs Chicago Renaissance
Harlem Vs Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/24
Channel: Terri E
black renaissance
black renaissance
Published: 2009/07/08
Channel: masalachai3
Harlem Vs. Chicago Renaissance
Harlem Vs. Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: JaeCharnelle
The Harlem Chicago Renaissance
The Harlem Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/06/10
Channel: John Smith
harlem and chicago renaissance.wmv
harlem and chicago renaissance.wmv
Published: 2011/03/22
Channel: trimaine Butler
Black Renaissance group Eephus with Chicago locals today for Black Lives Matter rally  at "The Bean"
Black Renaissance group Eephus with Chicago locals today for Black Lives Matter rally at "The Bean"
Published: 2015/08/17
Channel: Clair Hochstetler
IG Culture - Black Renaissance feat Mr Mensah Lisa Lore & Ernest Kabeer Dawkins
IG Culture - Black Renaissance feat Mr Mensah Lisa Lore & Ernest Kabeer Dawkins
Published: 2012/07/22
Channel: marekpinkas
Harlem vs. Chicago Renaissance
Harlem vs. Chicago Renaissance
Published: 2011/03/23
Channel: Thomas Lewis
RJ El on "The Chicago Renaissance"
RJ El on "The Chicago Renaissance"
Published: 2014/06/11
Channel: Adam Gottlieb
Garvey and Harlem Renaissance
Garvey and Harlem Renaissance
Published: 2015/09/27
Channel: Jim Clingman
African American Renaissance
African American Renaissance
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: marshall gregory Thomas
The Harlem Renaissance in the Roaring 20
The Harlem Renaissance in the Roaring 20's
Published: 2017/03/07
Channel: Tatehutch
Tony Cazeau
Tony Cazeau's New Black Renaissance - Buddy Guy's Legend
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: Regina Rice
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The Chicago Black Renaissance (also known as the Black Chicago Renaissance) was a creative movement that blossomed out of the Chicago Black Belt on the city's South Side and spanned the 1930s and 1940s before a transformation in art and culture in the mid-1950s through the turn of the century. The movement included such famous African-American writers as Richard Wright, Margaret Walker, Gwendolyn Brooks, Arna Bontemps, and Lorraine Hansberry, as well as musicians Thomas A. Dorsey, Louis Armstrong, and Earl Hines.[1][2][3][4][5] During the Great Migration, which brought tens of thousands of African-Americans to Chicago's South Side, African-American writers, artists, and community leaders began promoting racial pride and a new black consciousness, similar to that of the Harlem Renaissance in New York City.[6] Unlike the Harlem Renaissance, the Chicago Black Renaissance did not receive the same amount of publicity on a national setting. This was due to several factors, including the lower profile participants in the movement, the lack of wealthy patrons investing in the movement, and a geographical distance from New York as a publishing center.[1]

Development of the African American Community in Chicago[edit]

The Chicago Black Renaissance was influenced by two major social and economic conditions: the Great Migration and the Great Depression. The Great Migration brought tens of thousands of African Americans from the south to Chicago. Between 1910 and 1930 the African American population increased from 44,000 to 230,000.[7] Before this migration, African Americans only constituted 2% of Chicago’s population.[8] African American migrants resided in a segregated zone on Chicago’s south side, extending from 22nd Street on the north to 63rd Street on the south, and reaching from the Rock Island railroad tracks on the west to Cottage Grove Avenue on the east.[7] This zone of neighborhoods was known as the “black belt” or “black ghetto.”

African Americans saw Chicago, like other cities of the north, as a chance for freedom from legally sanctioned racial discrimination. Migrants mainly found work in meatpacking plants, steel mills, garment shops, and private homes.[7] The Great Migration established the foundation of Chicago's African American industrial working class. When the stock market crashed in 1929 and the Great Depression resulted, thousands of people lost their jobs. African Americans were hit particularly hard. This catastrophe allowed for an emergence of new ideas and institutions among the black community. With a revitalized community spirit and sense of racial pride, a new black consciousness developed resulting in a shift toward social activism. African Americans on the south side coined the word Bronzeville, a word that described the skin tone of most its inhabitants, to identify their community.[7]

Music[edit]

Jazz, blues, and gospel grew and flourished during the Chicago Black Renaissance.

Jazz, which developed as a mix of European and African musical styles, began in the southeastern United States, but is said to have made its way from New Orleans to Chicago in 1915, when migrants came north to work in factories, mills, and stockyards.[6] As more of the population moved north, the sound developed and grew in popularity. In 1922, Louis Armstrong followed his band leader Joe “King” Oliver to Chicago from New Orleans. He showed a unique talent for improvisation and quickly became jazz sensation. For 30 years, he defined jazz in Chicago.[2] During that time, Chicago heard a number of jazz greats such as Earl “Fatha” Hines, Jelly Roll Morton, Erskine Tate, Fats Waller, and Cab Calloway.[6]

Blues also came to Chicago from the southeast during this period. In contrast to jazz, blues brought a somber tone of life and work in the Mississippi Delta. Towards the end of the Chicago Black Renaissance, Chicago started to change the sound of blues, adding drums, piano, bass, harmonica, and switching the acoustic guitar for electric. The new style was called Chicago Blues. Greats such as Chester Burnett, Willie Dixon, Muddy Waters, and Koko Taylor were prominent during this time.[2]

Gospel, though popular before the Renaissance, saw a resurgence in prominence during this time. The “Father of Gospel Music,” Thomas Dorsey, brought hundreds of new gospel songs from the Southern Pentecostal Church to the public by blending the sound with urban style.[1] Mahalia Jackson, the “Queen of Gospel Music,” made many of these songs mainstream when she arrived in Chicago in 1927.[2]

Literature[edit]

The writing of the Chicago Black Renaissance addressed the culture of Chicago, racial tensions, issues of identity, and a search for meaning.[2] Prominent writers in the movement included Richard Wright, Margaret Walker, Gwendolyn Brooks, Arna Bontemps, Fenton Johnson and Lorraine Hansberry. The South Side Writers Group was a writing circle of several authors and poets from the time of the Chicago Black Renaissance. Its members worked collaboratively to inspire one another and explore new themes.[2]

Newspapers and periodicals including the Chicago Defender, Chicago Sunday Bee, Negro Story Magazine, and Negro Digest also took part in supporting the literature of the Chicago Black Renaissance. These periodicals offered forums for writers of the movement to publish their work and also provided employment to many of these writers.[6]

Some of the well known literary works that emerged from the Chicago Black Renaissance include Wright's Native Son, Brooks' A Street in Bronzeville, St. Clair Drake and Horace R. Cayton's Black Metropolis, and Frank Marshall Davis' Black Man’s Verse and 47th Street: Poems.[2][4]

Visual Arts[edit]

In addition to musicians and writers, several visual artists emerged during the Chicago Black Renaissance. Painters used different styles from portraiture to abstraction to reveal the thrills and grit of black life. Photographers also displayed daily life of south side Chicago through a variety of iconic American images.[3]

Four black artists, all of whom attended the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, are famous for sharing the vibrant spirit of black Chicago through their art: William Edouard Scott, Charles Wilbert White, Archibald John Motley, Jr., and Eldzier Cortor.[2] Scott painted impressionist landscapes, portraits, and murals depicting black achievement, while White was a prominent graphic artist and worked with the mural division of the Illinois Federal Art Project. He was an active member of the South Side Community Art Center and his work, “There Were No Crops This Year,” won a first prize at the Negro Exposition in 1940.[4] Motley’s paintings, on the other hand, created controversy with his depictions of jazz culture and black sensuality, providing vivid images of urban black life in the 1920s and 1930s. Lastly, Cortor became famous for his delineation of the beauty of black women. In 1946, Life Magazine published one of his seminude female figures.[2]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Trice: Tracking Chicago's black renaissance". tribunedigital-chicagotribune. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Chicago Black Renaissance". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved 2016-10-11. 
  3. ^ a b "Chicago -- The Other Black Renaissance". PopMatters. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  4. ^ a b c "Black Chicago Renaissance". 
  5. ^ Knupfer, Anne Meis (2006). The Chicago Black Renaissance and Women's Activism. Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press
  6. ^ a b c d "From Riots to Renaissance (1919-1940)". wttw.com. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  7. ^ a b c d Lisa Oppenheim. "Black Chicago Renaissance". chicagohistoryfair.org. Retrieved 7 February 2016. 
  8. ^ "Great Migration". Encyclopedia of Chicago. Retrieved 2016-10-11. 

Further reading[edit]

Bone, Robert and Richard A. Courage (2011). The Muse in Bronzeville African American Creative Expression in Chicago, 1932-1950. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813550732. 

External links[edit]

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