Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
The History of Coley
The History of Coley's Toxins
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: CHIPSA Hospital: Enhanced Gerson Therapy
Ch 1 of 12 "Coley
Ch 1 of 12 "Coley's Toxins" - DVD Extra Clip from "Second Opinion: Laetrile At Sloan-Kettering"
Published: 2014/02/19
Channel: Second Opinion: Laetrile At Sloan-Kettering - Documentary
Coley
Coley's Toxins
Published: 2012/07/27
Channel: Dr. Michael Johnson
Coleys Toxins
Coleys Toxins
Published: 2012/07/26
Channel: Dr. Michael Johnson
STAGE IV MELANOMA REVERSED
STAGE IV MELANOMA REVERSED
Published: 2013/03/18
Channel: DR. DAN ROGERS
CURE FOR CANCER - Dr. William Coley
CURE FOR CANCER - Dr. William Coley's Fluid
Published: 2012/03/02
Channel: brainuter
Original Coleys Toxins Opening | Ralph Moss | Eric Merola
Original Coleys Toxins Opening | Ralph Moss | Eric Merola
Published: 2015/01/05
Channel: Eric Merola Films
Fighting Cancer with Infection, 1891
Fighting Cancer with Infection, 1891
Published: 2016/04/08
Channel: The Scientist
Sanki USA. Our Bodies are full of toxins. Is there a need for Sanki Products?
Sanki USA. Our Bodies are full of toxins. Is there a need for Sanki Products?
Published: 2014/03/21
Channel: Sanki Dream Team
Justice Denied for 40 Years for Craig Coley
Justice Denied for 40 Years for Craig Coley
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: The Common Sense Show
Coley
Coley's solo "Rotten to the Core" 2016
Published: 2016/07/18
Channel: JULIE MECEY
Dr. James P. Allison Presents the William B. Coley Award to Drs. Chen, Freeman, Honjo and Sharpe
Dr. James P. Allison Presents the William B. Coley Award to Drs. Chen, Freeman, Honjo and Sharpe
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Cancer Research Institute
Breaking Up with Your Toxins
Breaking Up with Your Toxins
Published: 2012/02/01
Channel: Maggie Smith
Dr. Coley 2
Dr. Coley 2
Published: 2013/07/29
Channel: Bryce Hantla
Remove Toxic Additives | Alternative Cancer Treatments Review
Remove Toxic Additives | Alternative Cancer Treatments Review
Published: 2016/11/08
Channel: Medical Health
SOUREST GUMMY DRINK IN THE WORLD CHALLENGE!! Warheads, Toxic Waste Smoothie (EXTREMELY DANGEROUS)
SOUREST GUMMY DRINK IN THE WORLD CHALLENGE!! Warheads, Toxic Waste Smoothie (EXTREMELY DANGEROUS)
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: Collins Key
Ryan Luelf CHIPSA Hospital Experience With Stage 4 Lymphoma
Ryan Luelf CHIPSA Hospital Experience With Stage 4 Lymphoma
Published: 2016/02/17
Channel: CHIPSA Hospital: Enhanced Gerson Therapy
Video 13. It
Video 13. It's tough being Salmonella
Published: 2017/10/06
Channel: Brain Closet
A Cancer Therapy That Really Cures! The Bill Henderson Protocol
A Cancer Therapy That Really Cures! The Bill Henderson Protocol
Published: 2017/09/06
Channel: Bailey O'Brien
THE COLEY
THE COLEY'S
Published: 2013/11/15
Channel: Takita Coley
entering the voltron fandom like
entering the voltron fandom like
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: ColeyDoesThings
Lessons Learned From Black Friday
Lessons Learned From Black Friday
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: The Common Sense Show
William Spear on Invisible Toxins
William Spear on Invisible Toxins
Published: 2012/08/04
Channel: William Spear
U.S. Doctor and Wife Choose CHIPSA For Cancer Treatment
U.S. Doctor and Wife Choose CHIPSA For Cancer Treatment
Published: 2016/03/11
Channel: CHIPSA Hospital: Enhanced Gerson Therapy
entering the rick and morty fandom like
entering the rick and morty fandom like
Published: 2017/12/12
Channel: ColeyDoesThings
Extreme Toys Short: Epic Bottle Flip Challenge! Ethan Vs. Cole, and the Giant Hurricane Fan!
Extreme Toys Short: Epic Bottle Flip Challenge! Ethan Vs. Cole, and the Giant Hurricane Fan!
Published: 2017/08/15
Channel: ExtremeToys TV
Tumors. Polly Matzinger. Danger-based Immunology course S3, 2015
Tumors. Polly Matzinger. Danger-based Immunology course S3, 2015
Published: 2017/01/30
Channel: Maia W
Five Nights at Freddy
Five Nights at Freddy's Toys Cause Terror in the House! Plus FNAF Toy Review.
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: ExtremeToys TV
Ch. 10 of 12 "Out Of The Asylum" Added material to "Second Opinion: Laetrile At Sloan-Kettering"
Ch. 10 of 12 "Out Of The Asylum" Added material to "Second Opinion: Laetrile At Sloan-Kettering"
Published: 2014/10/12
Channel: Second Opinion: Laetrile At Sloan-Kettering - Documentary
Terminal with cancer with 1 to 6 months to live to LIFE within 4 months
Terminal with cancer with 1 to 6 months to live to LIFE within 4 months
Published: 2016/08/19
Channel: Joan Vasquez
Sleeping Beauty Is Banned
Sleeping Beauty Is Banned
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: The Common Sense Show
Cancer is Not an Illness it
Cancer is Not an Illness it's lifestyle or toxins every time!
Published: 2013/09/25
Channel: Lucas Hanson
Why Detox and How does the body remove toxins?
Why Detox and How does the body remove toxins?
Published: 2017/05/12
Channel: BioCorp
Podcast #155 - A Second Opinion: Laetrile at Sloan-Kettering with Ralph Moss & Eric Merola
Podcast #155 - A Second Opinion: Laetrile at Sloan-Kettering with Ralph Moss & Eric Merola
Published: 2014/09/18
Channel: Bulletproof
Drs. Chen, Freeman and Sharpe Accept the William B. Coley Award from the Cancer Research Institute
Drs. Chen, Freeman and Sharpe Accept the William B. Coley Award from the Cancer Research Institute
Published: 2015/11/17
Channel: Cancer Research Institute
Hyperthermia is dangerous Avoid it
Hyperthermia is dangerous Avoid it
Published: 2015/11/02
Channel: Gershom Zajicek M.D,
Q&A March 30, 2017
Q&A March 30, 2017
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Bailey O'Brien
The Failure of the F-35 and What It Means for America
The Failure of the F-35 and What It Means for America
Published: 2017/11/23
Channel: The Common Sense Show
Vanessa Bishop Returns to Chipsa Hospital - Outpatient Program - Alternative Cancer Treatment
Vanessa Bishop Returns to Chipsa Hospital - Outpatient Program - Alternative Cancer Treatment
Published: 2017/07/21
Channel: CHIPSA Hospital: Enhanced Gerson Therapy
My Alternative Cancer Treatments Progress. Last day at CHIPSA Hospital
My Alternative Cancer Treatments Progress. Last day at CHIPSA Hospital
Published: 2016/11/26
Channel: BIGMAN 2 smallman
The Cancer Pharma, Big Oil, Jewish Scam To Pay Them for Your Slow Death - Depopulation Agenda 21
The Cancer Pharma, Big Oil, Jewish Scam To Pay Them for Your Slow Death - Depopulation Agenda 21
Published: 2016/01/11
Channel: Divine Revelation
Merkel Plummeting in the Polls
Merkel Plummeting in the Polls
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: The Common Sense Show
Immunotherapy for Cancer - Coley Fluid - Gerson
Immunotherapy for Cancer - Coley Fluid - Gerson's diet
Published: 2009/03/22
Channel: Gar Hildenbrand
How High Dose Vitamin C IV Infusion Works
How High Dose Vitamin C IV Infusion Works
Published: 2016/03/14
Channel: CHIPSA Hospital: Enhanced Gerson Therapy
Regine Velasquez Bread/ England Dan and John Ford Coley Medley (Boy and Kris)
Regine Velasquez Bread/ England Dan and John Ford Coley Medley (Boy and Kris)
Published: 2009/03/18
Channel: Regine13
NK Defectors Shocking Diet
NK Defectors Shocking Diet
Published: 2017/11/25
Channel: The Common Sense Show
CHIPSA HOSPITAL Iacaboni IPT Treatment
CHIPSA HOSPITAL Iacaboni IPT Treatment
Published: 2017/04/19
Channel: CHIPSA Hospital: Enhanced Gerson Therapy
Mirabella Love - CHIPSA Hospital Review - Alternative Cancer Treatment
Mirabella Love - CHIPSA Hospital Review - Alternative Cancer Treatment
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: CHIPSA Hospital: Enhanced Gerson Therapy
Toxic - Les lundis du délire
Toxic - Les lundis du délire
Published: 2014/11/20
Channel: Mr Coley
Soros Escapes Paying Tax On 18 Billion In Income
Soros Escapes Paying Tax On 18 Billion In Income
Published: 2017/11/26
Channel: The Common Sense Show
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Coley's Toxins)
Jump to: navigation, search

Coley's toxins (also called Coley's toxin,[1] Coley's vaccine,[2] Coley vaccine, Coley's fluid or mixed bacterial vaccine) is a mixture consisting of killed bacteria of species Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens, named after William Coley, a surgical oncologist at the Hospital for Special Surgery who developed the mixture in the late 19th century as a treatment for cancer.[3]

History[edit]

Bacterial immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer has been utilized throughout history, with the earliest report in 2600 BC, by Egyptian pharaoh Imhotep who had a poultice, followed by incision, to facilitate the development of infection in the desired location and cause regression of the tumour. In 13th century, St. Peregrine experienced spontaneous regression of tumor, after the tumor became infected. In the 18th and 19th centuries, deliberate infection of tumors were a standard treatment, where surgical wounds were left open to facilitate the development of infection. Throughout the time period, physicians reported successful treatment of cancer by exposing the tumor to infection including the report of French physician Dussosoy who covered an ulcerated breast carcinoma with gangrenous discharge soaked clothe, resulting in disappearance of tumor.[4][5][6] Observations of a relationship between infection and cancer regression date back to at least the 18th century.[7][8][9] More specifically, observations of an apparent relationship between erysipelas and remission of cancer predate Coley.[10] For example, Anton Chekhov, in his capacity as a physician, recorded such a relationship in 1884.[11]

Coley started his investigations after the death of one of his first patients, Elizabeth Dashiell, from sarcoma. Dashiell was a close childhood friend of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., who later indicated that her death was what first motivated his subsequent funding of cancer research.[12][13]

Frustrated by this case, Coley's subsequent research led him to announce evidence of the apparent relationship between infection and cancer regression, which he published in 1891.[14] His initial attempts at deliberate infection were mixed,[15] but in 1893 he began combining Streptococcus pyogenes and Serratia marcescens, based upon research from G.H. Roger indicating that this combination led to greater virulence.[16]

Coley published the results of his work as a case series, making it difficult to interpret them with confidence. According to the American Cancer Society, "more research would be needed to determine what benefit, if any, this therapy might have for people with cancer".[17]

The so-called Coley's Toxins were used against different types of cancer from the year 1893[18] through the year 1963. From 1923 on, Parke-Davis was the only source of Coley's Toxins in the United States. In the wake of the thalidomide controversy and the Kefauver Harris Amendment of 1962, Coley's Toxins were assigned "new drug" status by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), making it illegal to prescribe them outside of clinical trials.[19] Since then, several small clinical trials have been conducted with mixed results.[20]

Coley's Toxins were also produced by the small German pharmaceutical company Südmedica[21] and sold under the trade name Vaccineurin.[22] However, production ceased by 1990 because of a lack of re-approval by German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices.

According to Cancer Research UK, "available scientific evidence does not currently support claims that Coley's toxins can treat or prevent cancer".[23] People with cancer who take Coley's toxins alongside conventional cancer treatments, or who use it as a substitute for those treatments, risk seriously harming their health.[23]

From 2009, research has been conducted in Australia and the United States which indicates the presence of an immune cycle.[24]

Rationale[edit]

There are multiple rationales proposed for how Coley's toxins affect the patient.

Macrophages[edit]

One rationale argues that macrophages are either in "repair mode", furthering the growing of cancer, or in "defense mode", destroying cancer. However, macrophages are in "defense mode" only if there is some recognized enemy. As cancer tissue is not recognized as enemy (but as normal body tissue), there is a need to bring more macrophages into "defense mode" by simulating an infection. The simulated infection results in a real fever. Unlike hyperthermia, real fever not only means heating of the body but also higher activity of the immune system. Thus, fever is seen as a precondition for a therapy using Coley's Toxins to succeed.[7][25][26]

Tumor necrosis factor and interleukin[edit]

One of the agents in Coley's Toxin that is thought to be biologically active is a lipopolysaccharide which causes fever.[27] The resulting fever from the lipopolysaccaride is thought to increase lymphocyte activity and boosts tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Tsung and Norton in Surgical Oncology reported that the active agent was thought to be interleukin-12, rather than TNF.[28]

Streptokinase[edit]

Another hypothesis argues that streptokinase (produced by bacteria of type "streptococcus" together with plasminogen from the patient) is the active agent of Coley's toxins.[29][30] This hypothesis is supported by the fact that streptokinase has been associated with successful treatment of thromboangiitis obliterans.[31]

Anti-angiogenesis[edit]

In addition to the mechanisms above, Coley's toxins might be antiangiogenic – suppressing the formation of new blood vessels which are vital to the growth of tumors.,[32] however, angiogenesis is not a biochemical cause by itself but needs external triggers.

Dendritic cells[edit]

A robust fever, which occurs in response to Coley fluid, generates inflammatory factors with co-stimulatory activity, which activate resting dendritic cells (DC), leading to the activation of anergic T cells, possibly accomplished through a second process, where physical damage to cancer cells leads to a sudden supply of cancer antigens to the dendritic cell population.[7][25]

PAMP[edit]

Recently (2008), an immunological explanation binding together immunological data with findings about spontaneous regression and epidemiological data indicating a lowered risk to develop cancer later after common infections, has been published.[33] According to this hypothesis, pathogenic substances produced by bacteria, viruses, infectious fungi and other pathogens, but not human tissue, called 'pathogen associated molecular pattern' (PAMP) lead to activation and maturation of tumor-antigen loaded dendritic cells. One PAMP thought to play a major role is the unmethlyated CpG motif found in bacterial DNA. The CpG motif is recognized by toll like receptor 9 (TLR9) and can induce a strong TH1 response.

Availability[edit]

MBVax Bioscience, a Canadian Biotech company, produces Coley Fluid for research and clinical study.[34][35] A private biotech company, Coley Pharmaceutical Group, has conducted clinical trials using genetic sequences which may have contributed to Coley's toxin's effectiveness, and was acquired by Pfizer in January 2008.[36] In addition, the Waisbren Clinic in Wisconsin reports they have used Coley's toxin to treat patients since 1972.[37] Coley's toxins are generally not available where approval or licence is required (in particular in the United States and Germany).

Drug makers including Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis are interested in modern versions of Coley's toxins;[38] Pfizer has acquired the Coley Pharmaceutical Group, set up in 1997[39]

Germany[edit]

Some specialized medical doctors in Germany apply Coley's toxins to patients. They can do so legally because, in Germany, unapproved medications may be produced, although they may not be sold or given away. Physicians can go to special laboratories and produce Coley's toxins there using their own hands. Coley's toxins may still be applied by a licensed medical doctor, because in Germany there is "Therapiefreiheit" ("therapy freedom"), the legal right to apply whichever therapy a physician considers to be appropriate in the light of their medical knowledge. For example, Dr Josef Issels used several unconventional and controversial treatments, including Coley's toxins, for cancer patients in the second half of the 20th century.

This kind of therapy is offered as "Fiebertherapie" (fever therapy) or better "Aktive Fiebertherapie" (active fever therapy). This term was introduced by E. Göhring in 1985.[40] Hyperthermia therapy or thermotherapy is not the same type of treatment, although sometimes incorrectly called "fever therapy".[citation needed]

Name[edit]

There are several names for Coley's toxins or Coley's vaccine. The reason may lie in the difficulty of classifying such a substance under the view of the established medicine:

  • Coley's vaccine is not a vaccine in the usual sense, namely that it prevents an infection. Rather than that, it triggers infection-like reactions. However, Coley's vaccine may work like many ordinary vaccines: it induces an immune response, in this case against the cancer. In this sense, it predates current attempts to develop cancer vaccines.
  • The term toxin is applied as Coley's toxins contain both endotoxins and exotoxins.[citation needed]

Politics[edit]

According to an article in the Iowa Orthopedic Journal, Coley's toxins were opposed by the medical establishment despite his reports of good results, because his reports were not believed to be credible.[41]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thotathil Z, Jameson MB (2007). "Early experience with novel immunomodulators for cancer treatment". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs. 16 (9): 1391–403. doi:10.1517/13543784.16.9.1391. PMID 17714025. 
  2. ^ Taniguchi Y, Nishizawa T, Kouhchi C, et al. (2006). "Identification and characterization of lipopolysaccharide in acetic acid bacteria". Anticancer Res. 26 (6A): 3997–4002. PMID 17195448. 
  3. ^ [1] Pick, Thomas Pickering, "Surgery," Longmans, Green and Company, 1899, Pages 250–251. Retrieved August 3, 2010.
  4. ^ "Spontaneous regression of tumour and the role of microbial infection – possibilities for cancer treatment". 2016. doi:10.1097/CAD.0000000000000337. PMC 4777220Freely accessible. 
  5. ^ Jessy T (2011). "Immunity over inability: The spontaneous regression of cancer". doi:10.4103/0976-9668.82318. PMID 15748226. 
  6. ^ "Fever in Cancer Treatment: Coley's Therapy and Epidemiologic Observations". 2012. PMC 3833486Freely accessible. 
  7. ^ a b c Hobohm, U.: [2] Fever and cancer in perspective, Cancer Immunol Immunother 2001) 50: 391–396 10.1007/s002620100216
  8. ^ Hoption Cann SA, van Netten JP, van Netten C, Glover DW (2002). "Spontaneous regression: a hidden treasure buried in time". Med. Hypotheses. 58 (2): 115–9. doi:10.1054/mehy.2001.1469. PMID 11812185. 
  9. ^ Kleef, Ralf; Hager, E. Dieter (2006-09-15). "Fever, Pyrogens and cancer". Landes Bioscience: Curie. Landes Bioscience. Retrieved 2014-10-10. 
  10. ^ W. Busch. Einfluβ von Erysipel. Berliner Klin Wschr 1866. 3: 245–246.
  11. ^ Gresser I (1987). "A. Chekhov, M.D., and Coley's toxins". N. Engl. J. Med. 317 (7): 457. doi:10.1056/NEJM198708133170716. PMID 3302707. 
  12. ^ "A Commotion in the Blood". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  13. ^ Hall, Stephen K. (1997). A commotion in the blood: life, death, and the immune system. New York: Henry Holt. ISBN 0-8050-5841-9. 
  14. ^ Coley WB. Annals of Surgery 1891;14:199–200
  15. ^ McCarthy EF (2006). "The Toxins of William B. Coley and the Treatment of Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas". The Iowa orthopaedic journal. 26: 154–8. PMC 1888599Freely accessible. PMID 16789469. 
  16. ^ Roger, G.H. Séances et Mém Soc de Biol Paris 1890;2:573–580
  17. ^ "Coley Toxins". American Cancer Society. 1 November 2008. Retrieved April 2014.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  18. ^ Coley WB. The treatment of malignant tumors by repeated inoculations of Erysipelas, with a report of ten original cases. Am J Med Sci 1893;105:487–511.
  19. ^ "Coley's Toxins – The First Century Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients – Find Articles". Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 2004. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  20. ^ Germs As A Tumor Foe?, from the Los Angeles Times, published February 18, 2008. Accessed March 26, 2008.
  21. ^ Hess, J David. (1997). Can bacteria cause cancer?: alternative medicine confronts big science. New York: New York University Press. p. 11. ISBN 0-8147-3562-2. 
  22. ^ "History and Background". Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  23. ^ a b "What is Coley's toxins treatment for cancer?". Cancer Research UK. 22 August 2012. Retrieved April 2014.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  24. ^ Coventry BJ, Ashdown ML, Quinn MA, Markovic SN, Yatomi-Clarke SL, Robinson AP, "CRP identifies homeostatic immune oscillations in cancer patients: potential treatment targeting tool?" Journal of Translational Medicine, 2009, 7: 102. Review.
  25. ^ a b Hobohm, U.: [3] Fever therapy revisited, British Journal of Cancer (2005) 92, 421 – 425
  26. ^ Hoption Cann S, van Netten J, van Netten C (2003). "Dr William Coley and tumour regression: a place in history or in the future". Postgrad Med J. 79 (938): 672–80. PMC 1742910Freely accessible. PMID 14707241.  link
  27. ^ "Proposed Mechanism of Action". Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  28. ^ Tsung K, Norton JA (2006). "Lessons from Coley's Toxin". Surgical oncology. 15 (1): 25–8. doi:10.1016/j.suronc.2006.05.002. PMID 16814541. 
  29. ^ Zacharski L, Sukhatme V (2005). "Coley's toxin revisited: immunotherapy or plasminogen activator therapy of cancer?". J Thromb Haemost. 3 (3): 424–7. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2005.01110.x. PMID 15748226. 
  30. ^ Haux J (2001). "Infection and cancer". Lancet. 358 (9276): 155–6. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)05369-7. PMID 11469250. 
  31. ^ Hussein EA, el Dorri A (1993). "Intra-arterial streptokinase as adjuvant therapy for complicated Buerger's disease: early trials". International surgery. 78 (1): 54–8. PMID 8473086. 
  32. ^ Infection and cancer: the common vein
  33. ^ Hobohm U, Grange J, Stanford J: [4] Pathogen associated molecular pattern in cancer immunotherapy, Critical Reviews Immunology (2008) Vol 28, 95–107
  34. ^ "MBVax Bioscience revives century-old "Coley's Toxins" cancer therapy Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients – Find Articles". Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients. 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  35. ^ "MBVax Bioscience". Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  36. ^ Borrell, Brendan (2008-02-18). "Cancer and the bacterial connection". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 
  37. ^ "Waisbren Clinic – Home Page". Retrieved 2007-11-10. 
  38. ^ New York Times: article on Pfizer and Coley Pharmaceutical Group, 5 October 2005
  39. ^ news-medical.net: Pfizer to acquire Coley Pharmaceutical Group, 19 November 2007
  40. ^ Göhring, E (1985). "Fiebertherapie bei Krebs vernachlässigt" (PDF). Ärztl. Praxis. 86: 3377. 
  41. ^ McCarthy, EF (2006). "The Toxins of William B. Coley and the Treatment of Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas". The Iowa orthopaedic journal. 26: 154–8. PMC 1888599Freely accessible. PMID 16789469. 

External links[edit]

Hospitals[edit]

Companies[edit]

Scientific reviews[edit]

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license