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Being Sick Vs. Having a Chronic Illness
Being Sick Vs. Having a Chronic Illness
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: The Mighty
Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Day in the Life
Multiple Chronic Conditions: A Day in the Life
Published: 2013/12/13
Channel: AHRQ Primary Care
Living with a Chronic Disease
Living with a Chronic Disease
Published: 2012/12/14
Channel: hankschannel
What Is The Definition Of Chronic disease - Medical Dictionary Free Online
What Is The Definition Of Chronic disease - Medical Dictionary Free Online
Published: 2014/09/23
Channel: Medical Dictionary Online
REAL TALK ABOUT CHRONIC ILLNESS
REAL TALK ABOUT CHRONIC ILLNESS
Published: 2017/02/27
Channel: Kathleen Gagnon
The Hell of Chronic Illness | Sita Gaia | TEDxStanleyPark
The Hell of Chronic Illness | Sita Gaia | TEDxStanleyPark
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: TEDx Talks
MY CHRONIC ILLNESS & HEALTH STORY!
MY CHRONIC ILLNESS & HEALTH STORY!
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: Lauren Elizabeth
Chronic Condition
Chronic Condition
Published: 2012/11/14
Channel: The Agenda with Steve Paikin
Definition of a Chronic Condition
Definition of a Chronic Condition
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: AXA PPP healthcare
The epidemic of chronic disease and understanding epigenetics | Kent Thornburg | TEDxPortland
The epidemic of chronic disease and understanding epigenetics | Kent Thornburg | TEDxPortland
Published: 2015/07/28
Channel: TEDx Talks
Living With A Chronic Illness: Endometriosis
Living With A Chronic Illness: Endometriosis
Published: 2015/02/07
Channel: Boldly
My Chronic Illness
My Chronic Illness
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Naomi Hallcro
Chronic Illness Story Pt. 1
Chronic Illness Story Pt. 1
Published: 2016/09/06
Channel: Theofficialkatelyn
What People With Chronic Illness Mean When They Say
What People With Chronic Illness Mean When They Say 'I'm Tired'
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: The Mighty
♡ WE ARE THE FACES OF CHRONIC ILLNESS | Amy Lee Fisher ♡
♡ WE ARE THE FACES OF CHRONIC ILLNESS | Amy Lee Fisher ♡
Published: 2017/08/12
Channel: Amy Lee Fisher
You Know You Have a Chronic Illness When....
You Know You Have a Chronic Illness When....
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: ServiceDog Vlog
Chronic Disease Management in 21st Century Healthcare
Chronic Disease Management in 21st Century Healthcare
Published: 2017/04/29
Channel: Evan Zavicar
Condition Chronic - Tadpole
Condition Chronic - Tadpole
Published: 2008/08/07
Channel: Rockulater
Health inequity: America’s chronic condition? | Esteban López | TEDxSanAntonio
Health inequity: America’s chronic condition? | Esteban López | TEDxSanAntonio
Published: 2017/01/11
Channel: TEDx Talks
Chronic Disease: “We Have the Answer”
Chronic Disease: “We Have the Answer”
Published: 2016/08/27
Channel: CrossFit®
Chronic Illness: An honest discussion w/Hank Green & Kati Morton
Chronic Illness: An honest discussion w/Hank Green & Kati Morton
Published: 2016/04/25
Channel: Kati Morton
Unexpected Emergency Room Trip 😔🏥 | Chronic Illness Vlog
Unexpected Emergency Room Trip 😔🏥 | Chronic Illness Vlog
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Simply Hannah
Anemia Pathophysiology 3: Anemia of Inflammation (Anemia of Chronic Disease)
Anemia Pathophysiology 3: Anemia of Inflammation (Anemia of Chronic Disease)
Published: 2012/07/10
Channel: Andrew Wolf
5 of the Worst Chronic Illness Symptoms
5 of the Worst Chronic Illness Symptoms
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: The Mighty
MY CHRONIC ILLNESS & my health journey
MY CHRONIC ILLNESS & my health journey
Published: 2017/11/06
Channel: VAGABOND YOUTH
Independence // Chronic Illness Life [CC]
Independence // Chronic Illness Life [CC]
Published: 2017/11/13
Channel: Jessica Kellgren-Fozard
A Chronic Disease Called "Ed" (Music video)
A Chronic Disease Called "Ed" (Music video)
Published: 2009/08/29
Channel: TheBestKindOfFailure
Expectations VS Reality | Chronic Illness
Expectations VS Reality | Chronic Illness
Published: 2017/11/15
Channel: Shontelle Scott
😓 Guilt With Chronic Illness & My New Shower Chair! 🚿  (9/2/17)
😓 Guilt With Chronic Illness & My New Shower Chair! 🚿 (9/2/17)
Published: 2017/09/03
Channel: Chronically Jaquie
Anemia of chronic disease | Hematologic System Diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
Anemia of chronic disease | Hematologic System Diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: khanacademymedicine
The Single Most Common Mechanism of All Chronic Disease
The Single Most Common Mechanism of All Chronic Disease
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: Dr. Darren Schmidt
Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)
Anemia of Chronic Disease (ACD)
Published: 2013/10/24
Channel: USMLEFastTrack
EHealth animated video - Chronic Disease Management
EHealth animated video - Chronic Disease Management
Published: 2013/05/03
Channel: O2HealthVideos
Obesity a Chronic Disease?
Obesity a Chronic Disease?
Published: 2013/06/20
Channel: News 5 Cleveland
What Not To Say To Someone With A Chronic Illness
What Not To Say To Someone With A Chronic Illness
Published: 2017/11/01
Channel: Mandy Meehan
Acute vs Chronic Conditions
Acute vs Chronic Conditions
Published: 2015/11/10
Channel: Choose Health TO Self Management Program
Anemia of Chronic Disease - CRASH! Medical Review Series
Anemia of Chronic Disease - CRASH! Medical Review Series
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: Paul W. Bolin
Morning Routine with a Chronic Illness 2016 // Lauren Rowe
Morning Routine with a Chronic Illness 2016 // Lauren Rowe
Published: 2016/06/25
Channel: Gifted Life
Self-Management Education: Managing Chronic Conditions Beyond Medications
Self-Management Education: Managing Chronic Conditions Beyond Medications
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Chronic disease vs iron deficiency anemia | Hematologic System Diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
Chronic disease vs iron deficiency anemia | Hematologic System Diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy
Published: 2014/10/22
Channel: khanacademymedicine
How To Be a Teenager With a Chronic Illness
How To Be a Teenager With a Chronic Illness
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: Charles Michael Duke
Reversing Chronic Disease With Diet and Lifestyle with Michael Greger, M.D.
Reversing Chronic Disease With Diet and Lifestyle with Michael Greger, M.D.
Published: 2015/12/16
Channel: True Wellth
"In chronic disease management, it matters what we measure." - Prof. Larry Egan
"In chronic disease management, it matters what we measure." - Prof. Larry Egan
Published: 2013/06/30
Channel: TEDMEDLiveNUIG
Chronic conditions of the elderly
Chronic conditions of the elderly
Published: 2015/04/06
Channel: Dan Kampschroer
Episode Four - Chronic Disease
Episode Four - Chronic Disease
Published: 2015/01/18
Channel: Julie Tyler
Hepatitis B: treatment and care for this chronic condition
Hepatitis B: treatment and care for this chronic condition
Published: 2015/01/23
Channel: Ohio State Wexner Medical Center
Staying Positive with Chronic Illness ✊
Staying Positive with Chronic Illness ✊
Published: 2017/08/07
Channel: Chronically Jaquie
How stored up traumatic (toxic) stress creates chronic illness
How stored up traumatic (toxic) stress creates chronic illness
Published: 2016/04/27
Channel: Irene Lyon
Master Mingtong Gu -  Healing Chronic Conditions
Master Mingtong Gu - Healing Chronic Conditions
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: The Shift Network
Chronic Illness Survival Pack
Chronic Illness Survival Pack
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: The Mighty
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Chronic illness)
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A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time. The term chronic is often applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. Common chronic diseases include arthritis, asthma, cancer, COPD, diabetes and some viral diseases such as hepatitis C and HIV/AIDS.

In medicine, the opposite of chronic is acute. A chronic course is further distinguished from a recurrent course; recurrent diseases relapse repeatedly, with periods of remission in between.

The non-communicable diseases are also usually lasting medical conditions but are separated by their non-infectious causes. In contrast, some chronic diseases, such as HIV/AIDS, are caused by transmissible infections.

In the United States 25% of adults have at least two chronic conditions.[1] Chronic diseases constitute a major cause of mortality, with the World Health Organization (WHO) attributing 38 million deaths a year to non-communicable diseases.[2]

Types[edit]

Chronic conditions have often been used to describe the various health related states of the human body such as syndromes, physical impairments, disabilities as well as diseases. Epidemiologists have found interest in chronic conditions due to the fact they contribute to disease, disability, and diminished physical and/or mental capacity.[3]

For example, high blood pressure or hypertension is considered to be not only a chronic condition itself but also correlated to diseases such as heart attack or stroke. Additionally, some socioeconomic factors may be considered as a chronic condition as they lead to disability in daily life. An important one that public health officials in the social science setting have begun highlighting is chronic poverty and racism.[4][5]

The list below includes these chronic conditions and diseases:

In 2015 the World Health Organisation produced a report on non-communicable diseases, citing the four major types as:[6]

Other examples of chronic diseases and health conditions include:

Risk factors[edit]

While risk factors vary with age and gender, most of the common chronic diseases in the US are caused by dietary, lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that are also responsible for the resulting mortality.[9] Therefore, these conditions might be prevented by behavioral changes, such as quitting smoking, adopting a healthy diet, and increasing physical activity. Social determinants are important risk factors for chronic diseases.[10] Social factors, e.g., socioeconomic status, education level, and race/ethnicity, are a major cause for the disparities observed in the care of chronic disease.[10] Lack of access and delay in receiving care result in worse outcomes for patients from minorities and underserved populations.[11] Those barriers to medical care complicate patients monitoring and continuity in treatment.

In the US, Minorities and low-income populations are less likely to access and receive preventive services necessary to detect conditions at an early stage.[12]

The majority of US health care and economic costs associated with medical conditions are for the costs of chronic diseases and conditions and associated health risk behaviors. Eighty-four percent of all health care spending in 2006 was for the 50% of the population who have one or more chronic medical conditions (CDC, 2014).

Prevention[edit]

A growing body of evidence supports that prevention is effective in reducing the effect of chronic conditions; in particular, early detection results in less severe outcomes. Clinical preventive services include screening for the existence of the disease or predisposition to its development, counseling and immunizations against infectious agents. Despite their effectiveness, the utilization of preventive services is typically lower than for regular medical services. In contrast to their apparent cost in time and money, the benefits of preventive services are not directly perceived by patient because their effects are on the long term or might be greater for society as a whole than at the individual level.[13]

Therefore, public health programs are important in educating the public, and promoting healthy lifestyles and awareness about chronic diseases. While those programs can benefit from funding at different levels (state, federal, private) their implementation is mostly in charge of local agencies and community-based organizations.[14]

Studies have shown that public health programs are effective in reducing mortality rates associated to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and cancer, but the results are somewhat heterogeneous depending on the type of condition and the type of programs involved.[15] For example, results from different approaches in cancer prevention and screening depended highly on the type of cancer.[16] The rising number of patient with chronic diseases has renewed the interest in prevention and its potential role in helping control costs. In 2008, the Trust for America's Health produced a report that estimated investing $10 per person annually in community-based programs of proven effectiveness and promoting healthy lifestyle (increase in physical activity, healthier diet and preventing tobacco use) could save more than $16 billion annually within a period of just five years.[17]

Epidemiology[edit]

In the treatment of HIV, the success of antiretroviral therapies means that many patients will experience this infection as a chronic disease that for many will span several decades of their life.[18]

United States[edit]

In the United States, nearly one in two Americans (133 million) has at least one chronic medical condition, with most subjects (58%) between the ages of 18 and 64.[19] The number is projected to increase by more than one percent per year by 2030, resulting in an estimated chronically ill population of 171 million.[19] The most common chronic conditions are high blood pressure, arthritis, respiratory diseases like emphysema, and high cholesterol.

According to research by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, chronic disease is also especially a concern in the elderly population in America. Chronic diseases like stroke, heart disease, and cancer were among the leading causes of death among Americans aged 65 or older in 2002, accounting for 61% of all deaths among this subset of the population.[20] While the majority of chronic conditions are found in individuals between the ages of 18 and 64, it is estimated that at least 80% of older Americans are currently living with some form of a chronic condition, with 50% of this population having two or more chronic conditions.[20] The two most common chronic conditions in the elderly are high blood pressure and arthritis, with diabetes, coronary heart disease, and cancer also being reported among the elder population.[21]

In examining the statistics of chronic disease among the living elderly, it is also important to make note of the statistics pertaining to fatalities as a result of chronic disease. Heart disease is the leading cause of death from chronic disease for adults older than 65, followed by cancer, stroke, diabetes, chronic lower respiratory diseases, influenza and pneumonia, and, finally, Alzheimer’s disease.[20] Though the rates of chronic disease differ by race for those living with chronic illness, it is interesting to note that the statistics for leading causes of death among elderly are nearly identical across racial/ethnic groups.[20]

Chronic illnesses cause about 70% of deaths in the US and in 2002 chronic conditions (heart disease, cancers, stroke, chronic respiratory diseases, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, mental illness and kidney diseases) were 6 of the top ten causes of mortality in the general US population.[22] In the United States, 90% of seniors have at least one chronic disease, and 77% have two or more chronic conditions.[23]

Economic impact[edit]

United States[edit]

Chronic diseases are a major factor in the continuous growth of medical care spending.[24] Healthy People 2010 reported that more than 75% of the $2 trillion spent annually in US medical care are due to chronic conditions; spending are even higher in proportion for Medicare beneficiaries (aged 65 years and older).[12] Spending growth is driven in part by the greater prevalence of chronic illnesses, and the longer life expectancy of the population. Also improvement in treatments has significantly extended the life spans of patients with chronic diseases but results in additional costs over long period of time. A striking success is the development of combined antiviral therapies that led to remarkable improvement in survival rates and quality of life of HIV-infected patients.

In addition to direct costs in health care, chronic diseases are a significant burden to the economy, through limitations in daily activities, loss in productivity and loss of days of work. A particular concern is the rising rates of overweight and obesity in all segments of the US population.[12] Obesity itself is a medical condition and not a disease, but it constitutes a major risk factor for developing chronic illnesses, such as diabetes, stroke, cardiovascular disease and cancers. Obesity results in significant health care spending and indirect costs, as illustrated by a recent study from the Texas comptroller reporting that obesity alone cost Texas businesses an extra $9.5 billion in 2009, including more than $4 billion for health care, $5 billion for lost productivity and absenteeism, and $321 million for disability.[25]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ward, BW; Black, LI (29 July 2016). "State and Regional Prevalence of Diagnosed Multiple Chronic Conditions Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years - United States, 2014". MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 65 (29): 735–8. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6529a3. PMID 27467707. 
  2. ^ "Noncommunicable diseases. Fact sheet". World Health Organisation. January 2015. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  3. ^ "Condition". MedicineNet. Retrieved 2016-04-13. 
  4. ^ Hulme, David; Shepherd, Andrew (2003-03-01). "Conceptualizing Chronic Poverty". World Development. Chronic Poverty and Development Policy. 31 (3): 403–423. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00222-X. 
  5. ^ Harrell, Shelly P. (2000-01-01). "A Multidimensional Conceptualization of Racism-Related Stress: Implications for the Well-Being of People of Color". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 70 (1): 42–57. doi:10.1037/h0087722. ISSN 1939-0025. 
  6. ^ Noncommunicable diseases, World Health Organization, retrieved April 5, 2016 
  7. ^ Chronic Diseases and Conditions, New York State Department of Health
  8. ^ Chronic Diseases and Conditions, New York State Department of Health
  9. ^ Danaei G. et al. "The Preventable Causes of Death In The United States: Comparative Risk Assessment of Dietary, Lifestyle, and Metabolic Risk Factors" "PLoS Medicine" / April 2009 / Vol 6 (4).
  10. ^ a b Braveman P et al. "Socioeconomic Disparities In Health In The United States: What The Patterns Tell Us" "American Journal of Public Health" / 2010 / Vol 100 (Suppl 1): S186-S196.
  11. ^ Mead H et al "Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Health Care: A Chartbook" The Commonwealth Fund 2008.
  12. ^ a b c Sondik EJ, Huang DT, Klein RJ and Satcher D "Progress Toward The Healthy People 2010 Goals And Objectives" "Annu Rev Publ Health" 2010, Vol 31:271-281.
  13. ^ Kenkel DS "Prevention" "Handbook Of Health Economics"
  14. ^ Halverson PK et al., "Performing Public Health Functions: The Perceived Contribution of Public Health and Other Community Agencies." "J Health Hum Serv Admin" / 1996 / Vol. 18(3): 288-303.
  15. ^ Mays GP and Smith SA, "Evidence Links Increases In Public Health Spending To Declines in Preventable Deaths." Health Affairs / August 2011 / Volume 30:8 .
  16. ^ Cutler DM "Are We Finally Winning The War on Cancer?" "J. Econ Perspect" / 2008 / Vol 22:3-2.
  17. ^ "Prevention for a Healthier America". Trust for America’s Health. July 2008. Retrieved April 5, 2016. 
  18. ^ Deeks, Steven G.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Havlir, Diane V. (2013-11-02). "The End of AIDS: HIV Infection as a Chronic Disease". Lancet. 382 (9903): 1525–1533. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61809-7. ISSN 0140-6736. PMC 4058441Freely accessible. PMID 24152939. 
  19. ^ a b Robert Wood Johnson Foundation & Partnership for Solutions. "Chronic Conditions: Making the Case for Ongoing Care." Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (September 2004 Update).
  20. ^ a b c d name=Centers for Disease Control and Prevention."The state of aging and health in america 2007"
  21. ^ name=ParentGiving."Common Chronic Conditions and Aging at Hom"
  22. ^ National Center for Health Statistics. " Health, United States" / 2004.
  23. ^ Gerard Anderson, "The Growing Burden of Chronic Disease in American." Public Health Reports / May–June 2004 / Volume 119.
  24. ^ Roehrig C, Miller G, Lake C and Bryant J "National Health Spending By Medical Condition, 1996–2005" "Health Affairs", February 2009, w358-376.
  25. ^ Texas Comptroller of Public Accounts "Gaining Costs, Losing Time: The Obesity Crisis in Texas". Special Report, Austin, Texas, February 2011, Publication# 96-1360.

External links[edit]

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