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Cognates vs  False Cognates
Cognates vs False Cognates
Published: 2013/12/10
Channel: iUniversity Prep
What is a cognate?
What is a cognate?
Published: 2015/05/04
Channel: Through Reading
Intro to Historical Linguistics: Cognates, Borrowed Words & Chance Resemblance (lesson 2 of 4)
Intro to Historical Linguistics: Cognates, Borrowed Words & Chance Resemblance (lesson 2 of 4)
Published: 2012/05/31
Channel: NativLang
Cognate Meaning
Cognate Meaning
Published: 2015/04/14
Channel: SDictionary
English-Spanish Cognates: Hundreds of Words You ALREADY Know!
English-Spanish Cognates: Hundreds of Words You ALREADY Know!
Published: 2016/06/23
Channel: Andrew Barr
Cognates
Cognates
Published: 2013/09/19
Channel: Carl Moore
Spanish Cognate Pattern #1: TION to CIÓN Nouns (S03E01)
Spanish Cognate Pattern #1: TION to CIÓN Nouns (S03E01)
Published: 2016/01/08
Channel: The Spanish Dude
Cognates: Words you already know in foreign languages: #languagehacking quickies
Cognates: Words you already know in foreign languages: #languagehacking quickies
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: Benny Lewis
Is German Easy? | German Cognates | German In 60 Seconds
Is German Easy? | German Cognates | German In 60 Seconds
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Babbel
German Cognates | Learn German | Speaksli
German Cognates | Learn German | Speaksli
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: Speaksli
12 Spanish Cognates Rules - Learn 1,000+ Spanish words in 4 minutes!
12 Spanish Cognates Rules - Learn 1,000+ Spanish words in 4 minutes!
Published: 2017/07/22
Channel: LearnSpanishWithMusic
Spn-Eng Cognates
Spn-Eng Cognates
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: Donald Appel
Spanish Cognate Pattern #2: ATE to AR Verbs (S03E02)
Spanish Cognate Pattern #2: ATE to AR Verbs (S03E02)
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: The Spanish Dude
Los Cognados - cognates
Los Cognados - cognates
Published: 2011/01/02
Channel: Saray Taylor-Román
Spanish Cognate Pattern #3: IC to ICO Adjectives & Nouns (S03E03)
Spanish Cognate Pattern #3: IC to ICO Adjectives & Nouns (S03E03)
Published: 2016/01/20
Channel: The Spanish Dude
Cognate pronunciación
Cognate pronunciación
Published: 2016/08/03
Channel: Claudia Talledos
cognates and false cognates
cognates and false cognates
Published: 2015/09/08
Channel: Diana Micaela Torres Martinez
Cognate Strategies
Cognate Strategies
Published: 2016/05/25
Channel: EDBE3453 TWU
Spanish Fundamentals: Cognates
Spanish Fundamentals: Cognates
Published: 2010/10/01
Channel: TLSpanish
Cognate Russian - English (cocktail)
Cognate Russian - English (cocktail)
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: Foreign Language Dialogues
Spanish Cognates
Spanish Cognates
Published: 2016/06/16
Channel: Learn Spanish With Me
English-Spanish Adjective Cognates
English-Spanish Adjective Cognates
Published: 2014/09/19
Channel: baroquemusician1
Cognate words in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.
Cognate words in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: Language Maitre
FALSE COGNATES – INGLÊS
FALSE COGNATES – INGLÊS
Published: 2015/08/14
Channel: COMO PODE CAIR NO ENEM
Using Cognates to teach ELL/ESL Vocabulary K-12
Using Cognates to teach ELL/ESL Vocabulary K-12
Published: 2015/10/09
Channel: Jeremy Montes
Cognate Strategy
Cognate Strategy
Published: 2017/09/30
Channel: Eric charsley
Spanish cognate project
Spanish cognate project
Published: 2012/10/16
Channel: CaptainDevs
CLASE DE INGLÉS 216 Actually - a false cognate
CLASE DE INGLÉS 216 Actually - a false cognate
Published: 2015/03/16
Channel: Tú Aprendes Ahora
Why are you laughing? True and False Cognates
Why are you laughing? True and False Cognates
Published: 2016/07/08
Channel: El Mejor Inglés
False Cognates
False Cognates
Published: 2013/11/19
Channel: Luis Edgar Jimenez Guavita
Cognate Russian - English (garage)
Cognate Russian - English (garage)
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: Foreign Language Dialogues
Cognates of a Four-bar linkage mechanism
Cognates of a Four-bar linkage mechanism
Published: 2015/01/23
Channel: Ajit Mujumdar
Derailleur - Cognate (Bitten Deep By The Black Dog)
Derailleur - Cognate (Bitten Deep By The Black Dog)
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: callmeapineapple
Cognate - Meaning | Pronunciation || Word Wor(l)d - Audio Video Dictionary
Cognate - Meaning | Pronunciation || Word Wor(l)d - Audio Video Dictionary
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: Word Wor(l)d
COGNATE OBJECT  / PASSIVE VOICE WITH INTRANSITIVE VERB (BENGALI)
COGNATE OBJECT / PASSIVE VOICE WITH INTRANSITIVE VERB (BENGALI)
Published: 2017/04/04
Channel: Satyajit Kumar
What is FALSE COGNATE? What does FALSE COGNATE mean? FALSE COGNATE meaning & explanation
What is FALSE COGNATE? What does FALSE COGNATE mean? FALSE COGNATE meaning & explanation
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: The Audiopedia
False Cognate
False Cognate
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: LalegetDanza
The Cognate - The Wound (Original Mix)
The Cognate - The Wound (Original Mix)
Published: 2017/08/10
Channel: Cognate Official
Learn Spanish - False Cognates: Part 1
Learn Spanish - False Cognates: Part 1
Published: 2013/12/31
Channel: spanishisyouramigo
Top 7 English French Faux Amis or False Cognates You Need to Know
Top 7 English French Faux Amis or False Cognates You Need to Know
Published: 2017/10/24
Channel: Comme une Française
Nova Meets The Cognate (NYC Mix)
Nova Meets The Cognate (NYC Mix)
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: BPM RADIO SHOW
Cognate Russian - English (appetite)
Cognate Russian - English (appetite)
Published: 2017/06/02
Channel: Foreign Language Dialogues
Creative Mechanism Design: Cognate Mechanisms (同族機構)
Creative Mechanism Design: Cognate Mechanisms (同族機構)
Published: 2012/12/27
Channel: NTUST IM Lab
Cognates: Japanese + Korean + Chinese
Cognates: Japanese + Korean + Chinese
Published: 2011/11/10
Channel: leo fuchigami
1.1 Cognates - Cognados
1.1 Cognates - Cognados
Published: 2016/05/20
Channel: Yetter's Learn Spanish
Cognate
Cognate
Published: 2014/10/29
Channel: Audiopedia
Cognates as a Learning Strategy
Cognates as a Learning Strategy
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: emily Howell
Cognados en Español | Spanish Cognates
Cognados en Español | Spanish Cognates
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: Español Fácil
What Is A Cognate Word?
What Is A Cognate Word?
Published: 2017/09/27
Channel: Another Question II
Using cognate strategies when working with Spanish speaking ELLs
Using cognate strategies when working with Spanish speaking ELLs
Published: 2016/09/29
Channel: Gisela Morgado
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Diagram showing relationships between etymologically-related words

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin [1]. In etymology, the cognate category excludes doublets and loanwords. The word cognate derives from the Latin noun cognatus, which means "blood relative" [2].

Characteristics[edit]

Cognates do not need to have the same meaning, which may have changed as the languages developed separately. For example English starve and Dutch sterven or German sterben ("to die") all derive from the same Proto-Germanic root, *sterbaną ("die"). English dish and German Tisch ("table"), with their flat surfaces, both come from Latin discus, but their later meanings are different. Discus is from Greek δίσκος (from the verb δικεῖν "to throw"). A later and separate English reflex of discus, probably through medieval Latin desca, is desk (see OED s.v. desk).

Cognates also do not need to have similar forms: English father, French père, and Armenian հայր (hayr) all descend directly from Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr.

Across languages[edit]

Examples of cognates in Indo-European languages are the words night (English), nuit (French), noche (Spanish), Nacht (German), nacht (Dutch), nag (Afrikaans), nicht (Scots), natt (Swedish, Norwegian), nat (Danish), nátt (Faroese), nótt (Icelandic), noc (Czech, Slovak, Polish), ночь, noch (Russian), ноќ, noć (Macedonian), нощ, nosht (Bulgarian), ніч, nich (Ukrainian), ноч, noch/noč (Belarusian), noč (Slovene), noć (Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian), νύξ, nyx (Ancient Greek, νύχτα/nychta in Modern Greek), nox/nocte (Latin), nakt- (Sanskrit), natë (Albanian), nos (Welsh), nueche (Asturian), noite (Portuguese and Galician), notte (Italian), nit (Catalan), nuèch/nuèit (Occitan), noapte (Romanian), nakts (Latvian), naktis (Lithuanian) and Naach (Colognian), all meaning "night" and being derived from the Proto-Indo-European *nókʷts "night".

Another Indo-European example is star (English), str- (Sanskrit), tara (Hindustani and Bengali), tora (Assamese), astre/étoile (French), ἀστήρ (astēr) (Greek or ἀστέρι/ἄστρο, asteri/astro in Modern Greek), astro/stella (Italian), aster (Latin) stea (Romanian and Venetian), stairno (Gothic), astl (Armenian), Stern (German), ster (Dutch and Afrikaans), Schtähn (Colognian), starn (Scots), stjerne (Norwegian and Danish), stjarna (Icelandic), stjärna (Swedish), stjørna (Faroese), setāre (Persian), stoorei (Pashto), seren (Welsh), steren (Cornish), estel (Catalan), estela (Occitan) estrella and astro Spanish, estrella Asturian and Leonese, estrela and astro (Portuguese and Galician) and estêre or stêrk (Kurdish), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂stḗr "star".

The Hebrew שלום shalom, the Arabic سلام salām, the Assyrian Neo-Aramaic shlama and the Amharic selam ("peace") are also cognates, derived from the Proto-Semitic *šalām- "peace".

Cognates may often be less easily recognised than the above examples, and authorities sometimes differ in their interpretations of the evidence. The English word milk is clearly a cognate of German Milch, Dutch melk, Russian молоко (moloko) and (Bosnian, Serbian, Slovenian mleko Croatian) also Montenegrin mlijeko.[3] On the other hand, French lait, Catalan llet, Italian latte, Romanian lapte, Spanish leche and leite (Portuguese and Galician) (all meaning "milk") are less-obvious cognates of Ancient Greek γάλακτος gálaktos (genitive singular of γάλα gála, "milk"), a relationship that is more evidently seen through the intermediate Latin lac "milk" as well as the English word lactic and other terms borrowed from Latin. All of them come from Proto-Indo-European h₂melǵ- "milk".

Some cognates are semantic opposites. For instance, while the Hebrew word חוצפה chutzpah means "impudence," its Classical Arabic cognate حصافة ḥaṣāfah means "sound judgment."[4] English black and Polish biały, meaning white, are cognates with opposite meanings, both deriving from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰleg- "to burn or shine".

Within the same language[edit]

Cognates within a single language, or doublets, may have meanings that are slightly or even totally different. For example, English ward and guard (<PIE *wer-, "to perceive, watch out for") are cognates, as are shirt (garment on top) and skirt (garment on bottom) (<PIE *sker-, "to cut"). In some cases, including this one, one cognate ("skirt") has an ultimate source in another language related to English,[5] but the other one ("shirt") is native.[6] That happened with many loanwords, such as skirt in this example, which was borrowed from Old Norse during the Danelaw.

Sometimes both doublets come from other languages, often the same one but at different times. For example, the word chief (meaning the leader of any group) comes from the Middle French chef ("head"), and its modern pronunciation preserves the Middle French consonant sound; the word chef (the leader of the cooks) was borrowed from the same source centuries later, but by then, the consonant had changed to a "sh" sound in French. Such word sets can also be called etymological twins, and of course, they may come in groups of higher numbers, as with, for example, the words wain (native), waggon/wagon (Dutch), and vehicle (Latin) in English.

A word may also enter another language, develop a new form or meaning there, and be re-borrowed into the original language; that is called reborrowing. For example, the Greek word κίνημα (kinima, "movement") became French cinéma (compare American English movie) and then later returned to Greece as σινεμά (sinema, "the art of film", "movie theater"). In Greece, κίνημα (kinima, "movement") and σινεμά (sinema, "filmmaking, cinema") are now doublets.[7]

Less-obvious English-language doublets are grammar and glamour.

False cognates[edit]

False cognates are words that people commonly believe are related (have a common origin), but that linguistic examination reveals are unrelated. For example, on the basis of superficial similarities, the Latin verb habēre and German haben, both meaning 'to have', appear to be cognates. However, because of the way words in the two languages evolved from Proto-Indo-European (PIE) roots, they cannot be cognate (see for example Grimm's law). German haben, like English have, comes from PIE *kh₂pyé- 'to grasp', and its real cognate in Latin is capere, 'to seize, grasp, capture'. Latin habēre, on the other hand, is from PIE *gʰabʰ, 'to give, to receive', and hence cognate with English give and German geben.[8]

Likewise, English much and Spanish mucho look similar and have a similar meaning but are not cognates, as they evolved from different roots: much from Proto-Germanic *mikilaz < PIE *meǵ- and mucho from Latin multum < PIE *mel-.[9]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Crystal, David, ed. (2011). "cognate". A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics (6th ed.). Blackwell Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-1-4443-5675-5. OCLC 899159900. Retrieved 16 March 2016. 
  2. ^ "cognate", The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed.: "Latin cognātus: co-, co- + gnātus, born, past participle of nāscī, to be born." Other definitions of the English word include "[r]elated by blood; having a common ancestor" and "[r]elated or analogous in nature, character, or function".
  3. ^ Compare also Greek ἀμέλγω amelgō "to milk".
  4. ^ Wehr, Hans (1994) [1979]. J. Milton Cowan, ed. Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Urbana, Illinois: Spoken Language Services, Inc. ISBN 0-87950-003-4. 
  5. ^ Harper, Douglas. "skirt (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-06-16. early 14c., "lower part of a woman's dress," from Old Norse skyrta "shirt, a kind of kirtle" 
  6. ^ Harper, Douglas. "shirt (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2017-06-16. Old English scyrte "skirt, tunic," from Proto-Germanic *skurtjon "a short garment" 
  7. ^ In fact, σινεμά stands beside a Greek neologism based on the original form of the same root, κινηματογράφος (kinimatoγráfos), with the same two meanings as cinéma/σινεμά. (The film or movie itself is the unrelated ταινία (tainia).)
  8. ^ Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben
  9. ^ Ringe, Don. "A quick introduction to language change" (PDF). Univ. of Pennsylvania: Linguistics 001 (Fall 2011). ¶ 29. pp. 11–12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-20. Retrieved 15 June 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Rubén Morán (2011), 'Cognate Linguistics', Kindle Edition, Amazon.

External links[edit]

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