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A convertible or cabriolet (/ˌkæbriˈl/) is a passenger car that can be driven with or without a roof in place. The methods of retracting and storing the roof vary between models. A convertible allows an open-air driving experience, with the ability to provide a roof when required. Potential drawbacks of convertibles are reduced structural rigidity (requiring significant engineering and modification to counteract the effects of removing a car's roof)[1] and cargo space.[2]

The majority of convertible roofs are covered with a folding, textile-based fabric. Other types of roofs include retractable hardtops (often constructed from metal or plastic) and detachable hardtops (where a metal or plastic roof is manually removed and often stored in the trunk).

Terminology[edit]

Other terms for convertibles include cabriolet, cabrio, drop top, open two-seater, open top, soft top, spider, and spyder. Consistency is rare about the current use of cabriolet in preference to convertible.[3] The term cabriolet originated from "a light, two-wheeled, one-horse carriage with a folding top, capable of seating two persons", however the term is also used to describe other convertibles these days.[4]

In the United Kingdom, fully enclosed convertibles with two doors have been referred to as drophead coupés, while four-door cars have been referred to as all-weather tourers.[5]

History[edit]

1897 Daimler Grafton Phaeton
1929 Ford Model A cabriolet

Most of the early automobiles were open-air vehicles without any roof or sides.[6][7][8][9] As car engines became more powerful by the end of the 19th century, folding textile or leather roofs (as had been used on victoria or landau carriages) began to appear on cars.[10][11] Examples of early cars with roofs include the phaeton (a two-seat car with a temporary roof), the brougham or a coupé de ville (having an enclosed passenger compartment at the rear, while the driver sat in front either in the open) or the landaulet (where the driver has a fixed roof and the passenger compartment has a folding roof. Less expensive cars, such as the runabouts, sporting roadsters or sturdy touring cars, remained either completely open air or were fitted with a rudimentary folding top and detachable side curtains.

In the 1920s, when steel bodies began to be mass-produced, closed cars became available to the average buyer and fully open cars began their disappearance from the mainstream market.[12] By the mid 1930s, the remaining small number of convertibles sold were high priced luxury models.[11]

In 1939, Plymouth introduced the first mechanically operated convertible roof.[13]

Demand for convertibles increased as a result of American soldiers in France and the United Kingdom during World War 2 experiencing the small roadster cars which were not available in the United States at the time.[12] These roadsters included the MG Midget and Triumph Roadster. United States automakers manufactured a broad range of models during the 1950s and 1960s – from economical compact-sized models such as the Rambler American[14] and the Studebaker Lark, to the more expensive models such as the Packard Caribbean, Oldsmobile 98, and Imperial by Chrysler.

During the 1970s, popularity of convertibles was severely reduced by the increased travel speeds on roads (resulting in more wind and noise for occupants) and proposed vehicle crash safety standards in the United States.[12][15] suggested during the mid-1970s for the 1980 model year included a 50-mile-per-hour (80 km/h) crash to the front, at 25 mph (40 km/h) on the sides, as well as a rollover at 30 miles per hour (48 km/h), a test that open-top convertibles would unlikely be able to pass. Automobile air conditioning systems and sunroofs were also becoming popular, reducing the demand for convertibles.

In 1989, Mazda released the first generation Mazda MX-5 (called "Miata" in North America), which has become the best selling convertible with over 1 million cars sold.[16]

Also in 1989, Toyota released the Toyota Soarer Aerocabin, which uses an electrically operated retractable hardtop roof.[17] Only 500 were produced,[18] however the retractable hardtop design has become increasingly popular in the 21st century.

Currently, models dedicated to the convertible body style include the Mazda MX-5, Porsche Boxster and Audi TT. Many other models also include a convertible body style in the model range.

Roof types[edit]

Textile[edit]

1967 AMC Ambassador convertible with its fabric top folded

A "soft top" is made form a flexible textile material. Common materials for soft tops are:

  • Early convertibles used canvas. However, automakers had problems in securing raw materials to fulfill orders after World War II, including canvas in various shades for convertible tops and limiting their manufacture.[19]
  • A cloth-based material has become more common in recent years.[20]

Other materials are also used in the convertible top. By 1955, the most popular materials were latex and butyl rubber fabrics that each accounted for around 35% of the convertible top weight, with others included vinyl (12%), jute (8%), and rayon and acrylic fibers (Orlon), amounting to about 1% each in the compositions.[21] Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) material was used for many convertible tops. The material consists of two layers: a top layer made of PVC, which has a specific structure depending on the vehicle model, and a lower layer made of fabric (usually cotton).

The collapsible textile roof section over an articulated folding frame may include linings such as a sound-deadening layer and/or an interior cosmetic lining, to hide the frame.

The folded convertible top is called the stack.

Detachable hardtop[edit]

A 1959 Daimler SP250 with detachable hardtop

Rigid removable hardtops, many of which store in a car's trunk, have been around at least since the 1950s.[22][23] These normally provide superior weatherproofing, soundproofing, and durability compared to fabric-based tops, some with integrated rear-window defrosters and windscreens.

Examples include the Ford Thunderbird (1st-generation and 11th-generation), Mercedes SL (2nd-generation and 3rd-generation), Porsche Boxster, Jeep Wrangler, and Mazda MX-5.

Detachable hardtop with "porthole" side windows on a 1957 Ford Thunderbird

During the 1950s and 1960s, detachable hardtops were offered for various convertible sports cars and roadsters, including the 1955–1957 Ford Thunderbird and Chevrolet Corvette, as well as the 1963–1971 Mercedes-Benz W113 series of two-seaters. Because the convertible top mechanism is itself expensive, the hardtop was customarily offered as an additional, extra-cost option. On early Thunderbirds (and Corvettes through 1967), buyers could choose between a detachable hardtop and a folding canvas top at no additional cost, but paid extra for both.

The metal-framed "Carson top" was a popular addition for the 1930s Ford convertibles or roadsters because it turned these models into an almost instant hardtop.[24] The design mimicked a convertible top, but lacking the bulky folding mechanisms enabled the removable hardtop to have a much lower and more rakish profile.[25]

Improvements in canvas tops have rendered the detachable hardtop less common in recent years, in part because the top cannot be stored in the vehicle when not in use, requiring a garage or other storage facility. Some open cars continue to offer it as an option. For example, Mazda MX-5s has an accessory hardtop, which is compulsory for some auto racing series.

Retractable hardtop[edit]

A Volvo C70 with retractable hardtop

A retractable hardtop — also known as "coupé convertible" or "coupé cabriolet" — is a car with an automatically operated, self-storing hardtop (as opposed to the textile-based roof used by traditional convertibles).

The benefits of improved climate control and security are traded off against increased mechanical complexity, cost, weight and often reduced luggage capacity.

Other design features[edit]

MG TD open two-seater with tonneau cover over passenger seat and luggage space

Tonneau cover[edit]

Folding textile convertible tops often fail to completely hide their internal mechanism or can expose their vulnerable underside to sun exposure and fading. A tonneau cover provides a solution.

Rear window[edit]

Rear windows are often part of the roof assembly. Traditionally, the rear window in a soft-top was made from plastic, however more recently some convertibles have used glass for the rear window.[26]

Windblocker[edit]

A windblocker or wind deflector minimizes noise and rushing air reaching the occupants.[27] According to the engineer responsible for the 2008 Chrysler Sebring, its windblocker reduces wind noise by approximately 11 to 12 dB.[28]

Several convertibles are available with a heating duct to the neck area of the seat, which is often called an "Air Scarf". Examples of cars with an Air Scarf are the Mercedes-Benz SLK-Class, Mercedes-Benz SL-Class and Audi A5/S5.

Safety[edit]

Modern safety features specifically for convertibles include:

  • rollover protection structures (ROPS) with pyrotechnically charged roll hoops hidden behind the rear seats that deploy under rollover conditions
  • heated rear window (for improved visibility)
  • boron steel-reinforced A-pillars
  • safety cage construction – a horseshoe-like structure around the passenger compartment 
  • door-mounted side-impact airbag which inflates upward (instead of downward like the typical curtain airbag) to provide head protection even with an open window[29]

Variations[edit]

Convertibles have offered numerous iterations that fall between the first mechanically simple but attention-demanding fabric tops to highly complex modern retractable hardtops:

Roadster: A roadster (also called spider or spyder) is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character. Initially an American term for a two-seat car with no weather protection, usage has spread internationally and has evolved to include two-seat convertibles.

Cabrio coach: A cabrio coach (also called semi-convertible) has a retractable textile roof, similar to a traditional convertible. The difference is that a convertible often has the B-pillar, C-pillar and other bodywork removed, however the cabrio-coach retains all bodywork to the top of the door frames and just replaces the roof skin with a retractable fabric panel.

An advantage of a cabrio coach is that retaining more of the car's original structure means that structural rigidity is higher (or the vehicle weight is lower) than traditional cabriolets.[30] An example of the cabrio coach is the 2003-10 C3 Pluriel, [30] which has a roof with five possible configurations.[31][32]

Four-door: Most convertibles have two doors, however several four-door convertibles have been produced. Examples include the 1964 Buick Series 60 "Convertible Phaeton"[33], 1938-39 Buick Roadmaster, 1940-41 Buick Super, 1941-1947 Oldsmobile 98 1941-47, 1939 Cadillac Series 61, 1940-41 Cadillac Series 62 and 1961-67 Lincoln Continental.[34] Current production four-door convertibles include the Jeep Wrangler Unlimited.[35][36]

Peugeot presented a concept four-door retractable hardtop convertible, the Peugeot 407 Macarena in 2006.[37] Produced by French coachbuilding specialist Heuliez, the Macarena's top can be folded in 60 seconds,[37] with a steel reinforcing beam behind the front seats incorporating LCD screens for the rear passengers into the crossmember.[37]

Off-road: Several off-road vehicles have been produced with removable soft tops.[38] Examples include the Jeep Wrangler, Suzuki Vitara, Suzuki Jimny,[39] Ford Bronco, Land Rover Defender, Mercedes-Benz G-Class[40] and early models of the Toyota Land Cruiser and Land Rover Defender. Typically, the soft tops attach to the roll cage or to the installation points on the vehicle's body.

Cabrio coach: A cabrio coach (also known as semiconvertible) has a retractable or removable top which retains fully framed windows on its doors and side glass.

Landaulet: A landaulet (also known as landaulette) is where the rear passengers are covered by a convertible top.[41][42][43] Often the driver is separated from the rear passengers with a partition,[42] as per a limousine.

In the second half of the 20th century, landaulets were used by public figures (such as heads of state) in formal processions. They are now rarely used, for fear of terrorist attack.

Gallery[edit]

Open car and roadster[edit]

Convertibles[edit]

Retractable hardtop[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Garrett, Jerry (8 October 2006). "2007 Volkswagen Eos: In Praise of a Convertible Goddess". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2011. To neutralize the loss of torsional rigidity inherent in any convertible, VW engineers took the basket-handle roll bar of the VW Cabrio, inverted it and placed it under the rear seat pedestal. A beefed-up windshield frame of hot-stamped ultra-high-strength steel is connected directly to the floorpan’s reinforced frame rails. Steel tubing provides more stiffness behind the doors for an extra layer of safety. Partly as a consequence, rear seat passengers have about 10 inches less shoulder room than in the smaller Rabbit.
  2. ^ "What You Should Know Before Buying a Convertible". Edmunds. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  3. ^ "Convertible and Cabriolet what's the difference?". Convertible Car Magazine. February 29, 2012. Retrieved July 11, 2015. 
  4. ^ "Cabriolet". Dictionary.com. Random House. Retrieved July 11, 2015. 
  5. ^ Beattie, Ian (1977). The Complete Book of Automobile Body Design. Haynes Publishing Group. pp. 36, 42–43. ISBN 0-85429-217-9. 
  6. ^ "Beginnings of the automobile: the predecessor companies (1886-1920)". www.daimler.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  7. ^ "British Motor Manufacturers (1894-1960), Arnold". www.britishmm.co.uk. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. 
  8. ^ "Early American Automobiles Pre 1900". www.earlyamericanautomobiles.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  9. ^ "Hurtu". www.gracesguide.co.uk. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  10. ^ "The Evolution of the Convertible- slide 2". www.popularmechanics.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  11. ^ a b "A brief history of the convertible". www.autofocus.ca. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  12. ^ a b c "The up-and-down history of the convertible". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  13. ^ "The Evolution of the Convertible- slide 5". www.popularmechanics.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  14. ^ "All new (AMC advertisement)". Life. 50 (22). 2 June 1962. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  15. ^ "The Evolution of the Convertible- slide 8". www.popularmechanics.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  16. ^ "Mazda builds 1 millionth MX-5". www.autoblog.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  17. ^ "A Soarer Aerocabin Found In LA". www.speedhunters.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  18. ^ "This One Of 500 Toyota Soarer Aerocabin Can Be Yours". www.carscoops.com. Retrieved 14 April 2018. 
  19. ^ "The Last Roadster". Cars and Parts. 43: 42. 2000. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  20. ^ Stroll, Daniel (2009). "Muscle Car Interior Restoration Guide". CarTech. p. 120. ISBN 9781932494983. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  21. ^ Jacobs, Milton (1957). Fabrics and Fibers for Passenger Cars: Automobile Manufacturers' Views, 1955 Compared with 1950, Issue 152 of Marketing research report. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, Marketing Research Division. pp. 8, 40–41. Retrieved 11 January 2016. 
  22. ^ "A History of Hardtops". www.hemmings.com. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  23. ^ "356 Porsche Removable Hardtops". www.derwhites356literature.com. Retrieved 15 April 2018. 
  24. ^ Howley, Tim (April 2006). "A History of Hardtops". Hemmings Classic Car. Hemmings Motor News. Retrieved 6 February 2018. 
  25. ^ Auto Editors of Consumer Guide (19 September 2007). "Pisano/Ogden Buick: Profile of a Custom Car". HowStuffWorks.com. Retrieved 9 February 2014. 
  26. ^ "Convertible Buying Guide". www.consumerreports.org. Retrieved 29 April 2018. 
  27. ^ "Convertible buying info: Top-down driving". www.edmunds.com. Retrieved 29 April 2018. 
  28. ^ Chrysler Group (30 March 2007). "2008 Chrysler Sebring Convertible's Solid Structure and Systems Deliver Smooth Driving, Tight Handling and a Quiet Ride" (Press release). prnewswire.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  29. ^ "Volvo C70 - safety, the next generation". Autoblog.com. 
  30. ^ a b "The Semi-Convertible or Cabrio Coach: It's About Being Chic and Strong at the Same Time". www.autoevolution.com. Retrieved 5 April 2018. 
  31. ^ a b "Citroen C3 Pluriel (2003–) Review". Archived from the original on 5 November 2007. 
  32. ^ "Citroen C3 Pluriel". honestjohn.co. 28 May 2003. Retrieved 3 February 2014. 
  33. ^ File:1934 Buick Series 60 Convertible Phaeton.JPG
  34. ^ Cars of the Sizzling '60s, by the auto editors of Consumer Guide (Publications International, Ltd., Lincolnwood, IL, 1997), pages 68 to 69, and 307.
  35. ^ "Jeep history in the 2000s". www.jeep.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018. 
  36. ^ "2017 Jeep Wrangler". www.edmunds.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018. 
  37. ^ a b c "¡Hey, Macarena! Heuliez Creates an Open-Top Peugeot 407". Edmunds. 28 January 2006. Archived from the original on 19 December 2006. 
  38. ^ "Evolution Of The Convertible SUV". www.autowise.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018. 
  39. ^ "Suzuki Jimny 2005 - 2012". www.autoevolution.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018. 
  40. ^ "2018 Mercedes-Maybach G650 Landaulet". www.caranddriver.com. Retrieved 8 May 2018. 
  41. ^ Georgano, Nick (2001). Beaulieu Encyclopedia of the Automobile. Routledge. p. 216. ISBN 978-1-57958-367-5. 
  42. ^ a b Clough, Albert L. (1913). A dictionary of automobile terms. The Horseless Age Company. p. 185. LCCN 13003001. Retrieved 1 September 2014. 
  43. ^ The Merriam-Webster new book of word histories. Springfield, MA US: Merriam-Webster. January 1991. pp. 358–359. ISBN 978-0-87779-603-9. LCCN 91029965. Retrieved 2012-06-02. The motor landaulet was essentially an enclosed sedan or coupe with a folding top at the extreme rear quarter, over the rear seat. 
  44. ^ Schuon, Marshall (19 April 1987). "The few, the rich, Pininfarina". The New York Times. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  45. ^ "2007 Porsche Boxster news, pictures, and information". Conceptcarz.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  46. ^ Vaughn, Mark (10 September 2006). "2007 Mazda MX-5 Miata Power Retractable Hardtop". Autoweek. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 
  47. ^ Keebler, Jack (August 2002). "2004 Cadillac XLR". Motor Trend. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Adler, Dennis (2011). Convertibles. First Gear series. Minneapolis, MN: Motorbooks. ISBN 9780760340202. 
  • Hirsch, Jay; Weith, Warren (1979). The Last American Convertibles. New York: Collier Books; London: Collier Macmillan. ISBN 002080010X. 
  • Holmes, Mark (2007). Ultimate Convertibles: Roofless Beauty. London: Kandour. ISBN 978-1-905741-62-5. 
  • Langworth, Richard M (1988). The Great American Convertible. New York: Beekman House. ISBN 0517655810. 
  • Wieder, Robert; Hall, George (1977). The Great American Convertible: An Affectionate Guide. Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0385131232. 

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