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East vs. West: Mapping Cleveland, The Western Reserve, and the Midwest
East vs. West: Mapping Cleveland, The Western Reserve, and the Midwest
Published: 2012/08/20
Channel: Western Reserve Historical Society
The Ballad of Western Reserve, sung by (a puppet of) Ohio
The Ballad of Western Reserve, sung by (a puppet of) Ohio
Published: 2017/05/16
Channel: cleveland.com
Western Reserve Scourge at Ohio Broncos
Western Reserve Scourge at Ohio Broncos
Published: 2017/08/14
Channel: Western Reserve Broadcasting
WPA Kingz at Western Reserve Scourge  15 July 17
WPA Kingz at Western Reserve Scourge 15 July 17
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: Western Reserve Broadcasting
How to make a Western Reserve Pierogi
How to make a Western Reserve Pierogi
Published: 2017/05/22
Channel: cleveland.com
western reserve 125 moto1 4/23/17
western reserve 125 moto1 4/23/17
Published: 2017/04/25
Channel: daniel sharpe
Western Reserve routs Columbiana on opening night
Western Reserve routs Columbiana on opening night
Published: 2017/08/25
Channel: WKBN27
Demsky with an offensive, defensive TD in Western Reserve win
Demsky with an offensive, defensive TD in Western Reserve win
Published: 2017/09/30
Channel: WKBN27
Western Reserve Scourge at NEO Silverbacks
Western Reserve Scourge at NEO Silverbacks
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: Western Reserve Broadcasting
Ohio Western Reserve MUDHOLE
Ohio Western Reserve MUDHOLE
Published: 2013/07/01
Channel: crazidirtbiker
Western Reserve
Western Reserve
Published: 2011/08/22
Channel: Tribune Chronicle
Western Reserve 2016 Halftime Show
Western Reserve 2016 Halftime Show
Published: 2016/08/28
Channel: Dane Yaworsky
2017 Big 22: Jack Cappabianca, Western Reserve
2017 Big 22: Jack Cappabianca, Western Reserve
Published: 2017/10/05
Channel: WKBN27
Western Reserve Historical Society
Western Reserve Historical Society
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: ThisisCLE
2017 Varsity Vs Western Reserve
2017 Varsity Vs Western Reserve
Published: 2017/09/10
Channel: Lakeview Little Bulldogs
Eastern Ohio & Western Reserve Associations Live Stream
Eastern Ohio & Western Reserve Associations Live Stream
Published: 2017/11/04
Channel: Eastern Ohio & Western Reserve Associations
Western Reserve CC promo/hype video
Western Reserve CC promo/hype video
Published: 2017/09/26
Channel: Averett Hunter
Western Reserve Mx 2015 ft. Tanner Ritchie
Western Reserve Mx 2015 ft. Tanner Ritchie
Published: 2015/06/02
Channel: Evan Laughlin
Western Reserve Blue Devils vs Norwalk 2013
Western Reserve Blue Devils vs Norwalk 2013
Published: 2013/11/28
Channel: daneen mvadj
Reserve wins the battle of Blue Devils
Reserve wins the battle of Blue Devils
Published: 2015/10/10
Channel: WKBN27
Velasquez’s monster day leads Western Reserve to 68-0 win
Velasquez’s monster day leads Western Reserve to 68-0 win
Published: 2017/09/16
Channel: WKBN27
Div. VI Region 21, Norwayne 22, Western Reserve 13
Div. VI Region 21, Norwayne 22, Western Reserve 13
Published: 2017/11/04
Channel: The Daily Record
Western Reserve - Extras
Western Reserve - Extras
Published: 2016/09/01
Channel: Brian Koscho
2104 Western Reserve Blue Devils
2104 Western Reserve Blue Devils
Published: 2014/08/14
Channel: Tribune Chronicle
western reserve rev 3
western reserve rev 3
Published: 2014/12/02
Channel: Ohio Real Estate Photography
Western reserve raceway
Western reserve raceway
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: Murray the missile 22 Darlington
Western Reserve - Extras 2
Western Reserve - Extras 2
Published: 2016/09/01
Channel: Brian Koscho
Western Reserve scores in final minute to edge McDonald
Western Reserve scores in final minute to edge McDonald
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: WKBN27
Western Reserve
Western Reserve
Published: 2013/03/14
Channel: 15YamahaMan15
Western Reserve vs Shadyside
Western Reserve vs Shadyside
Published: 2012/11/03
Channel: newsyoungstown
Hype video western reserve 2016-17
Hype video western reserve 2016-17
Published: 2017/03/25
Channel: curtis markley
Player of the Game: Jack Cappabianca, Western Reserve
Player of the Game: Jack Cappabianca, Western Reserve
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: WKBN27
Hannah from Western Reserve
Hannah from Western Reserve
Published: 2014/07/15
Channel: Robert Senn Studio of Photography
Western Reserve falls in Regional Final
Western Reserve falls in Regional Final
Published: 2016/05/28
Channel: WKBN27
Western Reserve Double 2012
Western Reserve Double 2012
Published: 2012/03/12
Channel: StarzRunzOhio
WR Scourge at Clevelend Rams  22 July 17
WR Scourge at Clevelend Rams 22 July 17
Published: 2017/08/13
Channel: Western Reserve Broadcasting
2013 Varsity vs. Western Reserve (L 12-6)
2013 Varsity vs. Western Reserve (L 12-6)
Published: 2013/10/04
Channel: Little Clipper Football Association
Youngstown South vs. Warren Western Reserve 1982
Youngstown South vs. Warren Western Reserve 1982
Published: 2011/05/14
Channel: icecoldalpha
Plymouth vs. Western Reserve #2 (8th grade)
Plymouth vs. Western Reserve #2 (8th grade)
Published: 2011/01/28
Channel: bayleybones
#10 Jaret Griffith, 6
#10 Jaret Griffith, 6'4, Western Reserve HS, 2019
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: Trey Preston
Golden Opportunities Western Reserve Historical Society show #781 1/17/2016
Golden Opportunities Western Reserve Historical Society show #781 1/17/2016
Published: 2016/01/17
Channel: Golden Opportunities
McDonald remains unbeaten; outlasts Western Reserve
McDonald remains unbeaten; outlasts Western Reserve
Published: 2017/01/14
Channel: WKBN27
Western Reserve winter band concert
Western Reserve winter band concert
Published: 2015/12/15
Channel: Sarah Vintson
Western Reserve Historical Society focus on immigrants
Western Reserve Historical Society focus on immigrants
Published: 2012/04/04
Channel: Dan Hanson
Cardinal Stritch vs Western Reserve
Cardinal Stritch vs Western Reserve
Published: 2016/09/04
Channel: BCSN
Reserve runs past Wellsville
Reserve runs past Wellsville
Published: 2015/12/22
Channel: WKBN27
GOLDEN OPPORTUNITIES April 12, 2015 - Western Reserve Historical Society - show #743
GOLDEN OPPORTUNITIES April 12, 2015 - Western Reserve Historical Society - show #743
Published: 2015/04/12
Channel: Golden Opportunities
Western Reserve pulls out 43-33 win vs. Steubenville CC
Western Reserve pulls out 43-33 win vs. Steubenville CC
Published: 2017/09/09
Channel: WKBN27
Western  Reserve  Blue Devils named iHeartMedia Youngstown Team of the Week
Western Reserve Blue Devils named iHeartMedia Youngstown Team of the Week
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Thomas John
Western Reserve Local Schools Berlin Center Mahoning County  October 13, 2016 PostMeeting
Western Reserve Local Schools Berlin Center Mahoning County October 13, 2016 PostMeeting
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: westernreservenews
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Connecticut's land claims in the West

The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut and later by the state of Connecticut in what is now mostly the northeastern region of Ohio. The Reserve had been granted to the Colony by King Charles II.[1] Connecticut relinquished claim to some of its western lands in 1786 following the American Revolutionary War and preceding the 1787 establishment of the Northwest Territory. However, despite ceding sovereignty to the United States, Connecticut retained ownership of the eastern portion of its cession—south of Lake Erie—selling much of this "Western Reserve" to a group of speculators who operated as the Connecticut Land Company.[2] The phrase Western Reserve is preserved in numerous institutional names in Ohio, such as Western Reserve Academy and Case Western Reserve University.

Location[edit]

The Reserve encompassed all of the following Ohio counties: Ashtabula, Cuyahoga, Erie and Huron (see Firelands), Geauga, Lake, Lorain, Medina, Portage, Trumbull; and portions of Ashland, Mahoning, Ottawa, Summit, and Wayne.[3][4]

History[edit]

Map of the Western Reserve in 1826

Connecticut was forced to surrender the Pennsylvania portion (Westmoreland County) of its sea-to-sea land grant following the Yankee-Pennamite Wars and the intercession of the federal government. Nevertheless, the state held fast to its claim on the lands between the 41st and 42nd-and-2-minutes parallels that lay west of the Pennsylvania border.

The claim within Ohio was for a 120-mile (190 km)-wide strip between Lake Erie and a line just south of present-day Youngstown, Akron, New London, and Willard, about 3 miles (4.8 km) south of present-day U.S. Highway 224. The claim beyond Ohio included parts of Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Wyoming, Utah, Nevada, and California. The east boundary of the reserve follows a true meridian along Ellicott's Line, the boundary with Pennsylvania. The west boundary veers more than four degrees from a meridian to maintain the 120-mile width, due to convergence.[2]

Connecticut gave up western land claims following the American Revolutionary War in exchange for federal assumption of its debt, as did several other states. From these concessions, the old Northwest Territory was organized, earlier known as the "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio". The deed of cession was issued on 13 September 1786.

Connecticut retained 3,366,921 acres (13,625.45 km2) in Ohio which became the "Western Reserve".[2][5] The state sold the Western Reserve to the Connecticut Land Company in 1796 (or possibly 12 August,[6] 2 September,[2] or 5 September 1795[5]) for $1,200,000.[2][5][6] The Land Company were a group of investors who were mostly from Suffield, Connecticut. There were initially eight in the group (or possibly 7[2][6] or 35[5]), and they planned to divide the land and sell it to settlers from the east, particularly younger men from New England.

But the Indian title to the Reserve had not been extinguished. Clear title was obtained east of the Cuyahoga River by the Greenville Treaty in 1795[7] and west of the river in the Treaty of Fort Industry in 1805.[8] The western end of the reserve included the Firelands or "Sufferers Lands," 500,000 acres (2,000 km2) reserved for residents of several New England towns which had been destroyed by British-set fires during the Revolutionary War.

The next year, the Land Company sent surveyors led by Moses Cleaveland to the Reserve to divide the land into square townships, 5 miles (8.0 km) on each side (25 square miles (65 km2).[9] Cleaveland's team also founded the city of Cleveland, which became the largest city in the region. (The first "a" was dropped by a printer early in the settlement's existence, as Cleveland takes less space on a printed page than Cleaveland.)

The territory was originally named "New Connecticut" (later discarded in favor of "Western Reserve") and settlers began to trickle in over the next few years. Youngstown was founded in 1796, Warren in 1798, Hudson in 1799, Ravenna also in 1799, Ashtabula in 1803, and Stow in 1804.

Connecticut finally ceded sovereignty over the Western Reserve in 1800. The United States absorbed it into the Northwest Territory, which organized Trumbull County in the boundaries of the Reserve. Warren is the former county seat of the Reserve and identifies itself as "the historical capital of the Western Reserve." Later, several more counties were carved out of the territory. The name "Western Reserve" survives in the area in various institutions such as the "Western Reserve Historical Society" and Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio.

This area of Ohio became a center of resource development and industrialization through the mid-20th century. It was a center of the steel industry, receiving iron ore shipped from Minnesota and shipping Great Lakes products to the east. Railroads took over some of the transportation from the lake ships. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, these cities attracted hundreds of thousands of European immigrants and migrants (both black and white) from the rural South to its industrial jobs.

Seeking Heritage Area designation[edit]

At the request of Congress in 2011, the National Park Service prepared a feasibility study for declaring the 14-county region of the Western Reserve as a National Heritage Area. This is a means to encourage broad-based preservation of such historical sites and buildings which are related to a large historical theme. Such assessment and designation has been significant for recognizing assets, and encouraging new development and businesses, including heritage tourism, often related to adaptive re-use of waterways, and buildings, as well as totally new endeavors. 49 National Heritage Areas have been designated in the United States, including two in Ohio: the Ohio Canal of the Ohio and Erie Canal and the National Aviation Heritage Area. The NPS study coordinator said that while the region had the historic assets, and there was considerable public support for such a designation, the Western Reserve lacked "a definitive coordinating entity or supporting group," which is required to gain Congressional approval.[10] If such a body developed in the future, federal designation might be sought.

Architecture[edit]

The settlers in northern Ohio repeated the style of structures and the development of towns with which they were familiar in New England; many buildings in the new settlements were designed in the Georgian, Federal, and Greek Revival styles. Towns such as Aurora, Bath, Canfield, Chagrin Falls, Gates Mills, Hudson, Medina, Milan, Norwalk, Oberlin, Painesville, Poland, and Tallmadge exemplify the expression of these styles and traditional New England town planning. For instance, Cleveland's public square reflects the traditional New England central town green.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ What is the Western Reserve. Cleveland.about.com (2013-07-13). Retrieved on 2013-07-24.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Knepper, George W (2002). The Official Ohio Lands Book (PDF). Auditor of the State of Ohio. pp. 23–26. 
  3. ^ "Western Reserve History". Fiscalofficer.cuyahogacounty.us. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 
  4. ^ "Finding aid for the Ashland and Wayne County, Ohio Deeds". Ead.ohiolink.edu. Retrieved 2014-01-14. 
  5. ^ a b c d Upton, Harriet Taylor (1910). Cutler, Harry Gardner, ed. History of the Western Reserve. 1. New York: Lewis Publishing Company. pp. 10–11. 
  6. ^ a b c Peters, William E. (1918). Ohio Lands and Their Subdivision. W.E. Peters. p. 153. 
  7. ^ Stat. 49 - Text of Treaty of Greenville Library of Congress
  8. ^ Stat. 87 - Text of Treaty of Fort Industry Library of Congress
  9. ^ Elsewhere in Ohio, most townships are 6 miles (9.7 km) on each side (36 square miles (93 km2)), following the guidelines of the US Land Ordinance of 1785.
  10. ^ "Western Reserve loses bid as heritage area", Akron Beacon Journal, June 18, 2011, retrieved November 29, 2012

Further reading[edit]

Connecticut State Library (CSL) collection[edit]

  • The Public Records of the State of Connecticut [HistRef ConnDoc G25 1776-]. This multi-volume set contains the record of transactions of the Connecticut General Assembly. Each volume covers a given time period and has an index. Researchers interested in the Western Lands should consult these volumes to gain knowledge of the legislative actions and petitions granted by the Connecticut General Assembly.
  • Burke, Thomas Aquinas. Ohio Lands: A Short History. [Columbus, OH]: Auditor of State, c1997 [CSL call number HistRef HD 243 .O3 B87 1997].
  • Cherry, Peter Peterson. The Western Reserve and Early Ohio. Akron, OH: R. L. Fouse, 1921 [CSL call number F 495 .C52].
  • Fedor, Ferenz. The Yankee Migration to the Firelands. s.l.: Fedor, 1976? [CSL call number F 497 .W5 F43 1976].
  • Mathews, Alfred. Ohio and Her Western Reserve, With a Story of Three States Leading to the Latter, From Connecticut, by Way of Wyoming, Its Indian Wars and Massacre. New York: D. Appleton, 1902 [CSL call number F 491 .M42].
  • Mills, William Stowell. The Story of the Western Reserve of Connecticut. New York: Printed for the author by Brown & Wilson Press [ca. 1900] [CSL call number F 497 .W5 M6].
  • Peters, William E. Ohio Lands and Their Subdivision. Athens, OH: W. E. Peters, 1918 [CSL call number F 497 .W5 P47 1918].
  • Rice, Harvey. Pioneers of the Western Reserve. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 1883 [CSL call number: F 497 .W5 R5 1883].
  • Upton, Harriet Taylor. History of the Western Reserve. Chicago: Lewis Pub. Co., 1910 [CSL call number: F 497 .W5 U7]. Volume 1, online Volume 2, online
  • Wickham, Gertrude Van Rensselaer. Memorial to the Pioneer Women of the Western Reserve. [s.l.]: Whipporwill, [197- ] [CSL call number F 497 .W5 W63 1970z].

Internet Archive[edit]

Special topics[edit]

Church history[edit]

External links[edit]

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