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Great Cockpit Approach into San Francisco!
Great Cockpit Approach into San Francisco!
Published: 2016/09/11
Channel: JustPlanes
Boeing 747-400 Miami Take-off in Heavy Rain - Cockpit View
Boeing 747-400 Miami Take-off in Heavy Rain - Cockpit View
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Boeing 747-400 Cockpit - Breakoff Landing Amsterdam Schiphol
Boeing 747-400 Cockpit - Breakoff Landing Amsterdam Schiphol
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: The Pilot Channel
MD-11 Cockpit View - Landing in Miami,  Martinair Cargo
MD-11 Cockpit View - Landing in Miami, Martinair Cargo
Published: 2017/03/09
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Miracle Fight 2 (2nd fight WIN Tusok Sa Ulo) @ Talaba Cockpit Cavite
Miracle Fight 2 (2nd fight WIN Tusok Sa Ulo) @ Talaba Cockpit Cavite
Published: 2016/12/26
Channel: Lui Reyes
Cockpit - SNL
Cockpit - SNL
Published: 2016/10/23
Channel: Saturday Night Live
Boeing 747 Cockpit View - Take-Off from Miami Intl. (MIA)
Boeing 747 Cockpit View - Take-Off from Miami Intl. (MIA)
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Most Amazing: F-15 Eagle Takeoff, refueling and Maneuvers (Cockpit View)
Most Amazing: F-15 Eagle Takeoff, refueling and Maneuvers (Cockpit View)
Published: 2017/07/03
Channel: US Military News
Cockpit Boeing 727 Mexico to Guadalajara (2003)
Cockpit Boeing 727 Mexico to Guadalajara (2003)
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: JustPlanes
YLH 3x winner @ Sta. Rita cockpit
YLH 3x winner @ Sta. Rita cockpit
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: hootz05
প্রথম দিনের ককপিট শুটিংয়ে দেব কোয়েল রুক্মিণী | Koel | Rukmini | Dev | Cockpit Film Shooting Begins
প্রথম দিনের ককপিট শুটিংয়ে দেব কোয়েল রুক্মিণী | Koel | Rukmini | Dev | Cockpit Film Shooting Begins
Published: 2017/05/25
Channel: Cine Gossip
Lufthansa Cargo MD 11F ULTIMATE COCKPIT MOVIE 1/4 FRA-Nairobi,FULL ATC [AirClips full flight series]
Lufthansa Cargo MD 11F ULTIMATE COCKPIT MOVIE 1/4 FRA-Nairobi,FULL ATC [AirClips full flight series]
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: Air-Clips.com
PMDG Boeing 737 Home Cockpit | Skiathos to Samos FULL FLIGHT | Short Takeoff/Landing | GoPro Cockpit
PMDG Boeing 737 Home Cockpit | Skiathos to Samos FULL FLIGHT | Short Takeoff/Landing | GoPro Cockpit
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: TheGreatFlyer
Take-Off Santiago de Chile - Boeing 747-400 Cockpit
Take-Off Santiago de Chile - Boeing 747-400 Cockpit
Published: 2017/06/29
Channel: The Pilot Channel
[HD] Jet Cockpit-view Compilation 1
[HD] Jet Cockpit-view Compilation 1
Published: 2015/03/26
Channel: DMKSPROD
Aer Lingus Cockpit Video | Dublin to Los Angeles | Inaugural LAX Flight
Aer Lingus Cockpit Video | Dublin to Los Angeles | Inaugural LAX Flight
Published: 2016/05/06
Channel: Aer Lingus
Qantas 767 Cockpit - Sydney Airport
Qantas 767 Cockpit - Sydney Airport
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: FSXHD101
Cockpit (Sabong) Masinloc Zambales Philippines
Cockpit (Sabong) Masinloc Zambales Philippines
Published: 2017/01/10
Channel: Dogfacesoldier
Night Landing Nice | Cockpit View 4K
Night Landing Nice | Cockpit View 4K
Published: 2017/06/12
Channel: High Pressure Aviation Films
ককপিট শুটিং এর ফাঁকে কি করলেন দেব, রুক্মিণী ও কোয়েল  ! Cockpit Bengali Movie 2017 Dev Rukmini Koel
ককপিট শুটিং এর ফাঁকে কি করলেন দেব, রুক্মিণী ও কোয়েল ! Cockpit Bengali Movie 2017 Dev Rukmini Koel
Published: 2017/07/20
Channel: Star Golpo
Transall: Blick in Cockpit und Laderaum - Abheben im mächtigen Bundeswehr-Flugzeug
Transall: Blick in Cockpit und Laderaum - Abheben im mächtigen Bundeswehr-Flugzeug
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: HNA
TUIfly Boeing 787 Dreamliner COCKPIT VIEW from Amsterdam to Palma
TUIfly Boeing 787 Dreamliner COCKPIT VIEW from Amsterdam to Palma
Published: 2016/09/22
Channel: NH Airtime
Martinair MD-11 Take-Off Amsterdam Schiphol - Cockpit View
Martinair MD-11 Take-Off Amsterdam Schiphol - Cockpit View
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: The Pilot Channel
Cockpit view - Boeing 747-400F Landing Amsterdam Schiphol
Cockpit view - Boeing 747-400F Landing Amsterdam Schiphol
Published: 2015/04/05
Channel: The Pilot Channel
COCKPIT EXPERIENCE !! NEW YORK JFK. Boeing 767-300. Spectacular Landing. Flight Frankfurt - New York
COCKPIT EXPERIENCE !! NEW YORK JFK. Boeing 767-300. Spectacular Landing. Flight Frankfurt - New York
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: settime2588
Helicopter crash filmed from the cockpit
Helicopter crash filmed from the cockpit
Published: 2017/07/06
Channel: Fucked In Poland
Turbulent Bad Weather Landing - MD11 Cockpit View
Turbulent Bad Weather Landing - MD11 Cockpit View
Published: 2016/05/20
Channel: PilotsTubeHD
Gefahr im Cockpit-Der Germanwings Absturz
Gefahr im Cockpit-Der Germanwings Absturz
Published: 2017/04/13
Channel: Jonathan Mayday
Full Cockpit Launch + Crew audio Last Space Shuttle ♦ STS-135
Full Cockpit Launch + Crew audio Last Space Shuttle ♦ STS-135
Published: 2015/02/13
Channel: Tanks in Space
BEAUTIFUL Cockpit Takeoff from Moscow [UUEE] Airbus A320
BEAUTIFUL Cockpit Takeoff from Moscow [UUEE] Airbus A320
Published: 2016/01/07
Channel: FlightBaseGermany
CS300 Riga-Paris Air Baltic Cockpit Preview: HD DVD Quality FOR FREE! [AirClips full flight series]
CS300 Riga-Paris Air Baltic Cockpit Preview: HD DVD Quality FOR FREE! [AirClips full flight series]
Published: 2017/07/07
Channel: Air-Clips.com
Cockpit Boeing 787 landing on Polderbaan
Cockpit Boeing 787 landing on Polderbaan
Published: 2016/05/29
Channel: JustPlanes
Let
Let's Play - GTA V - CockPit
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: LetsPlay
British Airways Concorde - Detailed Cockpit Tour - Cockpit Visit at Manchester Airport
British Airways Concorde - Detailed Cockpit Tour - Cockpit Visit at Manchester Airport
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: TheGreatFlyer
Audi Virtual Cockpit explained
Audi Virtual Cockpit explained
Published: 2017/01/22
Channel: WiZe1972
Mayday - Alarm im Cockpit - Feuerhölle auf Teneriffa (2005) [Spinoff]
Mayday - Alarm im Cockpit - Feuerhölle auf Teneriffa (2005) [Spinoff]
Published: 2015/05/30
Channel: Andoreasu73
KLM B747-400ERF Beautiful Landing at AMS - Cockpit View
KLM B747-400ERF Beautiful Landing at AMS - Cockpit View
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: The Pilot Channel
(ATC) Cockpit Takeoff and Landing Flight GIA288 WIMM-WARR (single cam)
(ATC) Cockpit Takeoff and Landing Flight GIA288 WIMM-WARR (single cam)
Published: 2015/06/10
Channel: Gilang Wardhana
Inside A B-52 Cockpit • Takeoff To Landing
Inside A B-52 Cockpit • Takeoff To Landing
Published: 2014/04/06
Channel: Gung Ho Vids
KLM Cockpit Tales: Part 1 - Autopilot in action
KLM Cockpit Tales: Part 1 - Autopilot in action
Published: 2015/02/02
Channel: KLM Royal Dutch Airlines
✈ Cockpit WINNER ✦ ENTER the Contest!! ✦ #TAKE2TUESDAYS
✈ Cockpit WINNER ✦ ENTER the Contest!! ✦ #TAKE2TUESDAYS
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Brian Christopher
Rare Video of A-10 Thunderbolt II Interior Cockpit View - US Air Force Over Arizona Sky
Rare Video of A-10 Thunderbolt II Interior Cockpit View - US Air Force Over Arizona Sky
Published: 2015/07/02
Channel: Daily Military Defense & Archive
CUPULA Y HALO EN LA FORMULA 1 ¿DEBERIAN INTRODUCIRSE? OPINION SEGURIDAD COCKPIT F1 2017 2018
CUPULA Y HALO EN LA FORMULA 1 ¿DEBERIAN INTRODUCIRSE? OPINION SEGURIDAD COCKPIT F1 2017 2018
Published: 2017/07/19
Channel: F1Total
[P3D] Shared Cockpit Airbus A320 - Melbourne to Canberra [YMML-YSCB]
[P3D] Shared Cockpit Airbus A320 - Melbourne to Canberra [YMML-YSCB]
Published: 2016/01/23
Channel: Squirrel
Most Dangerous Landing in Colombia - Cockpit View [HD 1080p]
Most Dangerous Landing in Colombia - Cockpit View [HD 1080p]
Published: 2015/06/14
Channel: Sebastian Salazar H
Boeing 747-400 ULTIMATE COCKPIT MOVIE,Wamos Air,SHORT FIELD LANDING,ATC[AirClips full flight series]
Boeing 747-400 ULTIMATE COCKPIT MOVIE,Wamos Air,SHORT FIELD LANDING,ATC[AirClips full flight series]
Published: 2016/12/23
Channel: Air-Clips.com
Take A Seat In The Cockpit Of NASA
Take A Seat In The Cockpit Of NASA's T38 Jet | Mach | NBC News
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: NBC News
F/A-18 Super Hornet Hi-Speed Low-Level Maneuvers • Cockpit View
F/A-18 Super Hornet Hi-Speed Low-Level Maneuvers • Cockpit View
Published: 2014/10/07
Channel: Gung Ho Vids
Air Canada 777 Cockpit Landing in Toronto
Air Canada 777 Cockpit Landing in Toronto
Published: 2016/01/07
Channel: JustPlanes
[US] B1 Lancer Bomber footage! (Loudest takeoff, cockpit...)
[US] B1 Lancer Bomber footage! (Loudest takeoff, cockpit...)
Published: 2016/09/20
Channel: DMKSPROD
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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View of the cockpit of an Airbus A319 during landing
Interior of an IndiGo A320 flight

A cockpit or flight deck is the area, usually near the front of an aircraft or spacecraft, from which a pilot controls the aircraft.

Cockpit of an Antonov An-124
Cockpit of an A380. Most Airbus cockpits are glass cockpits featuring fly-by-wire technology.
Swiss HB-IZX Saab 2000 cockpit during flight
Panel of a Robin DR400

The cockpit of an aircraft contains flight instruments on an instrument panel, and the controls that enable the pilot to fly the aircraft. In most airliners, a door separates the cockpit from the aircraft cabin. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, all major airlines fortified their cockpits against access by hijackers.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The word cockpit was originally a sailing term for the coxswain's station in a Royal Navy ship, and later the location of the ship's rudder controls.[citation needed] Cockpit first appeared in the English language in the 1580s, "a pit for fighting cocks", from cock + pit. Used in nautical sense (1706) for midshipmen's compartment below decks; transferred to airplanes (1914) and to cars (1930s).[2] From about 1935,[citation needed] cockpit came to be used informally to refer to the driver's seat of a car, especially a high performance one, and this is official terminology in Formula One.

In an airliner, the cockpit is usually referred to as the flight deck, the term deriving from its use by the RAF for the separate, upper platform in large flying boats where the pilot and co-pilot sat. In the US and many other countries, however, the term cockpit is also used for airliners.[citation needed]

Ergonomics[edit]

The first airplane with an enclosed cabin appeared in 1912 on the Avro Type F; however, during the early 1920s there were many passenger aircraft in which the crew remained open to the air while the passengers sat in a cabin. Military biplanes and the first single-engined fighters and attack aircraft also had open cockpits, some as late as the Second World War when enclosed cockpits became the norm.

The largest impediment to having closed cabins was the material the windows were to be made of. Prior to Perspex becoming available in 1933, windows were either safety glass, which was heavy, or cellulose nitrate (i.e.: guncotton), which yellowed quickly and was extremely flammable. In the mid-1920s many aircraft manufacturers began using enclosed cockpits for the first time. Early airplanes with closed cockpits include the 1924 Fokker F.VII, the 1926 German Junkers W 34 transport, the 1926 Ford Trimotor, the 1927 Lockheed Vega, the Spirit of St. Louis and the passenger aircraft manufactured by the Douglas and Boeing companies during the mid-1930s. Open-cockpit airplanes were almost extinct by the mid-1950s, with the exception of training planes, crop-dusters and homebuilt aircraft designs.

Cockpit windows may be equipped with a sun shield. Most cockpits have windows that can be opened when the aircraft is on the ground. Nearly all glass windows in large aircraft have an anti-reflective coating, and an internal heating element to melt ice. Smaller aircraft may be equipped with a transparent aircraft canopy.

In most cockpits the pilot's control column or joystick is located centrally (centre stick), although in some military fast jets the side-stick is located on the right hand side. In some commercial airliners (i.e.: Airbus—which features the glass cockpit concept) both pilots use a side-stick located on the outboard side, so Captain's side-stick on the left and First-officer's seat on the right.

Except for some helicopters, the right seat in the cockpit of an aircraft is the seat used by the co-pilot. The captain or pilot in command sits in the left seat, so that he can operate the throttles and other pedestal instruments with his right hand. The tradition has been maintained to this day, with the co-pilot on the right hand side.[3]

The layout of the cockpit, especially in the military fast jet, has undergone standardisation, both within and between aircraft different manufacturers and even different nations. One of the most important developments was the "Basic Six" pattern, later the "Basic T", developed from 1937 onwards by the Royal Air Force, designed to optimise pilot instrument scanning.

Ergonomics and Human Factors concerns are important in the design of modern cockpits. The layout and function of cockpit displays controls are designed to increase pilot situation awareness without causing information overload. In the past, many cockpits, especially in fighter aircraft, limited the size of the pilots that could fit into them. Now, cockpits are being designed to accommodate from the 1st percentile female physical size and the 99th percentile male size.

In the design of the cockpit in a military fast jet, the traditional "knobs and dials" associated with the cockpit are mainly absent. Instrument panels are now almost wholly replaced by electronic displays, which are themselves often re-configurable to save space. While some hard-wired dedicated switches must still be used for reasons of integrity and safety, many traditional controls are replaced by multi-function re-configurable controls or so-called "soft keys". Controls are incorporated onto the stick and throttle to enable the pilot to maintain a head-up and eyes-out position – the so-called Hands On Throttle And Stick or HOTAS concept,. These controls may be then further augmented by new control media such as head pointing with a Helmet Mounted Sighting System or Direct voice input (DVI). New advances in auditory displays even allow for Direct Voice Output of aircraft status information and for the spatial localisation of warning sounds for improved monitoring of aircraft systems.

The layout of control panels in modern airliners has become largely unified across the industry. The majority of the systems-related controls (such as electrical, fuel, hydraulics and pressurization) for example, are usually located in the ceiling on an overhead panel. Radios are generally placed on a panel between the pilot's seats known as the pedestal. Automatic flight controls such as the autopilot are usually placed just below the windscreen and above the main instrument panel on the glareshield. A central concept in the design of the cockpit is the Design Eye Position or "DEP", from which point all displays should be visible.

Most modern cockpits will also include some kind of integrated warning system.

In a 2013 comparative study of a number of novel methods for cockpit-user interaction, touchscreen produced the largest number of "best scores".[4]

Flight instruments[edit]

USAF and IAF airmen work inside the cockpit of an IAF Ilyushin Il-76
Vickers VC-10 cockpit of the 1960s
A later analogue cockpit (1970s) of a Hawker Siddeley Trident airliner

In the modern electronic cockpit, the electronic flight instruments usually regarded as essential are MCP, PFD, ND, EICAS, FMS/CDU and back-up instruments.

MCP[edit]

A mode control panel, usually a long narrow panel located centrally in front of the pilot, may be used to control heading, speed, altitude, vertical speed, vertical navigation and lateral navigation. It may also be used to engage or disengage both the autopilot and the autothrottle. The panel as an area is usually referred to as the "glareshield panel". MCP is a Boeing designation (that has been informally adopted as a generic name for the unit/panel) for a unit that allows for the selection and parameter setting of the different autoflight functions, the same unit on an Airbus aircraft is referred to as the FCU (Flight Control unit).

PFD[edit]

The primary flight display is usually located in a prominent position, either centrally or on either side of the cockpit. It will in most cases include a digitized presentation of the attitude indicator, air speed and altitude indicators (usually as a tape display) and the vertical speed indicator. It will in many cases include some form of heading indicator and ILS/VOR deviation indicators. In many cases an indicator of the engaged and armed autoflight system modes will be present along with some form of indication of the selected values for altitude, speed, vertical speed and heading. It may be pilot selectable to swap with the ND.

ND[edit]

A navigation display, which may be adjacent to the PFD, shows the current route and information on the next waypoint, current wind speed and wind direction. It may be pilot selectable to swap with the PFD.

EICAS/ECAM[edit]

The Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System (used for Boeing) or Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (for Airbus) will allow the pilot to monitor the following information: values for N1, N2 and N3, fuel temperature, fuel flow, the electrical system, cockpit or cabin temperature and pressure, control surfaces and so on. The pilot may select display of information by means of button press.

FMS[edit]

The flight management system/control unit may be used by the pilot to enter and check for the following information: flight plan, speed control, navigation control, and so on.

Back-up instruments[edit]

In a less prominent part of the cockpit, in case of failure of the other instruments, there will be a battery-powered integrated standby instrument system along with a magnetic compass, showing essential flight information such as speed, altitude, attitude and heading.

Aerospace industry technologies[edit]

In the U.S. the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have researched the ergonomic aspects of cockpit design and have conducted investigations of airline industry accidents. Cockpit design disciplines include Cognitive science, Neuroscience, Human–computer interaction, Human Factors Engineering, Anthropometry and Ergonomics.

Aircraft designs have adopted the fully digital "glass cockpit". In such designs, instruments and gauges, including navigational map displays, use a user interface markup language known as ARINC 661. This standard defines the interface between an independent cockpit display system, generally produced by a single manufacturer, and the avionics equipment and user applications it is required to support, by means of displays and controls, often made by different manufacturers. The separation between the overall display system, and the applications driving it, allows for considerable specialization and independence.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Press Release – FAA Sets New Standards for Cockpit Doors". Faa.gov. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  2. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  3. ^ The Right Seat Handbook: A White-Knuckle Flier's Guide to Light Planes book.
  4. ^ Stanton, N. A., Harvey, C., Plant, K. L. and Bolton, L., 2013, "To twist, roll, stroke or poke. A study of input devices for menu navigation in the cockpit", Ergonomic Abstracts, Vol. 56 (4), pp. 590–611

External links[edit]

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