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Chinese Immigration to Hawaii
Chinese Immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2010/05/20
Channel: jensenzen
Chinese in Hawaii with Douglas Chong
Chinese in Hawaii with Douglas Chong
Published: 2013/08/28
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Chinese in Hawaii in 4K
Chinese in Hawaii in 4K
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: laul344
Asian Immigration / Transcontinental Railroad
Asian Immigration / Transcontinental Railroad
Published: 2013/04/29
Channel: Central Washington University
Chinese immigration to Hawaii
Chinese immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Search Engine
Hawaii- China Town
Hawaii- China Town
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: Freedom Life
Japanese Immigration to Hawaii
Japanese Immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Jeff Gere
Korean Immigration to the United States (1903-1905)
Korean Immigration to the United States (1903-1905)
Published: 2010/03/31
Channel: aaaricuny
200 Years Chinese in Hawaii
200 Years Chinese in Hawaii
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: Philip Toledo
Hawaii: A Portrait of the Korean American Experience
Hawaii: A Portrait of the Korean American Experience
Published: 2016/03/04
Channel: Chloe Kagesa
Hawaii Sugar Cane Worker: A Day In The Life - on BITV
Hawaii Sugar Cane Worker: A Day In The Life - on BITV
Published: 2011/01/27
Channel: Big Island Television, Hawaii
Miss Hawaii Chinese 2015 Lindsey Mau - My Hometown
Miss Hawaii Chinese 2015 Lindsey Mau - My Hometown
Published: 2015/02/24
Channel: Miss Chinatown Hawaii
Life of a Chinese Woman in Hawaii - Fawn Shang
Life of a Chinese Woman in Hawaii - Fawn Shang
Published: 2014/01/15
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Modern History of Hawaii; Asian immigrants
Modern History of Hawaii; Asian immigrants
Published: 2015/09/30
Channel: Tanya Adams
America
America's Sources of Immigration (1850-Today)
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: The Daily Conversation
Economic boost for Hawaii from Chinese incentive trip
Economic boost for Hawaii from Chinese incentive trip
Published: 2017/04/17
Channel: KHON2 News
Documenting the History of Korean Immigration to the U.S.
Documenting the History of Korean Immigration to the U.S.
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: Tae Yun Kim
First 940 Japanese Immigrants to Hawaii in 1885
First 940 Japanese Immigrants to Hawaii in 1885
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: Honolulu News
PBS HAWAII PRESENTS - Canefield Songs: Holehole Bushi
PBS HAWAII PRESENTS - Canefield Songs: Holehole Bushi
Published: 2015/09/18
Channel: PBSHawaiiorg
Is Hawaii Ready for the Chinese? - Russell Leu
Is Hawaii Ready for the Chinese? - Russell Leu
Published: 2013/12/31
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Japanese Migration to Hawaii
Japanese Migration to Hawaii
Published: 2012/03/05
Channel: chelsyandambershow
1950s, Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii, USA
1950s, Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii, USA
Published: 2013/09/01
Channel: thekinolibrary
Sakadas & Filipino Immigration to Hawaii
Sakadas & Filipino Immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2013/10/16
Channel: Kababayan Weekly
2015 Chinese New Years in Waikiki!!!  With Miss Chinatown Hawaii!!!
2015 Chinese New Years in Waikiki!!! With Miss Chinatown Hawaii!!!
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: Nahua808
(1 of 8)  HISTORY OF HAWAII:  Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
(1 of 8) HISTORY OF HAWAII: Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
Published: 2011/08/09
Channel: OLYMPICHELLO
Polynesian/Japanese Immigration to Hawaii
Polynesian/Japanese Immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2008/06/18
Channel: 4Dang4
Chinese Immigration Presentation
Chinese Immigration Presentation
Published: 2011/10/10
Channel: CCleggStudent
1950s Hawaii, Japanese people at work
1950s Hawaii, Japanese people at work
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: thekinolibrary
Exploring A Chinese Ship In The Ocean | DIVING IN HAWAII
Exploring A Chinese Ship In The Ocean | DIVING IN HAWAII
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: JustinVlogs
Hawaii Chinese Association
Hawaii Chinese Association
Published: 2007/05/20
Channel: Johnson W K Choi
1950s Hawaii, Coca Cola, KFC and Chinese Food Signs
1950s Hawaii, Coca Cola, KFC and Chinese Food Signs
Published: 2016/02/05
Channel: thekinolibrary
A Better Life - A Portuguese Immigration
A Better Life - A Portuguese Immigration
Published: 2015/04/02
Channel: Anthony V
The Gilded Age: Chinese Immigration
The Gilded Age: Chinese Immigration
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: Mometrix Academy
Hawaii
Hawaii's Chinatown
Published: 2007/04/08
Channel: Doug Ross
Chinese Immigration
Chinese Immigration
Published: 2010/02/16
Channel: snowgoons0sprockets
Hawaii Immigration
Hawaii Immigration
Published: 2014/02/21
Channel: yumekizful
Pukiki, The Portuguese Americans of Hawai
Pukiki, The Portuguese Americans of Hawai'i
Published: 2008/02/08
Channel: hopemediaproductions
The Hawaiian Islands, Manila, The Edge Of China, Burton Holmes (Hawaii, Philippines)
The Hawaiian Islands, Manila, The Edge Of China, Burton Holmes (Hawaii, Philippines)
Published: 2010/11/08
Channel: LostWorldBooks
Voices from the Canefields: Folksongs from Japanese Immigrant Workers in Hawaii
Voices from the Canefields: Folksongs from Japanese Immigrant Workers in Hawaii
Published: 2014/01/31
Channel: LibraryOfCongress
What Chinese Tourist Are Looking For with Fawn Shang
What Chinese Tourist Are Looking For with Fawn Shang
Published: 2013/10/16
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Korean Immigration to the United States (1903-1905)
Korean Immigration to the United States (1903-1905)
Published: 2014/02/07
Channel: aaaricuny
US - China DME in Hawaii
US - China DME in Hawaii
Published: 2013/11/14
Channel: U.S. Pacific Command
Chinese Immigration to America
Chinese Immigration to America
Published: 2009/08/04
Channel: BananaPropaganda10
Becoming a Lawyer in China
Becoming a Lawyer in China
Published: 2016/11/22
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
2012 Miss Hawaii Chinese
2012 Miss Hawaii Chinese
Published: 2012/09/03
Channel: EarthHorse808
Human Beatbox Break Down For Ada At International Hawaii Chinese Cultural Arts Festival
Human Beatbox Break Down For Ada At International Hawaii Chinese Cultural Arts Festival
Published: 2017/11/27
Channel: Human Beatbox Academy
Hawaii Welcomes First Direct China Flight
Hawaii Welcomes First Direct China Flight
Published: 2011/01/31
Channel: KITV
Preparing Eight Immortals Soup in China: HUANG
Preparing Eight Immortals Soup in China: HUANG'S WORLD (Clip)
Published: 2016/06/15
Channel: VICELAND
(5 of 8)  HISTORY OF HAWAII:  Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
(5 of 8) HISTORY OF HAWAII: Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
Published: 2011/08/12
Channel: OLYMPICHELLO
HAWAII correspondent, Des Acenas reports on US immigration reform act
HAWAII correspondent, Des Acenas reports on US immigration reform act
Published: 2013/04/23
Channel: EAGLE NEWS INTERNATIONAL
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Chinese in Hawaii)
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Pākē
Total population
198,711 (2010) [1]
Languages
Cantonese, English, Hawaiian, Hakka
Religion
Roman Catholicism, Protestantism
Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
Related ethnic groups
Hakka Americans, Cantonese people

The Chinese in Hawaiʻi constitute about 4.7% of the state's population, most of whom (75%) are Cantonese people with ancestors from Zhongshan in Guangdong. This number does not include people of mixed Chinese and Hawaiian descent. If all people with Chinese ancestry in Hawaiʻi (including the Chinese-Hawaiians) are included, they form about 1/3 of Hawaii's entire population. As United States citizens, they are a group of Chinese Americans. A minority of this group have Hakka ancestry.

History[edit]

Historical records indicated that the earliest immigration of the Chinese came from Guangdong province: a few sailors in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey, more in 1788 with Kaina, and some in 1789 with an American trader who settled in Hawaiʻi in the late 18th century.

Chinese immigrant family living in Honolulu in 1893.

By 1790, a handful of Chinese lived on the island of Oʻahu, including the 1789 group. They lived together with the chief Kamehameha the Great. Because these Chinese men had not brought any Chinese women along with them, they intermarried with Hawaiian women. They became assimilated and created Chinese-Hawaiian surnames like Akaka, Ahina, etc., in which words of Chinese origin are pronounced with a soft Hawaiian tone. The practice of intermarrying with Hawaiian women continued well into the 19th century, when Chinese women were still a rarity in Hawaiʻi.

Most of the Chinese immigrants to Hawaii arrived in the mid-to-late 19th century, when 46,000 people immigrated to the islands. Although many came as laborers for sugar plantations in Hawaii, they concentrated on getting education for their children. When their contracts expired, many decided to remain in Hawaii and opened businesses in areas such as Chinatown. By 1950 most Chinese American men in Hawaii were educated and held good jobs. Today 95% of Chinese Americans in Hawaii live in Honolulu and work at professional jobs.

A significant minority of early Chinese immigrants to Hawaii, and even fewer to the Continental US, were Hakka, and much of the animosity between the Hakka and Punti Cantonese people carried over.[2] In the first half of the 1800s, around 30 percent of Chinese in Hawaii were of Hakka, while only about 3 percent in the West Coast were Hakka.[3] The largest surge of immigration in that century occurred after an 1876 treaty between the US and Kingdom of Hawaii led to an increased need for labor.

The majority of marriages between Chinese men and white women in Hawaii were with Portuguese women.[4][5][6] Portuguese and other caucasian women married Chinese men.[7][8] These unions between Chinese men and Portuguese women resulted in children of mixed Chinese Portuguese parentage, called Chinese-Portuguese. For two years to June 30, 1933, 38 of these children were born, they were classified as pure Chinese because their fathers were Chinese.[9] A large amount of mingling took place between Chinese and Portuguese, Chinese men married Portuguese, Spanish, Hawaiian, Caucasian-Hawaiian, etc.[10][11][12][13] Only one Chinese man was recorded marrying an American woman.[14][15] Chinese men in Hawaii also married Puerto Rican, Portuguese, Japanese, Greek, and half -white women.[16][17] There was a communal ban on intermarriages between the two groups for the first generation of migrants.[18] In the middle of the 19th century, Hakka immigrants in America were excluded from membership in the Chinese organizations.[19]

Religion[edit]

Prior to the arrival of Christian missionaries in Hawaii, the early Chinese settlers were adherents of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Some even blended aspects of native Hawaiian beliefs into their own belief systems.

Today, due to the work of Christian missionaries in the late 19th century and the 20th century, many of the Chinese in Hawaii are adherents of Protestant and Roman Catholic Christianity. Still, about 100 Buddhist and ancestral temples remain. The loyal minority who adhere to traditional Chinese religions pay pilgrimage to their ancestors annually. However, no accurate statistics of adherents within the Chinese community in Hawaiʻi are available.

List of notable Chinese people from Hawaiʻi[edit]

Hapa-pake (Chinese-Hawaiian) boy, 1909

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. Census Bureau: QT-P8: Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010
  2. ^ McDermott, John F.; Tseng, Wen-Shing; Maretzki, Thomas W. People and Cultures of Hawaii: A Psychocultural Profile. 
  3. ^ Carney Smith, Jessie. Ethnic Genealogy: A Research Guide. 
  4. ^ Romanzo Adams (2005). Interracial Marriage in Hawaii. Kessinger Publishing. p. 396. ISBN 978-1-4179-9268-3. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  5. ^ Margaret M. Schwertfeger (1982). Interethnic Marriage and Divorce in Hawaii A Panel Study of 1968 First Marriages. Kessinger Publishing. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  6. ^ 403 Forbidden
  7. ^ David Anthony Chiriboga, Linda S. Catron (1991). Divorce: crisis, challenge, or relief?. NYU Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-8147-1450-8. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  8. ^ Gary A. Cretser, Joseph J. Leon (1982). Intermarriage in the United States, Volume 5. Psychology Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-917724-60-2. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  9. ^ Romanzo Adams (2005). Interracial Marriage in Hawaii. Kessinger Publishing. p. 396. ISBN 978-1-4179-9268-3. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  10. ^ United States Bureau of Education (1921). Bulletin, Issues 13-18. U.S. G.P.O. p. 27. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  11. ^ United States. Office of Education (1920). Bulletin, Issue 16. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education. p. 27. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  12. ^ American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology (1920). American journal of physical anthropology, Volume 3. A. R. Liss. p. 492. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  13. ^ Gary A. Cretser, Joseph J. Leon (1982). Intermarriage in the United States, Volume 5. Routledge. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-917724-60-2. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  14. ^ American Genetic Association (1919). The Journal of heredity, Volume 10. American Genetic Association. p. 42. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  15. ^ American Genetic Association (1919). J hered, Volume 10. American Genetic Association. p. 42. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  16. ^ Alfred Emanuel Smith (1905). New Outlook, Volume 81. Outlook Publishing Company, Inc. p. 988. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  17. ^ The Outlook, Volume 81. Outlook Co. 1905. p. 988. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  18. ^ Mixed Blood: Intermarriage and Ethnic Identity in Twentieth-century America, Paul R. Spickard
  19. ^ Kiang, Clyde. THE HAKKA ODYSSEY & THEIR TAIWAN HOMELAND. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

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