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Commons-based peer production
Commons-based peer production
Published: 2016/01/22
Channel: WikiAudio
An introduction to participatory and contributions-based peer production - Michel Bauwens
An introduction to participatory and contributions-based peer production - Michel Bauwens
Published: 2012/09/27
Channel: Fundación Karisma
What is PEER PRODUCTION? What does PEER PRODUCTION mean? PEER PRODUCTION meaning & explanation
What is PEER PRODUCTION? What does PEER PRODUCTION mean? PEER PRODUCTION meaning & explanation
Published: 2017/09/18
Channel: The Audiopedia
Commons-based peer production
Commons-based peer production
Published: 2017/07/15
Channel: Search Engine
IHPI Seminar Series: The C3N Project - Commons-based Peer Production for a Learning Health System
IHPI Seminar Series: The C3N Project - Commons-based Peer Production for a Learning Health System
Published: 2015/10/01
Channel: Michigan Medicine
DrupalDynamics Vlog #4: What? A Commons-Based Peer Produced Virtual Enterprise Network Platform Coop
DrupalDynamics Vlog #4: What? A Commons-Based Peer Produced Virtual Enterprise Network Platform Coop
Published: 2017/03/17
Channel: DrupalDynamics
Yochai Benkler Explains Social Production
Yochai Benkler Explains Social Production
Published: 2009/04/28
Channel: WadaTripp2
#P2PDataJam 1/2
#P2PDataJam 1/2
Published: 2014/03/12
Channel: P2PValue
Samer Hassan on Online Tools to Increase Participation in Collaborative Communities
Samer Hassan on Online Tools to Increase Participation in Collaborative Communities
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: The Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society
The idea of the commons and the future of capitalism
The idea of the commons and the future of capitalism
Published: 2014/11/11
Channel: IASC COMMONS
Danny Spitzberg- Communities for Commons: Ideas for Engagement
Danny Spitzberg- Communities for Commons: Ideas for Engagement
Published: 2016/05/30
Channel: OuiShareTV
The Emergence of a Commons Based Economy - The Quilligan May Seminars
The Emergence of a Commons Based Economy - The Quilligan May Seminars
Published: 2012/04/14
Channel: Anna Betz
PROCOMUNS: Commons Collaborative Economies - March 2016 Barcelona.
PROCOMUNS: Commons Collaborative Economies - March 2016 Barcelona.
Published: 2016/04/11
Channel: P2PValue
ANN-SONIC-NICO Workshop 2015 - Yorchai Benkler Keynote Presentation
ANN-SONIC-NICO Workshop 2015 - Yorchai Benkler Keynote Presentation
Published: 2015/11/09
Channel: SonicNU
Benkler Workshop
Benkler Workshop
Published: 2015/12/04
Channel: Andrea Mitchell Center for the Study of Democracy
Werkstätten des Wandels | Bibliothek, Fabrik, Nachbarschaftstreff unter einem Dach
Werkstätten des Wandels | Bibliothek, Fabrik, Nachbarschaftstreff unter einem Dach
Published: 2017/10/16
Channel: ioew_de
The Emergence of the Commons-Oriented Collaborative Economy
The Emergence of the Commons-Oriented Collaborative Economy
Published: 2017/03/24
Channel: Reinvent
Why the collaborative commons?
Why the collaborative commons?
Published: 2014/09/13
Channel: The Commons Decrypted
Kevin Flanagan: Cooperation and the Commons (FSCONS 2014)
Kevin Flanagan: Cooperation and the Commons (FSCONS 2014)
Published: 2015/10/31
Channel: FSCONSTalks
Theodoros Karyotis - Labour is a commons
Theodoros Karyotis - Labour is a commons
Published: 2017/09/20
Channel: Theodoros Karyotis
013 Transitioning Through Collaborative Commons
013 Transitioning Through Collaborative Commons
Published: 2017/08/28
Channel: Brandon Ramirez
Benkler on political deliberation
Benkler on political deliberation
Published: 2012/05/08
Channel: solstag
Digital Culture for Free: Gutenberg or Genghis Khan?
Digital Culture for Free: Gutenberg or Genghis Khan?
Published: 2011/05/23
Channel: visionontv
Performance of My Big Fat Bahookie—Lorella Loftus—The VORTEX—Fri, April 28, 2017
Performance of My Big Fat Bahookie—Lorella Loftus—The VORTEX—Fri, April 28, 2017
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: HowlRound
The Rebus Community: A Collaborative Approach to Open Textbook Publishing - Zoe Wake Hyde
The Rebus Community: A Collaborative Approach to Open Textbook Publishing - Zoe Wake Hyde
Published: 2016/12/14
Channel: The Right to Research Coalition
Claudia Rankine: On Whiteness—ArtsEmerson—Boston—Friday, March 24, 2017
Claudia Rankine: On Whiteness—ArtsEmerson—Boston—Friday, March 24, 2017
Published: 2017/03/24
Channel: HowlRound
Yochai Benkler @ Wizards of OS 4
Yochai Benkler @ Wizards of OS 4
Published: 2006/09/15
Channel: politik-digital.de
Yochai Benkler @ Wizards of OS 4
Yochai Benkler @ Wizards of OS 4
Published: 2006/09/19
Channel: politik-digital.de
Michel Bauwens for InternetActiva
Michel Bauwens for InternetActiva
Published: 2012/09/26
Channel: Shamblesguru Smith
Yochai Benkler @ Wizards of OS 4
Yochai Benkler @ Wizards of OS 4
Published: 2007/11/14
Channel: thewavingcat
Tutorial of P2P value directory
Tutorial of P2P value directory
Published: 2014/03/12
Channel: P2PValue
Triple Play discussion from Theatre Development Fund and Theatre Bay Area in Boston
Triple Play discussion from Theatre Development Fund and Theatre Bay Area in Boston
Published: 2017/11/21
Channel: HowlRound
Lens 1—Esoteric Mysticism—Art and Survival 2016—Double Edge Theatre—Aug 6, 2016
Lens 1—Esoteric Mysticism—Art and Survival 2016—Double Edge Theatre—Aug 6, 2016
Published: 2016/08/09
Channel: HowlRound
Artist Talk with Thomas Ostermeier at the Martin E  Segal Theatre Center in New York City—Thurs, Oct
Artist Talk with Thomas Ostermeier at the Martin E Segal Theatre Center in New York City—Thurs, Oct
Published: 2017/10/13
Channel: HowlRound
The Ice Cream Sandwich Incident—by Barry Eitel—FaultLine Theater—San Francisco—August 21
The Ice Cream Sandwich Incident—by Barry Eitel—FaultLine Theater—San Francisco—August 21
Published: 2016/08/22
Channel: HowlRound
After Identity, What? & Identity and Movements—Ford Foundation—Art, identity, & Movements for Change
After Identity, What? & Identity and Movements—Ford Foundation—Art, identity, & Movements for Change
Published: 2015/06/24
Channel: HowlRound
Homologia—La MaMa Umbria International—Cantiere Oberdan, Spoleto, Italy—Sat, March 5, 2016
Homologia—La MaMa Umbria International—Cantiere Oberdan, Spoleto, Italy—Sat, March 5, 2016
Published: 2016/03/06
Channel: HowlRound
Marcin Jakubowski - Global Collaboration | @marioninstitute
Marcin Jakubowski - Global Collaboration | @marioninstitute
Published: 2012/12/21
Channel: MarionInstituteTV
Yochai Benkler @ Wizards of OS 4
Yochai Benkler @ Wizards of OS 4
Published: 2006/09/15
Channel: politik-digital.de
Rob Nash’s Holy Cross Sucks! at The VORTEX in Austin, Texas—Friday 15 December 2017 Act 2
Rob Nash’s Holy Cross Sucks! at The VORTEX in Austin, Texas—Friday 15 December 2017 Act 2
Published: 2017/12/17
Channel: HowlRound
What is DISTRIBUTED MANUFACTURING? What does DISTRIBUTED MANUFACTURING mean?
What is DISTRIBUTED MANUFACTURING? What does DISTRIBUTED MANUFACTURING mean?
Published: 2017/04/07
Channel: The Audiopedia
Creating Work & Artistic Homes: A Conversation with Taylor Mac, Kristin Marting, and Machine Dazzle
Creating Work & Artistic Homes: A Conversation with Taylor Mac, Kristin Marting, and Machine Dazzle
Published: 2018/01/26
Channel: HowlRound
Cherchez La Femme: the musical—La MaMa—New York City—Sun, June 12, 2016
Cherchez La Femme: the musical—La MaMa—New York City—Sun, June 12, 2016
Published: 2016/11/16
Channel: HowlRound
Transforming Justice—Devising Freedom Dialogue Series—The Foundry Theatre—May 21, 2014
Transforming Justice—Devising Freedom Dialogue Series—The Foundry Theatre—May 21, 2014
Published: 2014/08/20
Channel: HowlRound
Some Other Race: Exploring the Diversity within the Latino Story—A Public Dialogue—ArtsEmerson
Some Other Race: Exploring the Diversity within the Latino Story—A Public Dialogue—ArtsEmerson
Published: 2016/05/11
Channel: HowlRound
A performance of YA KU ZA at The VORTEX in Austin—Friday 2 February 2018
A performance of YA KU ZA at The VORTEX in Austin—Friday 2 February 2018
Published: 2018/02/04
Channel: HowlRound
Closing Plenary Session—2017 TCG National Conference  Full Circle—Portland, OR—Sat, June 10, 2017
Closing Plenary Session—2017 TCG National Conference Full Circle—Portland, OR—Sat, June 10, 2017
Published: 2017/06/11
Channel: HowlRound
Arduino Hands on Learning @ UMass Amherst Charlie Schweik
Arduino Hands on Learning @ UMass Amherst Charlie Schweik
Published: 2016/06/12
Channel: Mobile Hands on Learning STEM
Paving the Way  A Conversation with Leaders of Color in the Arts at ArtsBoston in Boston, MA—Tuesday
Paving the Way A Conversation with Leaders of Color in the Arts at ArtsBoston in Boston, MA—Tuesday
Published: 2017/12/13
Channel: HowlRound
Wild Horses, A National New Play Network Rolling World Premiere at The VORTEX in Austin, Texas—Frida
Wild Horses, A National New Play Network Rolling World Premiere at The VORTEX in Austin, Texas—Frida
Published: 2017/12/04
Channel: HowlRound
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Commons-based peer production (CBPP) is a term coined by Harvard Law School professor Yochai Benkler.[1] It describes a new model of socioeconomic production in which large numbers of people work cooperatively (usually over the Internet). Commons-based projects generally have less rigid hierarchical structures than those under more traditional business models. Often—but not always—commons-based projects are designed without a need for financial compensation for contributors. For example, sharing of STL (file format) design files for objects freely on the internet enables anyone with a 3-D printer to digitally replicate (distributed manufacture) the object[2][3] saving the prosumer significant money.[4][5]

The term is often used interchangeably with the term social production.

Overview[edit]

The history of commons-based peer production communities (by the P2Pvalue project)

Benkler contrasts commons-based peer production with firm production, in which tasks are delegated based on a central decision-making process, and market-based production, in which allocating different prices to different tasks serves as an incentive to anyone interested in performing a task.

Benkler first introduced the term in his 2002 paper "Coase's Penguin, or Linux and the Nature of the Firm",[6] whose title refers to the Linux mascot and to Ronald Coase, who originated the transaction costs theory of the firm that provides the methodological template for the paper's analysis of peer production. The paper cites Eben Moglen as the originator of the concept.[6]

In his book The Wealth of Networks (2006), Benkler significantly expands on his definition of commons-based peer production. According to Benkler, what distinguishes commons-based production is that it doesn't rely upon or propagate proprietary knowledge: "The inputs and outputs of the process are shared, freely or conditionally, in an institutional form that leaves them equally available for all to use as they choose at their individual discretion." To ensure that the knowledge generated is available for free use, commons-based projects are often shared under an open license.

Not all commons-based production necessarily qualifies as commons-based peer production. According to Benkler, peer production is defined not only by the openness of its outputs, but also by a decentralized, participant-driven working method of working.[7]

Peer production enterprises have two primary advantages over traditional hierarchical approaches to production:

  1. Information gain: Peer production allows individuals to self-assign tasks that suit their own skills, expertise, and interests. Contributors can generate dynamic content that reflects the individual skills and the "variability of human creativity."
  2. Great variability of human and information resources: leads to substantial increasing returns to scale to the number of people, and resources and projects that may be accomplished without need for a contract or other factor permitting the proper use of the resource for a project.[8]

In Wikinomics, Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams suggest an incentive mechanism behind common-based peer production. "People participate in peer production communities," they write, "for a wide range of intrinsic and self-interested reasons....basically, people who participate in peer production communities love it. They feel passionate about their particular area of expertise and revel in creating something new or better."[9]

Aaron Krowne offers another definition:

commons-based peer production refers to any coordinated, (chiefly) internet-based effort whereby volunteers contribute project components, and there exists some process to combine them to produce a unified intellectual work. CBPP covers many different types of intellectual output, from software to libraries of quantitative data to human-readable documents (manuals, books, encyclopedias, reviews, blogs, periodicals, and more).[10]

Principles[edit]

First, the potential goals of peer production must be modular. In other words, objectives must be divisible into components, or modules, each of which can be independently produced. That allows participants to work asynchronously, without having to wait for each other's contributions or coordinate with each other in person.[11]

Second, the granularity of the modules is essential. Granularity refers to the degree to which objects are broken down into smaller pieces (module size).[11] Different levels of granularity will allow people with different levels of motivation to work together by contributing small or large grained modules, consistent with their level of interest in the project and their motivation.[11]

Third, a successful peer-production enterprise must have low-cost integration—the mechanism by which the modules are integrated into a whole end product. Thus, integration must include both quality controls over the modules and a mechanism for integrating the contributions into the finished product at relatively low cost.[11]

Examples[edit]

Additional examples of commons-based peer production communities (by the P2Pvalue project)
One day living with commons-based peer production communities (by the P2Pvalue project)

Examples of projects using commons-based peer production include:

Outgrowths[edit]

Several outgrowths have been:

  • Customization/Specialization: With free and open source software small groups have the capability to customize a large project according to specific needs. With the rise of low-cost 3-D printing, and other digital manufacturing techniques this is now also becoming true of open source hardware.
  • Longevity: Once code is released under a copyleft free software license it is almost impossible to remove it from the public domain.
  • Cross-fertilization: Experts in a field can work on more than one project with no legal hassles.
  • Technology Revisions: A core technology gives rise to new implementations of existing projects.
  • Technology Clustering: Groups of products tend to cluster around a core set of technology and integrate with one another.

Related concepts[edit]

Interrelated concepts to Commons-based peer production are the processes of peer governance and peer property. To begin with, peer governance is a new mode of governance and bottom-up mode of participative decision-making that is being experimented in peer projects, such as Wikipedia and FLOSS; thus peer governance is the way that peer production, the process in which common value is produced, is managed.[12] Peer Property indicates the innovative nature of legal forms such as the General Public License, the Creative Commons, etc. Whereas traditional forms of property are exclusionary ("if it is mine, it is not yours"), peer property forms are inclusionary. It is from all of us, i.e. also for you, provided you respect the basic rules laid out in the license, such as the openness of the source code for example.[13]

The ease of entering and leaving an organization is a feature of adhocracies.

The principle of commons-based peer production is similar to collective invention, a model of open innovation in economics coined by Robert Allen.[14]

Also related: Open-source economics and Commercial use of copyleft works.

Criticism[edit]

Some[15] believe that the commons-based peer production (CBPP) vision, while powerful and groundbreaking, needs to be strengthened at its root because of some allegedly wrong assumptions concerning free and open source software (FOSS).

The CBPP literature regularly and explicitly quotes FOSS products as examples of artifacts “emerging” by virtue of mere cooperation, with no need for supervising leadership (without «market signals or managerial commands», in Benkler’s words).

It can be argued, however, that in the development of any less than trivial piece of software, irrespective of whether it be FOSS or proprietary, a subset of the (many) participants always play -explicitly and deliberately- the role of leading system and subsystem designers, determining architecture and functionality, while most of the people work “underneath” them in a logical, functional sense.[16]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Steven Johnson (September 21, 2012). "The Internet? We Built That". New York Times. Retrieved 2012-09-24. The Harvard legal scholar Yochai Benkler has called this phenomenon 'commons-based peer production'. 
  2. ^ Using a 3D printer to print your household items could save you $12,000 - Digital Trends, 2017
  3. ^ License to Print Money at Home?- Engineering360 IEEE GlobalSpec, 2017
  4. ^ E. E. Petersen and J. Pearce. Emergence of Home Manufacturing in the Developed World: Return on Investment for Open-Source 3-D Printers. Technologies 2017, 5(1), 7; doi:10.3390/technologies5010007
  5. ^ https://all3dp.com/household-items-save-money/ All 3DP- -Could you save money with 3D printing?
  6. ^ a b Coase's Penguin or Linux and The nature of the firm 112 YALE L.J. 369 (2002), PDF.
  7. ^ Benkler, Yochai (2006). The Wealth of Networks. Yale University Press. pp. 73–74. ISBN 978-0-300-11056-2. 
  8. ^ Benkler, Yochai; Nissenbaum, Helen (2006). "Commons-based Peer Production and Virtue". The Journal of Political Philosophy. 4 (14): 394-419. Retrieved 22 October 2011.
  9. ^ Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything (2006), by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams, Portfolio Books, p 70
  10. ^ Krowne, Aaron (March 1, 2005). "The FUD based encyclopedia: Dismantling the Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt aimed at Wikipedia and other free knowledge sources Archived 2006-02-09 at the Wayback Machine.. Free Software Magazine.
  11. ^ a b c d Benkler, Yochai; Nissenbaum, Helen (2006). "Commons-based Peer Production and Virtue" (PDF). The Journal of Political Philosophy. 4. (14): 394–419. Retrieved 22 October 2011. 
  12. ^ Vasilis Kostakis (2010): Peer governance and Wikipedia. In: First Monday 3-1(15)
  13. ^ Michel Bauwens (2005): The Political Economy of Peer Production. In: Ctheory
  14. ^ Robert C. Allen (1983): Collective invention. In: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 4(1), p. 1-24
  15. ^ Magrassi, P. (2010). Free and Open-Source Software is not an Emerging Property but Rather the Result of Studied Design Archived 2010-11-12 at the Wayback Machine." Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intellectual Capital, Knowledge Management & Organisational Learning, Hong Kong Polytechnic, Nov. 2010
  16. ^ Magrassi, P. (2010). Free and Open-Source Software is not an Emerging Property but Rather the Result of Studied Design pag. 8. Cornell University Library, arXiv.org > cs > arXiv:1012.5625

External links[edit]

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