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Why the Jaguar XE is Auto Express Compact Executive Car of the Year (sponsored)
Why the Jaguar XE is Auto Express Compact Executive Car of the Year (sponsored)
Published: 2016/10/05
Channel: Auto Express
Audi A4 vs Mercedes C-Class vs BMW 3 Series vs Jaguar XE Saloons 2017 review | Head2Head
Audi A4 vs Mercedes C-Class vs BMW 3 Series vs Jaguar XE Saloons 2017 review | Head2Head
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: carwow
Skoda Superb - 2016 What Car? Best compact executive car less than £25,000
Skoda Superb - 2016 What Car? Best compact executive car less than £25,000
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: What Car?
Top 10 Best Luxury Cars
Top 10 Best Luxury Cars
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: Auto Express
BMW 3 Series review - What Car?
BMW 3 Series review - What Car?
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: What Car?
New Infiniti G - Compact executive car
New Infiniti G - Compact executive car
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Interesting movies about cars
How To Choose The Ultimate Executive Car
How To Choose The Ultimate Executive Car
Published: 2012/05/15
Channel: The Drive Channel
Top 5 Best Luxury Cars Under $40,000
Top 5 Best Luxury Cars Under $40,000
Published: 2016/04/10
Channel: Auto News
Mercedes E-Class Saloon 2017 review | Mat Watson Reviews
Mercedes E-Class Saloon 2017 review | Mat Watson Reviews
Published: 2016/05/21
Channel: carwow
Best cars of 2015,  Executive Cars  THE TELEGRAPH CARS
Best cars of 2015, Executive Cars THE TELEGRAPH CARS
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: the telegraph cars
CAR magazine - Top 12 2009 - Best Compact Executive
CAR magazine - Top 12 2009 - Best Compact Executive
Published: 2009/03/06
Channel: CAR Magazine
Best Compact Executive Car - Alfa Romeo Giulia Quadrifoglio
Best Compact Executive Car - Alfa Romeo Giulia Quadrifoglio
Published: 2017/04/10
Channel: Auto Shot
Top 5 Best Luxury Car [2016] Under $40,000 or Less
Top 5 Best Luxury Car [2016] Under $40,000 or Less
Published: 2016/04/15
Channel: Millie Jackson
1997 Audi A4 1.9 TDi 110 - Best Compact Executive Car Of The Year
1997 Audi A4 1.9 TDi 110 - Best Compact Executive Car Of The Year
Published: 2014/11/12
Channel: Men and Motors
A Top Of The Line BMW 3 Series compact executive luxury sports cars
A Top Of The Line BMW 3 Series compact executive luxury sports cars
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: CARSCATA
ŠKODA Superb – What Car? 2017 ‘Best executive car less than £25,000’
ŠKODA Superb – What Car? 2017 ‘Best executive car less than £25,000’
Published: 2017/01/12
Channel: ŠKODA UK
BMW 5 Series - 2016 What Car? Large Executive Car of the Year
BMW 5 Series - 2016 What Car? Large Executive Car of the Year
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: What Car?
New 2014 Mercedes C-class - does the compact executive class have a new leader?
New 2014 Mercedes C-class - does the compact executive class have a new leader?
Published: 2014/03/10
Channel: Autocar
Mercedes-Benz C-Class Saloon 2015 Car Review
Mercedes-Benz C-Class Saloon 2015 Car Review
Published: 2015/09/03
Channel: Best New Cars
1998 Compact Executive Car Of The Year: Alfa Romeo 156
1998 Compact Executive Car Of The Year: Alfa Romeo 156
Published: 2013/08/08
Channel: Men and Motors
Compact Executive Car of the Year 2017, Jaguar XE
Compact Executive Car of the Year 2017, Jaguar XE
Published: 2016/07/11
Channel: GLang123
Rover 75: Compact Executive Car Of The Year 2000
Rover 75: Compact Executive Car Of The Year 2000
Published: 2014/01/24
Channel: Men and Motors
Top Luxury Cars 2017 | What is considered a luxury car?
Top Luxury Cars 2017 | What is considered a luxury car?
Published: 2017/06/10
Channel: Vincent Parker
Compact Executive Mercedes C Class
Compact Executive Mercedes C Class
Published: 2011/03/22
Channel: CAR Magazine
Rover 75 - What Car? Car Of The Year - Compact Executive Award (1999)
Rover 75 - What Car? Car Of The Year - Compact Executive Award (1999)
Published: 2014/04/16
Channel: Men and Motors
The new Tesla Model 3 is here! Details on electric 3 Series rival
The new Tesla Model 3 is here! Details on electric 3 Series rival
Published: 2016/04/01
Channel: Auto Express
Jaguar XE 2017 | Real-life review
Jaguar XE 2017 | Real-life review
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Namaste Car
Audi A4 30 TFSI & 35 TDI (B9/8W) | 2017 Real-life review
Audi A4 30 TFSI & 35 TDI (B9/8W) | 2017 Real-life review
Published: 2017/07/09
Channel: Namaste Car
Audi A4 Saloon 2016 Car Review
Audi A4 Saloon 2016 Car Review
Published: 2016/10/30
Channel: Best New Cars
Vauxhall Insignia Grand Sport review - can it beat BMW, Audi and Mercedes?
Vauxhall Insignia Grand Sport review - can it beat BMW, Audi and Mercedes?
Published: 2017/04/21
Channel: Auto Express
BMW 3-Series Saloon 2015 Car Review
BMW 3-Series Saloon 2015 Car Review
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: Best New Cars
Infiniti G37s -Entry-level luxury car
Infiniti G37s -Entry-level luxury car
Published: 2015/09/16
Channel: Interesting movies about cars
BMW 3 series F30 clean diesel HD
BMW 3 series F30 clean diesel HD
Published: 2015/03/19
Channel: Игорь Ляховенко
Entry Level Luxury Car
Entry Level Luxury Car
Published: 2016/05/16
Channel: george rose
Touring BMW X Drive 335i
Touring BMW X Drive 335i
Published: 2013/12/08
Channel: The Auto
The Best Executive Cars 2017 - Audi A6 Saloon
The Best Executive Cars 2017 - Audi A6 Saloon
Published: 2017/03/11
Channel: Auto Shot
Audi A4 2017 Car Review
Audi A4 2017 Car Review
Published: 2017/02/11
Channel: New Car Reviews
Mercedes-Benz C-Class 2017 Car Review
Mercedes-Benz C-Class 2017 Car Review
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: New Car Reviews
Audi A5 2017 Car Review
Audi A5 2017 Car Review
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Best Car Review
Mercedes-Benz C-Class 2017 Car Review
Mercedes-Benz C-Class 2017 Car Review
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: Best Car Review
Mercedes-Benz C-class Coupe 2017 Car Review
Mercedes-Benz C-class Coupe 2017 Car Review
Published: 2015/11/28
Channel: Best New Cars
2013 Acura ILX - The Hottest New
2013 Acura ILX - The Hottest New
Published: 2015/09/12
Channel: All About Cars
Audi A4 Saloon 2015 Car Review
Audi A4 Saloon 2015 Car Review
Published: 2015/08/02
Channel: Best New Cars
Mercedes Benz C-Class W202 Battery alternator test .
Mercedes Benz C-Class W202 Battery alternator test .
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: ZigZag GaraGe
Audi A4 2017 Car Review
Audi A4 2017 Car Review
Published: 2017/05/13
Channel: Best Car Review
Old Rallycars Series #2 Volvo 142
Old Rallycars Series #2 Volvo 142
Published: 2016/07/04
Channel: 6volttia Productions
Live Pic : 2016 Infiniti Q50 Compact Executive Sedan at Detroit Motor Show
Live Pic : 2016 Infiniti Q50 Compact Executive Sedan at Detroit Motor Show
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: MotoPixel
2014 BMW 320i Test Drive & Entry-Level Luxury Car Video Review
2014 BMW 320i Test Drive & Entry-Level Luxury Car Video Review
Published: 2013/10/31
Channel: Autobytel
Audi A4 2017 car Review
Audi A4 2017 car Review
Published: 2015/09/22
Channel: Best New Cars
TOP 10 Luxury Sedan Cars 2015
TOP 10 Luxury Sedan Cars 2015
Published: 2014/10/27
Channel: YOUCAR
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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2012 Audi A4

A compact executive car is a premium car smaller than an executive car. In European classification, compact executive cars are part of the D-segment. In North American terms, close equivalents are "compact premium car", "compact luxury car",[1] "entry-level luxury car" and "near-luxury car".[2] Compact executive cars are usually available in saloon, estate, coupé, and cabriolet body styles.

Most entry-level luxury cars are part of D-segment, but some cars like the Lincoln MKZ, Buick LaCrosse, Hyundai Azera, Acura TL and Toyota Avalon are part of E and F-segments despite the prices of D-segment premium and V6 mid-size cars.

History in the United States[edit]

The modern version of this market segment was successfully established in 1950 when "the Nash Rambler was deliberately conceived as a luxury compact rather than an austerity model" and available only as a convertible, with hardtop (no "B-pillar") and station wagon and models added in 1951.[3] By 1959, sales of European small cars and American Motors' Rambler "exploded" with many their buyers having above-average incomes leading commentators to describe "cultural motives behind their preferences" including the owners' "unconcern for symbols of success and importance that testified to the possession of the real thing."[4] Long-time president, chairman, and CEO of General Motors, Alfred P. Sloan, described the rising demand for compact cars was not motivated by economy, but "was essentially a further expression of the customer's desire for variety."[4]

By the early-1960s, the market for smaller, more economical cars, "but with more comfort, looks, and luxury" than ordinary compact cars included, among others, the Mercury Comet featuring style and interiors that "sparkle with most of the glamour Americans are accustomed to in their bigger cars."[5] During the late-1960s, buyer preferences fragmented the market, moving to intermediates, personal/specialty, and all-out luxury cars, while the demand slowed for traditional large cars.[6] Increasing fuel prices and competition pushed AMC to "exploit special market segments left untended by the giants.[7] In 1978, "AMC introduced its new Concord luxury compact"[8] "represent[ing] an upgraded, more luxurious, more comfortable, more silent, more opulent automobile."[9]

On March 31st, 2016; Tesla revealed a working prototype of the Model 3, an electric compact premium car and the first electric car projected to reach mass production.

Cadillac ATS Sedan

Cadillac continued its sales leadership in the premium market by making changes with the market and introduced the 1982 Cadillac Cimarron, a luxury version of the compact GM J platform.[10] The Cimarron helped to boost the automaker's Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE), but its badge engineering of a front-drive, high-mileage model was evaluated as a low-value proposition in contrast to historic Cadillac luxury.[11]

Today, automakers are responding to changes in the marketplace and in the "mind-set" of consumers looking for status on a budget.[12] Traditional "luxury car makers are gearing up to offer small models that will test whether affluent U.S. car buyers are ready to concede that bigger isn't always better."[13] Facing higher fuel costs and traffic, changes are sweeping through the luxury car market and "Americans are beginning to catch up with global trends."[14]

History in Europe[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

1955 MG Magnette

Two of the earliest European compact executives were created by the Nuffield Organization and introduced in 1952 under the MG and Wolseley brands. The badge engineered Magnette and 4/44 twins had monocoque construction.[15] Another monocoque compact executive was the Austin Cambridge which was brought to the market in 1954.

BMC offered larger Battista Farina designed saloons in 1959, which included the all-new Austin Cambridge Mk. II, MG Magnette Mk. III, Morris Oxford Series V, Riley 4/68-4/72 and Wolseley 15/60-16/60 derivatives.

Other British compact executive contenders included the 1955 Hillman Minx, Singer Gazelle and sportier Sunbeam Rapier triplets from the Rootes Group. They were all replaced in 1966 with the Rootes Arrow range of cars - some of the last to be designed before the Chrysler takeover - and were made up of the Hillman New Minx and Hunter, Singer Gazelle VII and New Vogue as well as the top of the range Humber Sceptre Mk. III.

Standard's Vanguard (available as Sportsman, Ensign, Vignale and Six derivatives) appeared after 1955. After Leyland bought the Standard-Triumph company, the Standard name was discontinued in 1963 in favour of the more saleable Triumph brand. In 1965 Leyland introduced the Triumph 1300 which was their first front-wheel drive vehicle. This evolved into the Triumph 1500 before being re-engineered for rear-wheel drive for the 1970 Triumph Toledo and Dolomite twins. The latter was fitted with a 16v, SOHC engine and is considered the world's first mass-produced multi-valve car.[16]

By the time the Austin-Rover group formed in 1983, the Austin Montego - which was also available in sporting MG Montego guise - was about to be launched. Like the later Rover 600, Austin marketed the Montego as both a family and an executive car and correspondingly made it available with luxurious Vanden Plas trim and high-powered engines.

2016 Jaguar XE

In 1993 Rover introduced the larger 600-Series which straddled the compact executive and large family car classes. It was based on the 5th generation European Honda Accord but was a more upmarket proposition.[17] The 600's replacement was the Rover 75, announced in 1998, which was also mid-sized and spawned a sportier MG ZT version. The Rover 75 continues in stretched form to this day[18] as the Roewe 750, also known as MG 750, predominantly for the Chinese and South American markets.

Like Rover, Jaguar's first compact executive competitor, the 2001 X-Type, was bigger than the class average, partly as a result of it being based on the Ford CD132 platform. Sales were disappointing[19] so its replacement, the XE, didn't appear until 2014 - the XE is far more closely aligned with the biggest-selling compact executive class cars.

Italy[edit]

1970 Lancia Fulvia Berlina

Italian manufacturing group Fiat S.p.A. offered its 1961 Fiat 1300 as a 1500 model, with increased engine size for greater performance and prestige. This was followed by the Fiat 125 from 1967, Fiat 132 in 1972 and the related Argenta in 1981. Fiat no longer competes in the compact executive class.

In 1962 Alfa Romeo started production of the Giulia sport sedan. The 116, 75, 155, 156 and 159 were the successors. Alfa Romeo was absent from the market for five years before returning with the new Giulia in 2016.

Lancia, along with MG and Wolseley, helped to establish the modern compact executive car in the early 1950s. Lancia launched the monocoque Appia in 1953, which took styling inspiration from the glamorous Lancia Aurelia. In a complete clean sheet design, Lancia introduced the Fulvia in 1963; this was the last model introduced before FIAT's takeover in 1969. The Lancia Beta was introduced in 1972 and this morphed into the Trevi by 1980. The Lancia Delta based Prisma was too small to be a serious compact executive competitor, so the larger Dedra replaced it in 1989 which was itself usurped by the Lybra in 1998. Lancia failed to make a success of its compact executive competitors in later years and left the sector in 2005.

Germany[edit]

During the period of economic progress in the mid-sixties in Germany, BMW introduced its 02 series. Nowadays BMW has two compact executive model lines: 3-Series (Saloon and Touring) and 4-Series (Coupé, Cabriolet and Gran Coupé). The 3-Series is the best-selling BMW in the company's history.[20]

1987 Mercedes-Benz 190E

In 1983 Mercedes Benz introduced its 190E compact executive car.[21] Contemporary Mercedes-Benz compact executive automobiles are marketed under C-Class branding which is in its fourth generation. Saloon, Estate, hatchback (called Sport Coupé), Coupé and Convertible derivatives of the C-Class have been manufactured over the years.

Most of the Volkswagen Group's compact executives are produced by Audi which in 1965 introduced its first competitor, the Audi F103 – derived from the DKW F102. It was succeeded by the Audi 80 in 1972 before the A4 name began, of which there have been five generations. Contemporary Audi's compact executive models are A4 and A5. The SEAT Exeo was a lower-cost compact executive heavily based on the B7 Audi A4 but was discontinued after five years. Volkswagen introduced the upmarket CC to sit above the family-biased Passat in 2007. In 2017 Volkswagen discontinued the CC in favour of the Arteon.

France[edit]

In 1966 Simca offered first French compact executive car model 1301/1501 which is upgraded derivate from its 1300 model. With its aggressive design, roomy and powerful engines with speed of over 150km/h these cars were accepted most on the domestic market. After 1975 Simka no longer compete with such class of cars.

Currently, Citroën offers a compact executive with its DS 5 hatchback.[22] It forms part of the range of DS Automobiles, the new luxury brand of PSA. Peugeot and Renault have concentrated on the family car market.

Sweden[edit]

Volvo S60

The Swedish brand Volvo has started production of compact executive automobiles with its Amazon in 1955. It was followed by Volvo 140, then 850 which evolved into the S70 saloon and V70 estate. Nowadays it offers the Volvo S60 and V60 in the compact executive car sector.

Fellow Swedish brand Saab introduced the 99 in 1968 and replaced it with the 90 in 1984. Under GM control and on GM's GM2900 platform (which also underpins cars like the Vauxhall Cavalier and Opel Vectra), SAAB introduced the 900 (NG) which evolved into the first generation 9-3 in 1998. Saab's last compact executive car was the second-generation 9-3 which was produced from 2003 to 2014.

History in Japan[edit]

2015 Lexus IS

The Japanese luxury automobile market is rather younger than the European and American markets. There are three main premium car brands in Japan: Acura, Infiniti and Lexus which were all established in the mid to late 1980s. All three brands became popular in the US, but only Infiniti and Lexus are sold in Europe. The examples of the Japanese compact executive automobiles are Lexus IS (also known as the Toyota Altezza until the second generation), Infiniti Q50 (previously known as the G-Series), and the Acura TLX (a re-badged North American Honda Accord, which replaced the Acura TSX (which was a re-badged European Honda Accord itself)).

Mazda attempted to break into the compact executive market in the early 1990s with its own-brand Xedos 6. This was initially to be marketed under Mazda's luxury Amati brand, designed to take on Acura, Infiniti and Lexus. When the Amati project fell through the Xedos 6 continued in Europe badged as a Mazda and in Japan and Australia as the Eunos 500. When the Xedos 6 was discontinued in 1999, Mazda returned its focus to the large family car market.

Characteristics[edit]

Dimensionally, compact executive cars are smaller than mid-size/large family cars, and sometimes even smaller than compact cars. Mass market compact cars typically use the economical front wheel drive transverse engine layout, well suited to the inline-4 engine, which also maximizes interior room.[23] Several compact executive cars are rear-wheel drive with longitudinal engines, for improved stability and handling,[23] and in order to accommodate the larger size of higher-performance engines (straight-6, V6, rarely V8), with four-wheel drive often being available.[1] Compact executive cars also tend have more complicated independent suspensions, sportier transmissions, and high revolution engines that may require premium gasoline. The more complex powertrain and mechanical layouts of compact executive cars comes at increased cost and reduced interior passenger and trunk space.

Compact executive cars usually offer the buyer less equipment, interior room or engine horsepower for the money, compared to mass market (non-luxury) cars.[citation needed] However, the material and building quality is higher, there are exclusive features not found on mass market cars, there is better handling and performance, and the nameplate itself is part of the value proposition.[1] Recently, the entry-level luxury segment has been very competitive, and there has been price-overlapping with well-equipped non-luxury cars.[24][25] Today, many compact executive cars particularly emphasize sporty handling.[26][27] This category of vehicle is crucial to luxury marque BMW; BMW 3 Series accounts for up to 40% of the vehicles that BMW sells worldwide.[28]

Other vehicles such as the Lexus ES, Acura TL, Acura TSX, and Chrysler 300 are also considered entry-level luxury in the United States and Canada, being similar in price to the BMW 3 Series and Mercedes-Benz C-Class.[29] However, the ES and TL are not sold in Europe and do not fall under European luxury classifications. The ES and TL actually began as badge engineered versions of the midsize Toyota Camry and Honda Accord, respectively, retaining the front wheel drive transverse engine layout platform with mass-market cars. The ES and TL are not considered executive cars either, despite similar dimensions, since executive cars usually emphasize higher performance, often being rear-wheel drive with longitudinal engines (the Chrysler 300 and 300C are examples).[26][27] The present iterations of the ES and LaCrosse emphasize "comfortable, reasonably priced luxury",[30] while the TL has recently been targeted at the entry-level luxury sport market.[29]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Cotta, Rick (30 October 2008). "The Consumer Guide to 2008 Premium Compact Cars". Consumer Guide Automotive. Archived from the original on 2008-11-09. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  2. ^ "Car Rankings: Best Upscale Midsize Cars - Best Cars & Trucks". U.S. News and World Report. U.S. News Rankings & Reviews. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved 2015-04-08. 
  3. ^ Stevenson, Heon (2008). American automobile advertising, 1930-1980: an illustrated history. McFarland. p. 214. ISBN 9780786436859. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  4. ^ a b Gartman, David (1994). Auto opium: a social history of American automobile design. Routledge. p. 170. ISBN 9780415105712. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  5. ^ Fermoyle, Ken (March 1960). "Comet: Ford's not-quite-so-compact car". Popular Science. 176 (2): 118–120. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  6. ^ "Family cars: The '69 cars". Popular Mechanics. 130 (4): 99. October 1968. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  7. ^ "Turnaround at American Motors". Fortune. 100: 66–80. 1979. 
  8. ^ Automobile club d'Italia (1978). World Cars 1978. Herald Books. p. 72. ISBN 9780910714105. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  9. ^ Lamm, Michael (May 1978). "PM owners report: American Motors Concord". Popular Mechanics. 149 (5): 124. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  10. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (26 March 2007). "1980-1989 Cadillac". auto.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  11. ^ Lanning, Mike (2000). Delivering Profitable Value: A Revolutionary Framework to Accelerate Growth, Generate Wealth, and Rediscover the Heart of Business. Basic Books. pp. 184–185. ISBN 9780738201627. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  12. ^ White, Joseph B. (14 April 2012). "The 'Near Luxury' Car Buyer, Myth or Reality?". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  13. ^ White, Joseph B. (12 January 2012). "Luxury Car Makers Think Small". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  14. ^ Eisenstein, Paul A. (24 January 2012). "For many luxury car buyers, small is now beautiful". msnbc.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2012. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  15. ^ Tuesday, January 17, 2017 - 8:05 PM. "MG Magnette - Classic Car Reviews | Classic Motoring Magazine". Classiccars4sale.net. Retrieved 2017-01-17. 
  16. ^ Fordham, Michael. "Triumph Dolomite Sprint". Influx. Retrieved 2017-01-17. 
  17. ^ "Rover 600 - Classic Car Review | Honest John". Classics.honestjohn.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-17. 
  18. ^ "SMTC UK | Roewe 750". Saicmotor.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-01-17. 
  19. ^ http://www.jec.org.uk/x-types/82/x-type-model-information.html
  20. ^ "What makes the 3 Series the best-selling BMW of all time". Torque News. 2015-09-11. Retrieved 2017-05-30. 
  21. ^ Car: The Definitive Visual History of the Automobile. DK Publishing. 2011. p. 15. ISBN 9780756689384. Retrieved 2012-05-09. 
  22. ^ "10 of the best compact executive cars". raccars. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2017. 
  23. ^ a b "Benefits of Rear Wheel Drive". Rearwheeldrive.org. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  24. ^ "How Mercedes got its groove back". Financialpost.com. 6 June 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-10. [dead link]
  25. ^ Van, Nicolas (4 June 2009). "Luxury makers smash August sales records in Canada". Ottawtizen.com. Archived from the original on 20 March 2012. Retrieved 2009-09-10. 
  26. ^ a b "2010 Buick LaCrosse CXS vs. 2009 Lexus ES 350 Comparison Test and Video on Inside Line". Edmunds.com. 30 August 2009. Archived from the original on 4 September 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-14. 
  27. ^ a b "Test Drive: 2009 BMW 328i xDrive". Autos Canada. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  28. ^ Williams, Paul (17 February 2005). "Retrospective: BMW 3 Series". Autos Canada. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  29. ^ a b Bedard, Patrick (June 2009). "2009 Infiniti G37 vs. BMW 328i, Audi A4, and Acura TL- Comparison Tests". Caranddriver.com. Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  30. ^ "2010 Buick LaCrosse vs. 2009 Lexus ES 350 Comparison Test". chiangmaicarhire.com. 31 July 2014. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 2009-10-20. 

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