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How stress affects your brain - Madhumita Murgia
How stress affects your brain - Madhumita Murgia
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: TED-Ed
Chronic Stress Can Damage Your Health
Chronic Stress Can Damage Your Health
Published: 2013/04/30
Channel: Pfizer
What Does Stress Do To Your Body?
What Does Stress Do To Your Body?
Published: 2015/03/25
Channel: Seeker
Do You Suffer Chronic Stress or Anxiety ?
Do You Suffer Chronic Stress or Anxiety ?
Published: 2013/11/06
Channel: Hillel Mazansky
10 Ways To Relax & Avoid Chronic Stress // Rachel Aust
10 Ways To Relax & Avoid Chronic Stress // Rachel Aust
Published: 2016/10/04
Channel: Rachel Aust
Long Term Effects of Chronic Stress
Long Term Effects of Chronic Stress
Published: 2008/08/08
Channel: thewellness
Dealing with chronic stress
Dealing with chronic stress
Published: 2014/03/07
Channel: Oxford Academic (Oxford University Press)
How Chronic Stress Affects the Brain
How Chronic Stress Affects the Brain
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: Dr. Eric Berg DC
How stress affects your body - Sharon Horesh Bergquist
How stress affects your body - Sharon Horesh Bergquist
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: TED-Ed
Brain Food For Chronic Stress - 1st Episode (11211)
Brain Food For Chronic Stress - 1st Episode (11211)
Published: 2017/08/04
Channel: Doug Kaufmann
How to Reduce Chronic Stress
How to Reduce Chronic Stress
Published: 2015/04/22
Channel: Alisha Leytem
Acute vs. Chronic Stress
Acute vs. Chronic Stress
Published: 2011/04/12
Channel: Dr Gaby Cora
The stress response is vital for life and chronic stress causes disease
The stress response is vital for life and chronic stress causes disease
Published: 2017/07/22
Channel: Dr. John Bergman
17 Science-Backed Ways to Relieve Stress Right Now!
17 Science-Backed Ways to Relieve Stress Right Now!
Published: 2016/04/15
Channel: The Health Nerd
How to Beat Chronic Stress
How to Beat Chronic Stress
Published: 2017/08/23
Channel: Fit Men Over 40TV
Chronic Stress Relief Technique - Thought Experiment
Chronic Stress Relief Technique - Thought Experiment
Published: 2016/04/10
Channel: Jonathan Kuttner
MY WEIRD TRICK FOR SURVIVING CHRONIC STRESS!
MY WEIRD TRICK FOR SURVIVING CHRONIC STRESS!
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: thetruthergirls
Long Term Effects of Stress on Your Body
Long Term Effects of Stress on Your Body
Published: 2014/07/09
Channel: Gina Kloes
Emotion, Stress and Health: Crash Course Psychology #26
Emotion, Stress and Health: Crash Course Psychology #26
Published: 2014/08/12
Channel: CrashCourse
8 Signs Of Chronic Generalized Anxiety Disorder | Anxiety Disorders Depression
8 Signs Of Chronic Generalized Anxiety Disorder | Anxiety Disorders Depression
Published: 2016/07/20
Channel: Anxiety Disorders
Chronic Stress and Emotional Toxicity
Chronic Stress and Emotional Toxicity
Published: 2014/09/17
Channel: The Raw Life Health Show
Chronic Stress:  Do you know the signs and symptoms?
Chronic Stress: Do you know the signs and symptoms?
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: INSPIRIT Health Group Inc.
Powerful Daily Affirmations for Anxiety, Chronic Stress, Panic Attacks
Powerful Daily Affirmations for Anxiety, Chronic Stress, Panic Attacks
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: The Anxiety Guy
Techniques to break the chronic stress cycle and live a happier, more balanced and fulfilling life.
Techniques to break the chronic stress cycle and live a happier, more balanced and fulfilling life.
Published: 2013/12/11
Channel: Debra Kahnen
Chronic Stress is MUCH More Dangerous Than Cigarette Smoking But..
Chronic Stress is MUCH More Dangerous Than Cigarette Smoking But..
Published: 2013/01/22
Channel: AntiAnxietyWaves
Recover from chronic stress and anxiety
Recover from chronic stress and anxiety
Published: 2016/08/26
Channel: Healing Lotus
Stress And The Brain: JaimeTartar at TEDxNSU
Stress And The Brain: JaimeTartar at TEDxNSU
Published: 2012/04/17
Channel: TEDx Talks
stressresponse
stressresponse
Published: 2009/02/10
Channel: psychclips
Ayurveda- Chronic Stress, Anxiety and Depression- By Dr. Akil Palanisamy
Ayurveda- Chronic Stress, Anxiety and Depression- By Dr. Akil Palanisamy
Published: 2017/05/26
Channel: The Ayurveda Experience
Chronic Stress on the Job
Chronic Stress on the Job
Published: 2013/08/29
Channel: Cleveland Clinic
What is the difference between acute stress and chronic stress?
What is the difference between acute stress and chronic stress?
Published: 2009/04/26
Channel: MonkeySee
The Physical & Psychological Impact of Chronic Stress
The Physical & Psychological Impact of Chronic Stress
Published: 2011/12/05
Channel: Roger Reece
Press These Points To Eliminate Pain And Chronic Stress
Press These Points To Eliminate Pain And Chronic Stress
Published: 2016/06/30
Channel: Ways To Improve
Live Stream #12 - Q&A/Depression/Chronic Stress/CFS Recovery
Live Stream #12 - Q&A/Depression/Chronic Stress/CFS Recovery
Published: 2017/07/12
Channel: The Roar Within
CHRONIC STRESS Reduction and Meditation video
CHRONIC STRESS Reduction and Meditation video
Published: 2013/08/02
Channel: Mirabai Holland
Bodily Response to Stress
Bodily Response to Stress
Published: 2013/11/05
Channel: Denise Hunt
What is chronic stress?   Stress & Meditation Part 1 of 3
What is chronic stress? Stress & Meditation Part 1 of 3
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: ZenSmarts
Effects of Chronic Stress on the Brain and Body
Effects of Chronic Stress on the Brain and Body
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: CareerSmart Learning
Fight Chronic Stress to become a More Effective Leader | Richard Boyatzis
Fight Chronic Stress to become a More Effective Leader | Richard Boyatzis
Published: 2014/04/14
Channel: benedictineCVDL
How do Chronic Stress & Trauma in PTSD affect the HPA Axis? Part I
How do Chronic Stress & Trauma in PTSD affect the HPA Axis? Part I
Published: 2015/01/08
Channel: Miles Naturopathics
Damage of Chronic Stress
Damage of Chronic Stress
Published: 2016/05/19
Channel: Ian H Robertson
How Stress Affects Your Body
How Stress Affects Your Body
Published: 2016/04/03
Channel: BuzzFeedBlue
The Causes of Thyroid Problems, Chronic Stress and Low Body Temperature
The Causes of Thyroid Problems, Chronic Stress and Low Body Temperature
Published: 2015/05/01
Channel: Physicians Standard
How to Stop Struggling with Chronic Stress
How to Stop Struggling with Chronic Stress
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: Patricia Ronzio, MEd
3 Ways Chronic Stress Makes us Dumb - Stress & Meditation Part 2 of 3
3 Ways Chronic Stress Makes us Dumb - Stress & Meditation Part 2 of 3
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: ZenSmarts
Relieve Chronic Stress (Guided Meditation)
Relieve Chronic Stress (Guided Meditation)
Published: 2013/06/06
Channel: Wendy Irene
How to Cure Chronic Stress with Ancient Hebrew
How to Cure Chronic Stress with Ancient Hebrew
Published: 2013/02/17
Channel: VoicesofEden- AncientIsrael
Stress, Inflammation & Chronic Disease
Stress, Inflammation & Chronic Disease
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: Mark Hansen
Stress and Depression
Stress and Depression
Published: 2013/10/01
Channel: Depression Healing
04 Chronic and Acute Stress
04 Chronic and Acute Stress
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: Learn To Pro
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Chronic stress is the response to emotional pressure suffered for a prolonged period of time in which an individual perceives he or she has little or no control. It involves an endocrine system response in which corticosteroids are released. While the immediate effects of stress hormones are beneficial in a particular short-term situation, long-term exposure to stress creates a high level of these hormones. This may lead to high blood pressure (and subsequently heart disease), damage to muscle tissue, inhibition of growth, suppression of the immune system,[1] and damage to mental health.

Historical development[edit]

Hans Selye (1907–1982), known as the "father of stress",[2] is credited with first studying and identifying stress. He studied stress effects by subjecting lab mice to various physical, antigenic, and environmental stressors, including excessive exercise, starvation, and extreme temperatures. He determined that regardless of the type of stress, the mice exhibited similar physical effects, including thymus gland deterioration and the development of ulcers.[2] Selye then developed his theory of general adaptive syndrome (GAS) in 1936, known today as "stress response". He concluded that humans exposed to prolonged stress could also experience hormonal system breakdown and subsequently develop conditions such as heart disease and elevated blood pressure.[3] Selye considered these conditions to be "diseases of adaptation", or the effects of chronic stress caused by heightened hormonal and chemical levels.[2] His research on acute and chronic stress responses introduced stress to the medical field.[2]

Physiology[edit]

Animals exposed to distressing events over which they have no control respond by releasing corticosteroids.[4] The sympathetic branch of the nervous system is activated, also releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine.[1]

Stress has a role in humans as a method of reacting to difficult and possibly dangerous situations. The "fight or flight" response when one perceives a threat helps the body exert energy to fight or run away to live another day. This response is noticeable when the adrenal glands release epinephrine, causing the blood vessels to constrict and heart rate to increase. In addition, cortisol is another hormone that is released under stress and its purpose is to raise the glucose level in the blood. Glucose is the main energy source for human cells and its increase during time of stress is for the purpose of having energy readily available for over active cells.[5]

Chronic stress is also known to be associated with an accelerated loss of telomeres in most but not all studies.[6][7]

Response[edit]

Different types of stressors, the timing (duration) of the stressors, and personal characteristics all influence the response of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis to stressful situations.[8]

Resilience in chronic stress is defined as the ability to deal and cope with stresses in a healthy manner.[9] There are six categories of resources that affect an individual's coping resources:[9]

Symptoms[edit]

Symptoms of chronic stress can vary from anxiety, depression,[10] social isolation, headache, abdominal pain or lack of sleep to back pain and difficulty concentrating. Other symptoms include panic attacks or a panic disorder.[10] Chronic stress can increase an individual's risk for psychiatric disorders and some physical disorders, especially cardiovascular diseases.[10]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Carlson, Neil R. (2013). Physiology of Behavior (11th ed.). Boston: Pearson. pp. 602–6. ISBN 978-0-205-23939-9. OCLC 879099798. 
  2. ^ a b c d Szabo, Sandor; Tache, Yvette; Somogyi, Arpad (September 2012). "The legacy of Hans Selye and the origins of stress research: A retrospective 75 years after his landmark brief “Letter” to the Editor of Nature" (PDF). Stress. 15 (5): 472–8. PMID 22845714. doi:10.3109/10253890.2012.710919. 
  3. ^ "Hans Selye". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. 22 July 2010. Retrieved 8 November 2016. .
  4. ^ McEwen, Bruce S. (July 2007). "Physiology and neurobiology of stress and adaptation: central role of the brain". Physiological Reviews. 87 (3): 873–904. PMID 17615391. doi:10.1152/physrev.00041.2006Freely accessible. 
  5. ^ Tsigos, Constantine; Chrousos, George P. (October 2002). "Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors, and stress". Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 53 (4): 865–71. PMID 12377295. doi:10.1016/s0022-3999(02)00429-4. (Subscription required (help)). 
  6. ^ Notterman, Daniel A.; Mitchell, Colter (October 2015). "Epigenetics and Understanding the Impact of Social Determinants of Health". Pediatric Clinics of North America (Review). 62 (5): 1227–40. PMC 4555996Freely accessible. PMID 26318949. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2015.05.012. 
  7. ^ Quinlan, Jacklyn; Tu, Mai Thanh; Langlois, Étienne V.; Kapoor, Mohit; Ziegler, Daniela; Fahmi, Hassan; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria (30 April 2014). "Protocol for a systematic review of the association between chronic stress during the life course and telomere length". Systematic Reviews (Review). 3: 40. PMC 4022427Freely accessible. PMID 24886862. doi:10.1186/2046-4053-3-40Freely accessible.  open access publication – free to read
  8. ^ Miller, Gregory E.; Chen, Edith; Zhou, Eric S. (January 2007). "If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans". Psychological Bulletin. 133 (1): 25–45. PMID 17201569. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.1.25. (Subscription required (help)). 
  9. ^ a b Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Dolbier, Christyn (September 2011). "Resilience in the Context of Chronic Stress and Health in Adults". Social and Personality Psychology Compass. 5 (9): 634–52. PMC 4494753Freely accessible. PMID 26161137. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9004.2011.00379.x. 
  10. ^ a b c Cohen, Sheldon; Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Miller, Gregory E. (10 October 2007). "Psychological stress and disease". JAMA. 298 (14): 1685–7. PMID 17925521. doi:10.1001/jama.298.14.1685. (Subscription required (help)). 

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