Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Surface Christmas Tree (Dry Tree)
Surface Christmas Tree (Dry Tree)
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: drillingformulas
OIL AND GAS SURFACE WELLHEAD AND CHRISTMAS TREE
OIL AND GAS SURFACE WELLHEAD AND CHRISTMAS TREE
Published: 2012/09/29
Channel: pzsmedia
Oil and gas drilling Installing XMAS TREE - ANIMATION
Oil and gas drilling Installing XMAS TREE - ANIMATION
Published: 2016/02/20
Channel: manison media
Wellhead in service
Wellhead in service
Published: 2014/02/04
Channel: Kamal Pakdaman
wellhead instillation.wmv
wellhead instillation.wmv
Published: 2012/03/01
Channel: ibrahim massad
The General Electric Subsea ‘Christmas Tree’
The General Electric Subsea ‘Christmas Tree’
Published: 2016/05/09
Channel: GE in ASEAN
Patriot Energy Fracking and Well Completion Video
Patriot Energy Fracking and Well Completion Video
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: Patriot Energy & Royalties
James Walker Wellhead video
James Walker Wellhead video
Published: 2012/08/28
Channel: James Walker
surface facilities : X-Mas Tree Component-02
surface facilities : X-Mas Tree Component-02
Published: 2013/03/07
Channel: Agus Umar Yasin
surface facilities : X-Mas Tree Component-01
surface facilities : X-Mas Tree Component-01
Published: 2013/03/07
Channel: Agus Umar Yasin
Gas Well - Wellhead Repair
Gas Well - Wellhead Repair
Published: 2015/11/25
Channel: OILANDGAS
Christmas tree (oil well)
Christmas tree (oil well)
Published: 2014/11/19
Channel: Audiopedia
Wellhead a short view
Wellhead a short view
Published: 2014/01/12
Channel: Kamal Pakdaman
Well Pad With Oil Well Christmas Tree Equipment | Stock Footage - Videohive
Well Pad With Oil Well Christmas Tree Equipment | Stock Footage - Videohive
Published: 2016/12/21
Channel: Best Merry Christmas Happy New Year 2016 Stock Footage
Will It Christmas Tree?
Will It Christmas Tree?
Published: 2017/12/04
Channel: Good Mythical Morning
Subsea Vertical Tree System
Subsea Vertical Tree System
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: Oilfield in Action
OLINDA STAR   PART 2   XMAS TREE TRANSPORT   SEP 2008
OLINDA STAR PART 2 XMAS TREE TRANSPORT SEP 2008
Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: TSC Offshore Brazil
Surface Christmas Tree (Dry Tree) - Petroleum Engineering
Surface Christmas Tree (Dry Tree) - Petroleum Engineering
Published: 2017/03/23
Channel: Jarjis Muhammad
x mas tree1
x mas tree1
Published: 2013/01/17
Channel: PETROLEUM ENGINEERING
DVXT deepwater vertical tree system
DVXT deepwater vertical tree system
Published: 2014/09/10
Channel: GE Oil & Gas
GasLift x-mas tree function
GasLift x-mas tree function
Published: 2013/03/01
Channel: Monto1948
Cameron and Christmas Tree
Cameron and Christmas Tree
Published: 2008/12/17
Channel: tapoutnc
Subsea tree animation.
Subsea tree animation.
Published: 2016/05/17
Channel: Apply Capnor Poland
What Is A Christmas Tree In The Oil Industry?
What Is A Christmas Tree In The Oil Industry?
Published: 2017/10/03
Channel: Put Put 1
Wellhead and Christmas Tree : Installation and compounds
Wellhead and Christmas Tree : Installation and compounds
Published: 2017/08/31
Channel: Production Technology
Her 12 Days of Christmas🎁 Day 2 🎁 NOW Tea Tree Oil
Her 12 Days of Christmas🎁 Day 2 🎁 NOW Tea Tree Oil
Published: 2015/12/01
Channel: HerSUPPZ.com
Baby Oil for Christmas Tree. (Artificial.)
Baby Oil for Christmas Tree. (Artificial.)
Published: 2017/11/20
Channel: White Orchid
Christmas Tree
Christmas Tree
Published: 2011/11/27
Channel: breanfram
What Is A Wellhead Choke Used For?
What Is A Wellhead Choke Used For?
Published: 2017/07/24
Channel: smile sparky
pz Surface Wellhead and Christmas Tree...eHandbook Preview
pz Surface Wellhead and Christmas Tree...eHandbook Preview
Published: 2015/08/15
Channel: pzsmedia
VetcoGray D Series Deepwater Tree and Control System
VetcoGray D Series Deepwater Tree and Control System
Published: 2014/12/23
Channel: GE Oil & Gas
WellHead Repairs - something new
WellHead Repairs - something new
Published: 2016/05/21
Channel: GOWell
Eni Kitan 3 FMC Xmas Tree
Eni Kitan 3 FMC Xmas Tree
Published: 2012/07/03
Channel: dstengineer
What Is A Wellhead Choke Used For?
What Is A Wellhead Choke Used For?
Published: 2017/12/05
Channel: Sri Tidings
How Oil and Gas wells are drilled?
How Oil and Gas wells are drilled?
Published: 2014/10/24
Channel: Badfish Castle
VALVE & WELLHEAD 2
VALVE & WELLHEAD 2
Published: 2013/04/12
Channel: Tim Weston
Aker Solutions
Aker Solutions' subsea animation
Published: 2013/05/03
Channel: akersolutions
AVD Christmas Tree Lift
AVD Christmas Tree Lift
Published: 2015/04/09
Channel: Bob Harvey
chrismas tree for oil production
chrismas tree for oil production
Published: 2016/11/29
Channel: 王宏勋
Shanghai Wellhead Equipment Manufacture Co.,Ltd
Shanghai Wellhead Equipment Manufacture Co.,Ltd
Published: 2013/01/17
Channel: Leo Pang
Wellhead control panel, FST, Shenzhen Fluid Science & Technology Corp
Wellhead control panel, FST, Shenzhen Fluid Science & Technology Corp
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: Vladimir ChinaGates
A Walk in the Well Bay
A Walk in the Well Bay
Published: 2011/11/27
Channel: drford316
dual completed oil well head
dual completed oil well head
Published: 2013/05/20
Channel: Kemkanma Ejie
Subsea XMAS Tree Unload
Subsea XMAS Tree Unload
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: Shaheer Mawani
Wellhead with Christmas Tree on top moving at Angsi A (ANDR-A), Terengganu
Wellhead with Christmas Tree on top moving at Angsi A (ANDR-A), Terengganu
Published: 2013/12/24
Channel: IQBAL MAHAT
2 x Metal HT-2 Christmas Tree Skid
2 x Metal HT-2 Christmas Tree Skid
Published: 2014/05/13
Channel: Darren Gervis
FMC TECHNOLOGIES, Subsea Engineering, Subsea Wellhead, FMC Technology, FMC Company, FMC Houston
FMC TECHNOLOGIES, Subsea Engineering, Subsea Wellhead, FMC Technology, FMC Company, FMC Houston
Published: 2013/04/09
Channel: Subsea Companies
For sale (15) unused 13-5/8” oil well Christmas trees
For sale (15) unused 13-5/8” oil well Christmas trees
Published: 2017/12/07
Channel: Jeff Weber
Life Cycle of an Oil Well - Petroleum Engineering
Life Cycle of an Oil Well - Petroleum Engineering
Published: 2017/07/10
Channel: Jarjis Muhammad
07 Wellhead
07 Wellhead
Published: 2013/02/22
Channel: Casey Powell
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Oil well Christmas tree

In petroleum and natural gas extraction, a Christmas tree, or "tree", is an assembly of valves, spools, and fittings used for an oil well, gas well, water injection well, water disposal well, gas injection well, condensate well and other types of wells. It was named for its crude resemblance to a decorated Christmas Tree.

Overview[edit]

Christmas trees are used on both surface and subsea wells. It is common to identify the type of tree as either "subsea tree" or "surface tree". Each of these classifications has a number of variations. Examples of subsea include conventional, dual bore, mono bore, TFL (through flow line), horizontal, mudline, mudline horizontal, side valve, and TBT (through-bore tree) trees. The deepest installed subsea tree is in the Gulf of Mexico at approximately 9,000 feet (2,700 m). (Current technical limits are up to around 3000 metres and working temperatures of -50°F to 350°F with a pressure of up to 15,000 psi.)

The primary function of a tree is to control the flow, usually oil or gas, out of the well. (A tree may also be used to control the injection of gas or water into a non-producing well in order to enhance production rates of oil from other wells.) When the well and facilities are ready to produce and receive oil or gas, tree valves are opened and the formation fluids are allowed to go through a flow line. This leads to a processing facility, storage depot and/or other pipeline eventually leading to a refinery or distribution center (for gas). Flow lines on subsea wells usually lead to a fixed or floating production platform or to a storage ship or barge, known as a floating storage offloading vessel (FSO), or floating processing unit (FPU), or floating production, storage and offloading vessel (FPSO).

A tree often provides numerous additional functions including chemical injection points, well intervention means, pressure relief means, monitoring points (such as pressure, temperature, corrosion, erosion, sand detection, flow rate, flow composition, valve and choke position feedback), and connection points for devices such as down hole pressure and temperature transducers (DHPT). On producing wells, chemicals or alcohols or oil distillates may be injected to preclude production problems (such as blockages).

Functionality may be extended further by using the control system on a subsea tree to monitor, measure, and react to sensor outputs on the tree or even down the well bore. The control system attached to the tree controls the downhole safety valve (SCSSV, DHSV, SSSV) while the tree acts as an attachment and conduit means of the control system to the downhole safety valve.

Tree complexity has increased over the last few decades. They are frequently manufactured from blocks of steel containing multiple valves rather than being assembled from individual flanged components. This is especially true in subsea applications where the resemblance to Christmas trees no longer exists given the frame and support systems into which the main valve block is integrated.

Note that a tree and wellhead are separate pieces of equipment not to be mistaken as the same piece. The Christmas tree is installed on top of the wellhead. A wellhead is used without a Christmas tree during drilling operations, and also for riser tie-back situations that later would have a tree installed at riser top. Wells being produced with rod pumps (pump jacks, nodding donkeys, grasshopper pumps, and so on) frequently do not utilize any tree owing the absence of a pressure-containment requirement.

Valves[edit]

Subsea and surface trees have a large variety of valve configurations and combinations of manual and/or actuated (hydraulic or pneumatic) valves. Examples are identified in API Specifications 6A and 17D.

A basic surface tree consists of two or three manual valves (usually gate valves because of their flow characteristics, i.e. low restriction to the flow of fluid when fully open).

A typical sophisticated surface tree will have at least four or five valves, normally arranged in a crucifix type pattern (hence the endurance of the term "Christmas tree"). The two lower valves are called the master valves (upper and lower respectively). Master valves are normally in the fully open position and are never opened or closed when the well is flowing (except in an emergency) to prevent erosion of the valve sealing surfaces. The lower master valve will normally be manually operated, while the upper master valve is often hydraulically actuated, allowing it to be used as a means of remotely shutting in the well in the event of emergency. An actuated wing valve is normally used to shut in the well when flowing, thus preserving the master valves for positive shut off for maintenance purposes. Hydraulic operated wing valves are usually built to be fail safe closed, meaning they require active hydraulic pressure to stay open. This feature means that if control fluid fails the well will automatically shut itself in without operator action.

The right hand valve is often called the flow wing valve or the production wing valve, because it is in the flowpath the hydrocarbons take to production facilities (or the path water or gas will take from production to the well in the case of injection wells).

The left hand valve is often called the kill wing valve (KWV). It is primarily used for injection of fluids such as corrosion inhibitors or methanol to prevent hydrate formation. In the North Sea, it is called the non-active side arm (NASA). It is typically manually operated.

The valve at the top is called the swab valve and lies in the path used for well interventions like wireline and coiled tubing. For such operations, a lubricator is rigged up onto the top of the tree and the wire or coil is lowered through the lubricator, past the swab valve and into the well. This valve is typically manually operated.

Some trees have a second swab valve, the two arranged one on top of the other. The intention is to allow rigging down equipment from the top of the tree with the well flowing while still preserving the Two-barrier rule. With only a single swab valve, the upper master valve is usually closed to act as the second barrier, forcing the well to be shut in for a day during rig down operations. However, avoiding delaying production for a day is usually too small a gain to be worth the extra expense of having a Christmas tree with a second swab valve.

Subsea trees are available in either vertical or horizontal configurations with further speciality available such as dual bore, monobore, concentric, drill-through, mudline, guidlineless or guideline. Subsea trees may range in size and weight from a few tons to approximately 70 tons for high pressure, deepwater (>3000 feet) guidelineless applications. Subsea trees contain many additional valves and accessories compared to Surface trees. Typically a subsea tree would have a choke (permits control of flow), a flowline connection interface (hub, flange or other connection), subsea control interface (direct hydraulic, electro hydraulic, or electric) and sensors for gathering data such as pressure, temperature, sand flow, erosion, multiPhase flow, single phase flow such as water or gas.

Surface and subsea Christmas tree images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • API Specifications 6A and 17D.
  • GE Oil & Gas XT Last accessed 28-Jun-11
  • ISO 10423:2009 Petroleum and natural gas industries - Drilling and production equipment - Wellhead and Christmas tree equipment [1]
  • NORSOK D-010.Link to www.standard.no

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license