Play Video
1
Cold Agglutinin Disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia: Mycoplasma Pneumoniae & Mononucleosis)
Cold Agglutinin Disease (autoimmune hemolytic anemia: Mycoplasma Pneumoniae & Mononucleosis)
::2013/06/05::
Play Video
2
Cold Agglutinin
Cold Agglutinin
::2013/08/27::
Play Video
3
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia - Warm & Cold Agglutinin
Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia - Warm & Cold Agglutinin
::2013/10/23::
Play Video
4
Cold Fear
Cold Fear
::2014/02/24::
Play Video
5
Shwachman - Diamond Syndrome (SDS) - Documentary
Shwachman - Diamond Syndrome (SDS) - Documentary
::2014/07/17::
Play Video
6
Hypopituitary, Hashimoto
Hypopituitary, Hashimoto's , Lupus and depression - Erin from the US - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/07/28::
Play Video
7
Shwachman - Diamond Syndrome (SDS) - Documentary
Shwachman - Diamond Syndrome (SDS) - Documentary
::2014/05/23::
Play Video
8
****Cure Any Autoimmune Disease *** MS, TYPE 2 Diabetes, Crohn
****Cure Any Autoimmune Disease *** MS, TYPE 2 Diabetes, Crohn's, Arthritis, Fibromyalgia, Lupus!!
::2013/12/28::
Play Video
9
Behcet
Behcet's Disease and Multiple Sclerosis - Jo from the UK - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/03/05::
Play Video
10
Parkinsons Disease & LDN - Lexie from the US shares her experience Low Dose Naltrexone
Parkinsons Disease & LDN - Lexie from the US shares her experience Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/07/14::
Play Video
11
Lyme Disease and Co-Infections - Cheryl from the US  - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Lyme Disease and Co-Infections - Cheryl from the US - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/05/23::
Play Video
12
Crohn
Crohn's Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, Spondylitis, Lyme Disease LDN- Raven Low Dose Naaltrexone
::2014/03/16::
Play Video
13
Hashimoto
Hashimoto's Thyroiditis _ LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone - Viv Scotland
::2014/07/30::
Play Video
14
****Cure Any Autoimmune Disease *** Crohn
****Cure Any Autoimmune Disease *** Crohn's, TYPE 2 Diabetes, MS, Lupus, Arthritis, Fibromyalgia!!
::2013/04/24::
Play Video
15
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Low Dose Naltrexone - LDN Robin from the US
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Low Dose Naltrexone - LDN Robin from the US
::2014/05/05::
Play Video
16
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Patti from the US LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Patti from the US LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/04/19::
Play Video
17
****Cure Any Crohn
****Cure Any Crohn's Disease *** $500 Guarantee
::2013/12/27::
Play Video
18
Hashimoto
Hashimoto's and PMS - Danielle from the US - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/06/18::
Play Video
19
Dr Laurie Marzell - LDN Prescribing Doctor - Low Dose Naltrexone
Dr Laurie Marzell - LDN Prescribing Doctor - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/06/29::
Play Video
20
Hailey - Hailey Disease - LDN  Low Dose Naltrexone Anne-Maree from Australia
Hailey - Hailey Disease - LDN Low Dose Naltrexone Anne-Maree from Australia
::2014/04/26::
Play Video
21
Multiple Sclerosis - Pauline from England - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Multiple Sclerosis - Pauline from England - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/07/08::
Play Video
22
Hailey-Hailey Disease, Hashimoto
Hailey-Hailey Disease, Hashimoto's - LDN - Teressa from the US - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/05/14::
Play Video
23
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Rusti from the US LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Rusti from the US LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/03/28::
Play Video
24
Hailey-Hailey Disease Carole from the US shares her experience LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Hailey-Hailey Disease Carole from the US shares her experience LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/01/15::
Play Video
25
Multiple Sclerosis - Pam from the US  - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Multiple Sclerosis - Pam from the US - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/06/25::
Play Video
26
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Lori from the US LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Lori from the US LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/02/17::
Play Video
27
Rheumatoid Arthritis - Kelly from the US  - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Rheumatoid Arthritis - Kelly from the US - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/06/01::
Play Video
28
Lupus, Myasthenia Gravis,Raynaud
Lupus, Myasthenia Gravis,Raynaud's Syndrome - LDN - Darlene - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/05/10::
Play Video
29
Naltrexone - The Sinclair Method for Alcoholism - Gary Bell from England
Naltrexone - The Sinclair Method for Alcoholism - Gary Bell from England
::2014/06/22::
Play Video
30
Hailey  -  Hailey Disease - Brian from Canada shares his story LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Hailey - Hailey Disease - Brian from Canada shares his story LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/03/01::
Play Video
31
Hailey  -  Hailey Disease, Fibromyalgia & CFS/MS  -  Cindy from the US LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Hailey - Hailey Disease, Fibromyalgia & CFS/MS - Cindy from the US LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/01/30::
Play Video
32
Isaacs Syndrome - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone Garry from Scotland
Isaacs Syndrome - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone Garry from Scotland
::2014/05/01::
Play Video
33
Hailey-Hailey Disease - Diane from the US shares her story - Low Dose Naltrexone LDN
Hailey-Hailey Disease - Diane from the US shares her story - Low Dose Naltrexone LDN
::2014/02/12::
Play Video
34
Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis- LDN - Sophie from the UK Low Dose Naltrexone
Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis- LDN - Sophie from the UK Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/06/11::
Play Video
35
Autism, Chronic Pain and Voices in the head - Jasmine from the UK  - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Autism, Chronic Pain and Voices in the head - Jasmine from the UK - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/06/08::
Play Video
36
Low Dose Naltrexone - LDN - Dr Michael Arata from the US
Low Dose Naltrexone - LDN - Dr Michael Arata from the US
::2014/06/14::
Play Video
37
Graves / Hashimoto
Graves / Hashimoto's Disease & LDN - Michelle from the US - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2012/09/19::
Play Video
38
Ankylosing Spondylitis - LDN - Rachel from Japan shares her story  Low Dose Naltrexone
Ankylosing Spondylitis - LDN - Rachel from Japan shares her story Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/04/16::
Play Video
39
Multiple Sclerosis - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone Lynn from the US
Multiple Sclerosis - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone Lynn from the US
::2014/04/23::
Play Video
40
Multiple Sclerosis & LDN - Petula from England tells her story - Low Dose Naltrexone
Multiple Sclerosis & LDN - Petula from England tells her story - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2012/07/11::
Play Video
41
Multiple Sclerosis - David 3 from the US  - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Multiple Sclerosis - David 3 from the US - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/05/26::
Play Video
42
Crohn
Crohn's Disease - Hazel Ireland = LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2013/10/21::
Play Video
43
Hashimoto
Hashimoto's Disease & LDN - Shannon from the US - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2013/04/16::
Play Video
44
Fibromyalgia - Alice from the US shares her story LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
Fibromyalgia - Alice from the US shares her story LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/02/19::
Play Video
45
LDN Awareness Week PR Consultant Anna Addison  - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
LDN Awareness Week PR Consultant Anna Addison - LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/04/14::
Play Video
46
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, Sjogren
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis, Sjogren's - Liz from England shares her story LDN - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/02/09::
Play Video
47
Hailey-Hailey Disease & LDN - May from the Netherlands - Low Dose Naltrexone
Hailey-Hailey Disease & LDN - May from the Netherlands - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2013/04/30::
Play Video
48
Lyme Disease and LDN - David from England tells his story - Low Dose Naltrexone
Lyme Disease and LDN - David from England tells his story - Low Dose Naltrexone
::2012/08/21::
Play Video
49
Ankylosing Spondylitis, Fibromyalgia, Interstitial Cystitis & Depression Bridget Low Dose Naltrexone
Ankylosing Spondylitis, Fibromyalgia, Interstitial Cystitis & Depression Bridget Low Dose Naltrexone
::2014/04/07::
Play Video
50
LDN 2014 Documentary
LDN 2014 Documentary
::2014/01/15::
NEXT >>
RESULTS [51 .. 101]
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Cold agglutinin disease
Classification and external resources
Coldagglutinin.svg
Cold agglutination - at body temperature, the antibodies do not attach to the red blood cells. At lower temperatures, however, the antibodies react to Ii antigens, bringing the red blood cells together, a process known as agglutination
ICD-10 D59.1
ICD-9 283.0
DiseasesDB 2949
eMedicine med/408
MeSH D000744

Cold agglutinin disease is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of high concentrations of circulating antibodies, usually IgM, directed against red blood cells.[1] It is a form of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, specifically one in which antibodies only bind red blood cells at low body temperatures, typically 28-31 °C.

It was first described in 1957.[2][3]

Etiology[edit]

There are two forms of cold agglutinin disease: 1-primary and 2-secondary.

  • The primary form is by definition idiopathic, a disease for which no cause is known.[4]

Pathophysiology[edit]

All individuals have circulating antibodies directed against red blood cells, but their concentrations are often too low to trigger disease (titers under 64 at 4 °C). In individuals with cold agglutinin disease, these antibodies are in much higher concentrations (titers over 1000 at 4 °C).

At body temperatures of 28-31 °C, such as those encountered during winter months, and occasionally at body temperatures of 37 °C, antibodies (generally IgM) bind to the polysaccharide region of glycoproteins on the surface of red blood cells (typically the I antigen, i antigen, and Pr antigens). Binding of antibodies to red blood cells activates the classical pathway of the complement system. If the complement response is sufficient, red blood cells are damaged by the membrane attack complex, an effector of the complement cascade. In the formation of the membrane attack complex, several complement proteins are inserted into the red blood cell membrane, forming pores that lead to membrane instability and intravascular hemolysis (destruction of the red blood cell within the blood vessels).

If the complement response is insufficient to form membrane attack complexes, then extravascular lysis will be favored over intravascular red blood cell lysis. In lieu of the membrane attack complex, complement proteins (particularly C3b and C4b) are deposited on red blood cells. This opsonization enhances the clearance of red blood cell by phagocytes in the liver, spleen, and lungs, a process termed extravascular hemolysis.

Individuals with cold agglutinin disease present with signs and symptoms of hemolytic anemia. Those with secondary agglutinin disease may also present with an underlying disease, often autoimmune.

Treatment[edit]

  • Avoid cold weather.
  • Treat the underlying lymphoma.

Treatment with rituximab has been described.[5]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cold Agglutinin Disease: Overview - eMedicine Pediatrics: General Medicine". Retrieved 2009-02-07. 
  2. ^ Gertz MA (April 2006). "Cold agglutinin disease". Haematologica 91 (4): 439–41. PMID 16585009. 
  3. ^ DACIE JV, CROOKSTON JH, CHRISTENSON WN (January 1957). "Incomplete cold antibodies role of complement in sensitization to antiglobulin serum by potentially haemolytic antibodies". Br. J. Haematol. 3 (1): 77–87. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2141.1957.tb05773.x. PMID 13413095. 
  4. ^ Berentsen S, Beiske K, Tjønnfjord GE (October 2007). "Primary chronic cold agglutinin disease: an update on pathogenesis, clinical features and therapy". Hematology 12 (5): 361–70. doi:10.1080/10245330701445392. PMC 2409172. PMID 17891600. 
  5. ^ Berentsen S, Ulvestad E, Gjertsen BT, et al. (April 2004). "Rituximab for primary chronic cold agglutinin disease: a prospective study of 37 courses of therapy in 27 patients". Blood 103 (8): 2925–8. doi:10.1182/blood-2003-10-3597. PMID 15070665. 
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL License
Powered by YouTube
LEGAL
  • Mashpedia © 2014