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Chinese Immigration to Hawaii
Chinese Immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2010/05/20
Channel: jensenzen
Chinese in Hawaii with Douglas Chong
Chinese in Hawaii with Douglas Chong
Published: 2013/08/28
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
200 Years Chinese in Hawaii
200 Years Chinese in Hawaii
Published: 2016/01/14
Channel: Philip Toledo
Chinese in Hawaii in 4K
Chinese in Hawaii in 4K
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: laul344
Asian Immigration / Transcontinental Railroad
Asian Immigration / Transcontinental Railroad
Published: 2013/04/29
Channel: Central Washington University
PBS HAWAII PRESENTS - Canefield Songs: Holehole Bushi
PBS HAWAII PRESENTS - Canefield Songs: Holehole Bushi
Published: 2015/09/18
Channel: PBSHawaiiorg
Hawaii Sugar Cane Worker: A Day In The Life - on BITV
Hawaii Sugar Cane Worker: A Day In The Life - on BITV
Published: 2011/01/27
Channel: Big Island Television, Hawaii
Is Hawaii Ready for the Chinese? - Russell Leu
Is Hawaii Ready for the Chinese? - Russell Leu
Published: 2013/12/31
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Japanese Immigration to Hawaii
Japanese Immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Jeff Gere
1950s, Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii, USA
1950s, Japanese Immigrants in Hawaii, USA
Published: 2013/09/01
Channel: thekinolibrary
Hawaii: A Portrait of the Korean American Experience
Hawaii: A Portrait of the Korean American Experience
Published: 2016/03/04
Channel: Chloe Kagesa
Hawaii
Hawaii's Chinatown
Published: 2007/04/08
Channel: Doug Ross
Life of a Chinese Woman in Hawaii - Fawn Shang
Life of a Chinese Woman in Hawaii - Fawn Shang
Published: 2014/01/15
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Polynesian/Japanese Immigration to Hawaii
Polynesian/Japanese Immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2008/06/18
Channel: 4Dang4
Japanese Migration to Hawaii
Japanese Migration to Hawaii
Published: 2012/03/05
Channel: chelsyandambershow
Modern History of Hawaii; Asian immigrants
Modern History of Hawaii; Asian immigrants
Published: 2015/09/30
Channel: Tanya Adams
America
America's Sources of Immigration (1850-Today)
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: The Daily Conversation
Sakadas & Filipino Immigration to Hawaii
Sakadas & Filipino Immigration to Hawaii
Published: 2013/10/16
Channel: Kababayan Weekly
Japanese Immigration To Hawaii
Japanese Immigration To Hawaii
Published: 2016/09/10
Channel: Jack Anoft
Chinese Immigration
Chinese Immigration
Published: 2010/02/16
Channel: snowgoons0sprockets
The Gilded Age: Chinese Immigration
The Gilded Age: Chinese Immigration
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: Mometrix Academy
Initiating Ricky Li into the Hawaii Chinese Dinner Society
Initiating Ricky Li into the Hawaii Chinese Dinner Society
Published: 2011/08/22
Channel: Melissa Chang
Chinese Immigration to America
Chinese Immigration to America
Published: 2009/08/04
Channel: BananaPropaganda10
Hawaii chinese parade 2010 Pt.1
Hawaii chinese parade 2010 Pt.1
Published: 2010/04/03
Channel: Okashi808
1950s Hawaii, Coca Cola, KFC and Chinese Food Signs
1950s Hawaii, Coca Cola, KFC and Chinese Food Signs
Published: 2016/02/05
Channel: thekinolibrary
Koreans in Hawaii - Duk Hee Lee Murabayashi
Koreans in Hawaii - Duk Hee Lee Murabayashi
Published: 2014/04/30
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Hawaii Chinese Association
Hawaii Chinese Association
Published: 2007/05/20
Channel: Johnson W K Choi
Hawaii Chinese Association
Hawaii Chinese Association
Published: 2007/05/20
Channel: Johnson W K Choi
Tom Tong
Tom Tong's Art - Segment 2 - From Chinese to Hawaiian Art
Published: 2010/12/28
Channel: Graygrumpy
Hawaii Chinese Association
Hawaii Chinese Association
Published: 2007/05/20
Channel: Johnson W K Choi
(1 of 8)  HISTORY OF HAWAII:  Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
(1 of 8) HISTORY OF HAWAII: Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
Published: 2011/08/09
Channel: OLYMPICHELLO
Hawaii Chinese Association
Hawaii Chinese Association
Published: 2007/05/20
Channel: Johnson W K Choi
2015 Chinese New Years in Waikiki!!!  With Miss Chinatown Hawaii!!!
2015 Chinese New Years in Waikiki!!! With Miss Chinatown Hawaii!!!
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: Nahua808
(2 of 8)  HISTORY OF HAWAII:  Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
(2 of 8) HISTORY OF HAWAII: Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
Published: 2011/08/09
Channel: OLYMPICHELLO
State of the Law - Challenging Trump
State of the Law - Challenging Trump's Travel Ban with Hawaii Attorney General Douglas Chin
Published: 2017/03/13
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Tea: From China to Hawaii with Prof. Ching-Yuan Hu
Tea: From China to Hawaii with Prof. Ching-Yuan Hu
Published: 2014/11/12
Channel: ThinkTech Hawaii
Hawaii Chinese Asso mid Autum Festival
Hawaii Chinese Asso mid Autum Festival
Published: 2013/09/29
Channel: gloria chi
ASIAN AUSTRALIANS vs. ASIAN AMERICANS
ASIAN AUSTRALIANS vs. ASIAN AMERICANS
Published: 2014/10/02
Channel: FUNG BROS.
Korean Immigration to the United States (1903-1905)
Korean Immigration to the United States (1903-1905)
Published: 2010/03/31
Channel: aaaricuny
Immigrants-Spanish immigrants to Hawaii and California
Immigrants-Spanish immigrants to Hawaii and California
Published: 2014/11/30
Channel: Palomino Productions/Eve A. Ma
Korean Immigration to the United States (1903-1905)
Korean Immigration to the United States (1903-1905)
Published: 2014/02/07
Channel: aaaricuny
Hawaii Chinese New Years Celebration Day 1 2011 Pt.5
Hawaii Chinese New Years Celebration Day 1 2011 Pt.5
Published: 2011/02/03
Channel: Okashi808
Hawaii Immigrant Justice Center Entry
Hawaii Immigrant Justice Center Entry
Published: 2009/05/09
Channel: hijcenter
Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel Island, 1910-40, Second Edition
Island: Poetry and History of Chinese Immigrants on Angel Island, 1910-40, Second Edition
Published: 2014/03/24
Channel: UWashingtonPress
Miss Hawaii Chinese 2015 Lindsey Mau - My Hometown
Miss Hawaii Chinese 2015 Lindsey Mau - My Hometown
Published: 2015/02/24
Channel: Miss Chinatown Hawaii
Hawaii delegation lobbies for federal aid to help Micronesian immigrants
Hawaii delegation lobbies for federal aid to help Micronesian immigrants
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: KHON2 News
Hawaii, USA 8 Collage Video - youtube.com/tanvideo11
Hawaii, USA 8 Collage Video - youtube.com/tanvideo11
Published: 2013/12/24
Channel: tanvideo11
(7 of 8)  HISTORY OF HAWAII:  Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
(7 of 8) HISTORY OF HAWAII: Hawaiian Chinese Multicultural Museum
Published: 2011/08/12
Channel: OLYMPICHELLO
1950s Hawaii, Japanese people at work
1950s Hawaii, Japanese people at work
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: thekinolibrary
Migrations to Washington
Migrations to Washington
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: danni d
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Chinese in Hawaii)
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Pākē
Total population
198,711 (2010) [1]
Languages
Cantonese, English, Hawaiian, Hakka
Religion
Roman Catholicism, Protestantism
Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism
Related ethnic groups
Hakka Americans, Cantonese people

The Chinese in Hawaiʻi constitute about 4.7% of the state's population, most of whom (75%) are Cantonese people with ancestors from Zhongshan in Guangdong. This number does not include people of mixed Chinese and Hawaiian descent. If all people with Chinese ancestry in Hawaiʻi (including the Chinese-Hawaiians) are included, they form about 1/3 of Hawaii's entire population. As United States citizens, they are a group of Chinese Americans. A minority of this group have Hakka ancestry.

History[edit]

Historical records indicated that the earliest immigration of the Chinese came from Guangdong province: a few sailors in 1778 with Captain Cook's journey, more in 1788 with Kaina, and some in 1789 with an American trader who settled in Hawaiʻi in the late 18th century.

Chinese immigrant family living in Honolulu in 1893.

By 1790, a handful of Chinese lived on the island of Oʻahu, including the 1789 group. They lived together with the chief Kamehameha the Great. Because these Chinese men had not brought any Chinese women along with them, they intermarried with Hawaiian women. They became assimilated and created Chinese-Hawaiian surnames like Akaka, Ahina, etc., in which words of Chinese origin are pronounced with a soft Hawaiian tone. The practice of intermarrying with Hawaiian women continued well into the 19th century, when Chinese women were still a rarity in Hawaiiʻi.

Most of the Chinese immigrants to Hawaii arrived in the mid-to-late 19th century, when 46,000 people immigrated to the islands. Although many came as laborers for sugar plantations in Hawaii, they concentrated on getting education for their children. When their contracts expired, many decided to remain in Hawaii and opened businesses in areas such as Chinatown. By 1950 most Chinese American men in Hawaii were educated and held good jobs. Today 95% of Chinese Americans in Hawaii live in Honolulu and work at professional jobs.

A significant minority of early Chinese immigrants to Hawaii, and even fewer to the Continental US, were Hakka, and much of the animosity between the Hakka and Punti Cantonese people carried over.[2] In the first half of the 1800s, around 30 percent of Chinese in Hawaii were of Hakka, while only about 3 percent in the West Coast were Hakka.[3] The largest surge of immigration in that century occurred after an 1876 treaty between the US and Kingdom of Hawaii led to an increased need for labor.

The majority of marriages between Chinese men and white women in Hawaii were with Portuguese women.[4][5][6] Portuguese and other caucasian women married Chinese men.[7][8] These unions between Chinese men and Portuguese women resulted in children of mixed Chinese Portuguese parentage, called Chinese-Portuguese. For two years to June 30, 1933, 38 of these children were born, they were classified as pure Chinese because their fathers were Chinese.[9] A large amount of mingling took place between Chinese and Portuguese, Chinese men married Portuguese, Spanish, Hawaiian, Caucasian-Hawaiian, etc.[10][11][12][13] Only one Chinese man was recorded marrying an American woman.[14][15] Chinese men in Hawaii also married Puerto Rican, Portuguese, Japanese, Greek, and half -white women.[16][17] There was a communal ban on intermarriages between the two groups for the first generation of migrants.[18] In the middle of the 19th century, Hakka immigrants in America were excluded from membership in the Chinese organizations.[19]

Religion[edit]

Prior to the arrival of Christian missionaries in Hawaii, the early Chinese settlers were adherents of Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism. Some even blended aspects of native Hawaiian beliefs into their own belief systems.

Today, due to the work of Christian missionaries in the late 19th century and the 20th century, many of the Chinese in Hawaii are adherents of Protestant and Roman Catholic Christianity. Still, about 100 Buddhist and ancestral temples remain. The loyal minority who adhere to traditional Chinese religions pay pilgrimage to their ancestors annually. However, no accurate statistics of adherents within the Chinese community in Hawaiʻi are available.

List of notable Chinese people from Hawaiʻi[edit]

Hapa-pake (Chinese-Hawaiian) boy, 1909

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ U.S. Census Bureau: QT-P8: Race Reporting for the Asian Population by Selected Categories: 2010
  2. ^ McDermott, John F.; Tseng, Wen-Shing; Maretzki, Thomas W. People and Cultures of Hawaii: A Psychocultural Profile. 
  3. ^ Carney Smith, Jessie. Ethnic Genealogy: A Research Guide. 
  4. ^ Romanzo Adams (2005). Interracial Marriage in Hawaii. Kessinger Publishing. p. 396. ISBN 978-1-4179-9268-3. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  5. ^ Margaret M. Schwertfeger (1982). Interethnic Marriage and Divorce in Hawaii A Panel Study of 1968 First Marriages. Kessinger Publishing. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  6. ^ 403 Forbidden
  7. ^ David Anthony Chiriboga, Linda S. Catron (1991). Divorce: crisis, challenge, or relief?. NYU Press. p. 254. ISBN 978-0-8147-1450-8. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  8. ^ Gary A. Cretser, Joseph J. Leon (1982). Intermarriage in the United States, Volume 5. Psychology Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-917724-60-2. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  9. ^ Romanzo Adams (2005). Interracial Marriage in Hawaii. Kessinger Publishing. p. 396. ISBN 978-1-4179-9268-3. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  10. ^ United States Bureau of Education (1921). Bulletin, Issues 13-18. U.S. G.P.O. p. 27. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  11. ^ United States. Office of Education (1920). Bulletin, Issue 16. U.S. Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education. p. 27. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  12. ^ American Association of Physical Anthropologists, Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology (1920). American journal of physical anthropology, Volume 3. A. R. Liss. p. 492. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  13. ^ Gary A. Cretser, Joseph J. Leon (1982). Intermarriage in the United States, Volume 5. Routledge. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-917724-60-2. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  14. ^ American Genetic Association (1919). The Journal of heredity, Volume 10. American Genetic Association. p. 42. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  15. ^ American Genetic Association (1919). J hered, Volume 10. American Genetic Association. p. 42. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  16. ^ Alfred Emanuel Smith (1905). New Outlook, Volume 81. Outlook Publishing Company, Inc. p. 988. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  17. ^ The Outlook, Volume 81. Outlook Co. 1905. p. 988. Retrieved 2010-07-14. 
  18. ^ Mixed Blood: Intermarriage and Ethnic Identity in Twentieth-century America, Paul R. Spickard
  19. ^ Kiang, Clyde. THE HAKKA ODYSSEY & THEIR TAIWAN HOMELAND. 

Further readings[edit]

External links[edit]

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