Understanding the CPU for beginners

Channel: PWNAGERTT   |   2012/12/30
Play Video
1
Understanding the CPU for beginners
Understanding the CPU for beginners
::2012/12/30::
Play Video
2
clock rate
clock rate
::2010/07/22::
Play Video
3
CCNA - Configuring The Clock Rate on Cisco Router.avi
CCNA - Configuring The Clock Rate on Cisco Router.avi
::2010/12/11::
Play Video
4
Clockspeed
Clockspeed
::2008/03/10::
Play Video
5
Computer Performance: Relative Performance, CPU Time, Clock Cycle, Clock Rate
Computer Performance: Relative Performance, CPU Time, Clock Cycle, Clock Rate
::2013/12/17::
Play Video
6
CLOCK RATE
CLOCK RATE
::2012/09/28::
Play Video
7
Choosing a Processor: More Cores or Higher Clock Speed?
Choosing a Processor: More Cores or Higher Clock Speed?
::2013/03/11::
Play Video
8
Mikroprosesor 08: clock rate/frekuensi/clock speed (dasar)
Mikroprosesor 08: clock rate/frekuensi/clock speed (dasar)
::2011/02/01::
Play Video
9
Cisco Packet Tracer: Configuração de interface serial, clock rate e senha em roteador
Cisco Packet Tracer: Configuração de interface serial, clock rate e senha em roteador
::2013/04/18::
Play Video
10
Wiki Clock rate
Wiki Clock rate
::2013/07/04::
Play Video
11
Configurando Clock rate no Roteador CISCO
Configurando Clock rate no Roteador CISCO
::2013/08/22::
Play Video
12
Clock Rate
Clock Rate
::2012/06/15::
Play Video
13
Configuração de interfaces, bandwidth e clock rate (Packet Tracer)
Configuração de interfaces, bandwidth e clock rate (Packet Tracer)
::2010/12/15::
Play Video
14
Setting The Clock Rate.avi
Setting The Clock Rate.avi
::2011/10/14::
Play Video
15
How to boost your computer speed, memory and clock speed!!!!
How to boost your computer speed, memory and clock speed!!!!
::2012/07/25::
Play Video
16
CPU Clock Speed
CPU Clock Speed
::2013/01/19::
Play Video
17
clock rate.mpg
clock rate.mpg
::2011/09/04::
Play Video
18
More Cores vs Higher Clock Speed For Mobile Devices
More Cores vs Higher Clock Speed For Mobile Devices
::2011/07/08::
Play Video
19
CPU clock speed dropping under load
CPU clock speed dropping under load
::2014/02/27::
Play Video
20
Lenguaje de señas. "clock rate"
Lenguaje de señas. "clock rate"
::2013/10/29::
Play Video
21
ISOM161---Clock Speed
ISOM161---Clock Speed
::2009/04/17::
Play Video
22
router rip and clock rate By Cheaputheara
router rip and clock rate By Cheaputheara
::2014/04/06::
Play Video
23
How to boost your computer speed, memory and clock speed!!!!
How to boost your computer speed, memory and clock speed!!!!
::2012/08/05::
Play Video
24
SONY PS4 MAXIMUM CLOCK SPEED AT 2.75 GHZ RELEASED TODAY..
SONY PS4 MAXIMUM CLOCK SPEED AT 2.75 GHZ RELEASED TODAY..
::2013/07/16::
Play Video
25
PS4 and Xbox One Clock Speeds "Not a Very Good Measure of Performance"
PS4 and Xbox One Clock Speeds "Not a Very Good Measure of Performance"
::2013/07/11::
Play Video
26
How can we increase clock frequency in digital circuits by using parallelism?
How can we increase clock frequency in digital circuits by using parallelism?
::2010/03/22::
Play Video
27
Xbox One CPU Clock Speed Increased 150Mhz   GAME AMD PLAY INFO
Xbox One CPU Clock Speed Increased 150Mhz GAME AMD PLAY INFO
::2014/03/14::
Play Video
28
Overclocking CPU Clock Speed
Overclocking CPU Clock Speed
::2011/09/28::
Play Video
29
Copy of CPU-Z confusing clock speeds :)
Copy of CPU-Z confusing clock speeds :)
::2013/02/27::
Play Video
30
Iodine Clock Reaction
Iodine Clock Reaction
::2012/02/26::
Play Video
31
CPU Clock Speeds.avi
CPU Clock Speeds.avi
::2010/04/05::
Play Video
32
Black Ops 2 - Xbox One GPU Clock Speed Increased (Gameplay/Commentary)
Black Ops 2 - Xbox One GPU Clock Speed Increased (Gameplay/Commentary)
::2013/08/10::
Play Video
33
Video Card Shopping Tips: Why Memory and Clock Speeds Don
Video Card Shopping Tips: Why Memory and Clock Speeds Don't Matter NCIX Tech Tips
::2011/03/31::
Play Video
34
JSCDU-OK
JSCDU-OK
::2009/03/09::
Play Video
35
Grasshopper Sea Clock Re-build
Grasshopper Sea Clock Re-build
::2011/10/17::
Play Video
36
Clock hands
Clock hands
::2011/10/06::
Play Video
37
Low-Jitter SyncE SETS Clock and 2-ch PLL for 10G / 40G by IDT
Low-Jitter SyncE SETS Clock and 2-ch PLL for 10G / 40G by IDT
::2013/06/29::
Play Video
38
Tut6: VHDL Clock Divider
Tut6: VHDL Clock Divider
::2013/01/08::
Play Video
39
lecture37 - Introduction to clock and data recovery - Frequency multiplication using a PLL
lecture37 - Introduction to clock and data recovery - Frequency multiplication using a PLL
::2012/03/20::
Play Video
40
Fun in clocking
Fun in clocking
::2014/02/28::
Play Video
41
Mechanical CPU Clock simulation
Mechanical CPU Clock simulation
::2012/04/16::
Play Video
42
Firestorm FPS test
Firestorm FPS test
::2014/02/17::
Play Video
43
15. Rates in Clock Evolution 2011 Hotel Software - Simple rate
15. Rates in Clock Evolution 2011 Hotel Software - Simple rate
::2013/02/12::
Play Video
44
Iodine Clock (slow motion) - Periodic Table of Videos
Iodine Clock (slow motion) - Periodic Table of Videos
::2013/01/18::
Play Video
45
LMK04800 Clock Jitter Cleaner/Distribution Demo
LMK04800 Clock Jitter Cleaner/Distribution Demo
::2012/03/08::
Play Video
46
SEGA Has 7 Wii U Games Planned/Wii U CPU/GPU Clock Speed Increase?
SEGA Has 7 Wii U Games Planned/Wii U CPU/GPU Clock Speed Increase?
::2013/05/10::
Play Video
47
Ratchet & Clank Future: A Crack in Time OST: The Great Clock - Sector 2
Ratchet & Clank Future: A Crack in Time OST: The Great Clock - Sector 2
::2009/10/27::
Play Video
48
Harrison Clock - H1
Harrison Clock - H1
::2009/07/14::
Play Video
49
Taiwan G.pulse Heart Rate Monitor-M10 graphic instruction-1st MODE: Clock Mode
Taiwan G.pulse Heart Rate Monitor-M10 graphic instruction-1st MODE: Clock Mode
::2013/09/09::
Play Video
50
Ratchet & Clank Future: A Crack in Time OST: The Great Clock - Sector One
Ratchet & Clank Future: A Crack in Time OST: The Great Clock - Sector One
::2009/11/15::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Clock frequency)
Jump to: navigation, search

The clock rate typically refers to the frequency at which a CPU is running. It is measured in the SI unit Hertz.

Details[edit]

The clock rate of a CPU is normally determined by the frequency of an oscillator crystal. Typically a crystal oscillator produces a fixed sine wave—the frequency reference signal. Electronic circuitry translates that into a square wave at the same frequency for digital electronics applications (or, in using a CPU multiplier, some fixed multiple of the crystal reference frequency). The clock distribution network inside the CPU carries that clock signal to all the parts that need it. An AD Converter has a "clock" pin driven by a similar system to set the sampling rate. CPU manufacturers typically charge premium prices for CPUs that operate at higher clock rates, a practice called binning. For a given CPU, the clock rates are determined at the end of the manufacturing process through actual testing of each CPU. CPUs that are tested as complying with a given set of standards may be labeled with a higher clock rate, e.g., 1.50 GHz, while those that fail the standards of the higher clock rate yet pass the standards of a lesser clock rate may be labeled with the lesser clock rate, e.g., 1.3 GHz, and sold at a lower price.[1] Chip manufacturers publish a "maximum clock rate" specification, and they test chips before selling them to make sure they meet that specification, even when executing the most complicated instructions with the data patterns that take the longest to settle (testing at the temperature and voltage that runs the lowest performance).

With any particular CPU, replacing the crystal with another crystal that oscillates half the frequency ("underclocking") will generally make the CPU run at half the performance and reduce waste heat produced by the CPU. Conversely, some people try to increase performance of a CPU by replacing the oscillator crystal with a higher frequency crystal ("overclocking").[2] However, the amount of overclocking is limited by the time for the CPU to settle after each pulse, and by the extra heat created.

After each clock pulse, the signal lines inside the CPU need time to settle to their new state. That is, every signal line must finish transitioning from 0 to 1, or from 1 to 0. If the next clock pulse comes before that, the results will be incorrect. In the process of transitioning, some energy is wasted as heat (mostly inside the driving transistors). When executing complicated instructions that cause many transitions, the higher the clock rate the more heat produced. Transistors may be damaged by excessive heat.

Historical milestones and current records[edit]

The first electromechanical general purpose computer, the Z3 operated at a frequency of about 5–10 Hz. The first electronic general purpose computer, the ENIAC, used a 100 kHz clock in its cycling unit. As each instruction took 20 cycles, it had an instruction rate of 5kHz.

The first commercial PC, the Altair 8800 (by MITS), used an Intel 8080 CPU with a clock rate of 2 MHz (2 million cycles/second). The original IBM PC (c. 1981) had a clock rate of 4.77 MHz (4,772,727 cycles/second). In 1992, both Hewlett-Packard and Digital Equipment Corporation broke the difficult 100 MHz limit with RISC techniques in the PA-7100 and AXP 21064 DEC Alpha respectively. In 1995, Intel's P5 Pentium chip ran at 100 MHz (100 million cycles/second). In March 6, 2000, AMD reached the 1GHz milestone a few months ahead of Intel. In 2002, an Intel Pentium 4 model was introduced as the first CPU with a clock rate of 3 GHz (three billion cycles/second corresponding to ~3.0×10−10seconds or 0.3 nanoseconds per cycle). Since then, the clock rate of production processors has increased much more slowly, with performance improvements coming from other design changes. A nano second is the time for light or an electric-signal to travel a distance of about 30cm, coming close to the distances a signal travels in the computer.

As of 2011, the Guinness Record for fastest CPU is by AMD with a Bulldozer based FX chip "overclocked" to 8.308 GHz; however, it has now been superseded by the next generation of AMD's FX chips "Piledriver" with a clock rate of 8.429 GHz.[3]

As of mid-2013, the highest clock rate on a production processor is the IBM zEC12, clocked at 5.5 GHz, which was released in August of 2012.

Research[edit]

Engineers continue to find new ways to design CPUs that settle a little more quickly or use slightly less energy per transition, pushing back those limits, producing new CPUs that can run at slightly higher clock rates. The ultimate limits to energy per transition are explored in reversible computing, although no reversible computers have yet been implemented.

Engineers continue to find new ways to design CPUs so that they complete more instructions per clock cycle (achieving a lower CPI count), although it may run at the same or a lower clock rate as older CPUs. This is achieved through architectural techniques such as instruction pipelining and out-of-order execution which attempts to exploit instruction level parallelism in the code.

Comparing[edit]

The clock rate of a CPU is most useful for providing comparisons between CPUs in the same family. The clock rate is only one of several factors that can influence performance when comparing processors in different families. For example, an IBM PC with an Intel 80486 CPU running at 50 MHz will be about twice as fast (internally only) as one with the same CPU and memory running at 25 MHz, while the same will not be true for MIPS R4000 running at the same clock rate as the two are different processors that implement different architectures and microarchitectures. There are many other factors to consider when comparing the performance of CPUs, like the clock rate and width of the CPU's data bus, the latency of the memory, and the cache architecture.

The clock rate alone is generally considered to be an inaccurate measure of performance when comparing different CPUs families. Software benchmarks are more useful. Clock rates can sometimes be misleading since the amount of work different CPUs can do in one cycle varies. For example, superscalar processors can execute more than one instruction per cycle (on average), yet it is not uncommon for them to do "less" in a clock cycle. In addition, subscalar CPUs or use of parallelism can also affect the performance of the computer regardless of clock rate.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1] [2]
  2. ^ "Overclocking" early processors was as simple – and as limited – as changing the discrete clock crystal ... The advent of adjustable clock generators has allowed "overclocking" to be done without changing parts such as the clock crystal."-- Overclocking Guide Part 1: Risks, Choices and Benefits : Who Overclocks? by Thomas Soderstrom
  3. ^ Chiappetta, Marco (23 September 2011). "AMD Breaks 8GHz Overclock with Upcoming FX Processor, Sets World Record". HotHardware. Retrieved 2012-04-28. 

This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November 2008 and incorporated under the "relicensing" terms of the GFDL, version 1.3 or later.

Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License

Mashpedia enables any individual or company to promote their own Youtube-hosted videos or Youtube Channels, offering a simple and effective plan to get them in front of our engaged audience.

Want to learn more? Please contact us at: hello@mashpedia.com

Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014