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LEARN COOK ISLANDS LANGUAGE - Lesson 1
LEARN COOK ISLANDS LANGUAGE - Lesson 1
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: Te Kuki Airani
What
What's your favourite Cook Islands Maori proverb?
Published: 2015/08/05
Channel: AUTUNI
Cook Islands v NZ Maori Haka
Cook Islands v NZ Maori Haka
Published: 2008/10/22
Channel: Daniel
Tagata Pasifika - Cook Islands Language Week 2014.
Tagata Pasifika - Cook Islands Language Week 2014.
Published: 2014/08/09
Channel: Tagata Pasifika
Cook Islands Music - Tiare Maori
Cook Islands Music - Tiare Maori
Published: 2009/06/27
Channel: Metua Ngarupe
Cook Islands Māori Language Classes Weeks 7-9
Cook Islands Māori Language Classes Weeks 7-9
Published: 2015/12/29
Channel: Cook Islands Resources
Cook IslandsTraditional Food for Survival
Cook IslandsTraditional Food for Survival
Published: 2017/05/03
Channel: Mana Etches
10 Everyday phrases in Cook Islands Māori Language
10 Everyday phrases in Cook Islands Māori Language
Published: 2017/08/03
Channel: Pacific Legal Network
Language Challenge (Cook Island) ft the sissay
Language Challenge (Cook Island) ft the sissay
Published: 2016/11/06
Channel: Jolyn Iro
Cook Islands Language Week 2016
Cook Islands Language Week 2016
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: AUTUNI
VAIRAKAU MĀORI - Cook Islands Traditional Medicine
VAIRAKAU MĀORI - Cook Islands Traditional Medicine
Published: 2015/06/30
Channel: Cook Islands Resources
Maori language revival example for Cook Island
Maori language revival example for Cook Island
Published: 2011/07/07
Channel: Te Karere TVNZ
Cook Islands Haka
Cook Islands Haka
Published: 2017/05/06
Channel: SportsVolt NZ
What to say when using Language Line - Cook Island Maori
What to say when using Language Line - Cook Island Maori
Published: 2012/09/24
Channel: Ethnic Communities
Cook Islands Language Week Opening
Cook Islands Language Week Opening
Published: 2015/08/03
Channel: Cook Islands Resources
Cook Islands Māori Language Classes Weeks 4-6
Cook Islands Māori Language Classes Weeks 4-6
Published: 2015/12/21
Channel: Cook Islands Resources
Adults in Porirua learning Cook Island language
Adults in Porirua learning Cook Island language
Published: 2012/02/23
Channel: Tagata Pasifika
Maori vs cookisland
Maori vs cookisland
Published: 2014/03/11
Channel: Justin Te Kani
Modern Maori Quartet Show in Rarotonga Cook Islands
Modern Maori Quartet Show in Rarotonga Cook Islands
Published: 2016/03/01
Channel: FRESH TV
Cook Islands Māori Language Classes Weeks 1-3
Cook Islands Māori Language Classes Weeks 1-3
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: Cook Islands Resources
Tonga & Cook Islands clash during war dance
Tonga & Cook Islands clash during war dance
Published: 2015/10/17
Channel: iusdbv jlherbv
LEARN COOK ISLANDS LANGUAGE - Learning the basics
LEARN COOK ISLANDS LANGUAGE - Learning the basics
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: Te Kuki Airani
LEARN COOK ISLANDS LANGUAGE - Learning the basics
LEARN COOK ISLANDS LANGUAGE - Learning the basics
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: Te Kuki Airani
Cook Islands National Anthem with music, vocal and lyrics Maori w/English Translation
Cook Islands National Anthem with music, vocal and lyrics Maori w/English Translation
Published: 2017/04/08
Channel: Music is Love Anthems
Mama Mata
Mama Mata's Cook Island Language Class - Kopu Tangata - Family
Published: 2014/04/10
Channel: Pandy Fruean
Aitutaki Cultural Tour - preparing Maori umu (1/2)
Aitutaki Cultural Tour - preparing Maori umu (1/2)
Published: 2017/03/15
Channel: KiwiZTravel
LEARN COOK ISLANDS LANGUAGE - Lesson 3
LEARN COOK ISLANDS LANGUAGE - Lesson 3
Published: 2016/11/28
Channel: Te Kuki Airani
Maori language an inspiration to Cook Island Maori
Maori language an inspiration to Cook Island Maori
Published: 2011/07/08
Channel: Te Karere TVNZ
Cook islands Oceania tag haka
Cook islands Oceania tag haka
Published: 2016/12/05
Channel: Henry Vickery
New version of the Cook Islands Maori Database
New version of the Cook Islands Maori Database
Published: 2014/07/07
Channel: Axle Tom
Cook Island Maori Language Week Gala
Cook Island Maori Language Week Gala
Published: 2015/08/07
Channel: TOKOROA HIGH SCHOOL
Grand Theft Maori COOK ISLAND GIRL REACTION!!!
Grand Theft Maori COOK ISLAND GIRL REACTION!!!
Published: 2015/12/20
Channel: SHAY
Cook Island Maori
Cook Island Maori
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: Jeanette Ward
Cook Island Maori Language Week 2017: interview with Ake Mitchell about tīvaevae
Cook Island Maori Language Week 2017: interview with Ake Mitchell about tīvaevae
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: Rotorua Museum
Cook Islands Rugby 2014 Haka
Cook Islands Rugby 2014 Haka
Published: 2014/06/20
Channel: walestylz
Grant 2014: Cook Islands Maori Database
Grant 2014: Cook Islands Maori Database
Published: 2014/04/23
Channel: ISIF.Asia Information Society Innovation Fund
Cook Island Maori Reo
Cook Island Maori Reo
Published: 2017/07/30
Channel: Amelia Sadaraka
Rarotonga Maori Ukulele
Rarotonga Maori Ukulele
Published: 2011/10/07
Channel: Trey Ryder
Northern Maori haka v Cook Islands haka!
Northern Maori haka v Cook Islands haka!
Published: 2013/10/03
Channel: NDCA Knights
Grand Theft Maori COOK ISLAND GIRL
Grand Theft Maori COOK ISLAND GIRL
Published: 2016/01/27
Channel: NZFILMZ
Atiu Cook Islands Maori
Atiu Cook Islands Maori
Published: 2007/01/31
Channel: oladeras
Mama Mata
Mama Mata's Cook Island Language Class - Tuatua - Speaking
Published: 2013/10/01
Channel: Pandy Fruean
Cook Island Maori Language Week
Cook Island Maori Language Week
Published: 2015/08/04
Channel: TOKOROA HIGH SCHOOL
Cook Island veterans remembered in ANZAC commemorations
Cook Island veterans remembered in ANZAC commemorations
Published: 2016/04/26
Channel: Te Karere TVNZ
Bible In Cook Island Maori / Te Bibilia Tapu ra: Koia te Koreromotu Taito e te Koreromotu Ou
Bible In Cook Island Maori / Te Bibilia Tapu ra: Koia te Koreromotu Taito e te Koreromotu Ou
Published: 2015/07/25
Channel: BibleInMyLanguage
Orama drum dance from Te Maeva Nui 2010 in Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Orama drum dance from Te Maeva Nui 2010 in Rarotonga, Cook Islands
Published: 2011/01/16
Channel: Wendy Evans
Happy Cook Islands Maori Language Week 2016!
Happy Cook Islands Maori Language Week 2016!
Published: 2016/11/17
Channel: AUTUNI
Cook Islands Language Week in Tokoroa - Trivial Pursuits Evening in Cook Islands Maori
Cook Islands Language Week in Tokoroa - Trivial Pursuits Evening in Cook Islands Maori
Published: 2012/08/14
Channel: dvimprints
Cook Islands Maori: Offline Mobile Application
Cook Islands Maori: Offline Mobile Application
Published: 2015/02/16
Channel: Cook Islands Maori Database
"The Bible Way to Heaven" (Cook Island Maori subtitles)
"The Bible Way to Heaven" (Cook Island Maori subtitles)
Published: 2015/12/01
Channel: sanderson1769
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Cook Islands Māori
Māori, Maori Kuki Airani, Māori Kūki 'Āirani
Native to Cook Islands, New Zealand
Region Polynesia
Ethnicity Cook Island Māori
Native speakers
14,000 in Cook Islands (2011 census)[1]
7,725 in New Zealand (2013) [2]
Official status
Official language in
Cook Islands
Regulated by Kopapa Reo
Language codes
ISO 639-2 rar
ISO 639-3 Variously:
rar – Rarotonga
pnh – Tongareva (Penrhyn)
rkh – Rakahanga-Manihiki
Glottolog raro1241  Rarotongan[3]
penr1237  Penrhyn[4]
raka1237  Rakahanga-Manihiki[5]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

Cook Islands Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language. It is the official language of the Cook Islands and is an indigenous language of the Realm of New Zealand. Cook Islands Māori is closely related to New Zealand Māori but is a distinct language. Cook Islands Māori is simply called Māori when there is no need to disambiguate it from New Zealand Māori, but it is also known as Māori Kūki 'Āirani (or Maori Kuki Airani), or, controversially, Rarotongan. Many Cook Islanders also call it Te reo Ipukarea, literally "the language of the Ancestral Homeland".

Official status[edit]

Cook Islands Māori became an official language of the Cook Islands in 2003,[6] but has no official status in New Zealand, despite the fact that New Zealand is signatory to the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.

Te Reo Maori Act definition[edit]

The Te Reo Maori Act states that Māori:

(see external links).

Pukapukan is considered by scholars and speakers alike to be a distinct language more closely related to Sāmoan and Tokelauan than Cook Islands Māori. It belongs to the Samoic subgroup of the Polynesian language family. The intention behind including Pukapukan in the definition of Te Reo Maori was to ensure its protection.

The dialects[7] of the East Polynesian varieties of the Cook Islands (collectively referred to as Cook Islands Māori) are:

Cook Islands Māori is closely related to Tahitian and New Zealand Māori, and there is a degree of mutual intelligibility with both of these languages.

The language is theoretically regulated by the Kopapa Reo created in 2003, but this organisation is currently dormant.

Writing system and pronunciation[edit]

There is a debate about the standardisation of the writing system. Although the usage of the macron (־) te makarona and the glottal stop amata (ꞌ) (/ʔ/) is recommended, most speakers do not use the two diacritics in everyday writing. The Cook Islands Māori Revised New Testament uses a standardised orthography (spelling system) that includes the diacritics when they are phonemic but not elsewhere.

Consonants[edit]

Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p t k ʔ
Tap ɾ
Fricative f1 v s2 h3
  1. Present only in Manihiki
  2. Present only in Penrhyn
  3. Present only in Manihiki and Penrhyn

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Close-mid e o
Open a

Grammar[edit]

Cook Islands Māori is an isolating language with very little morphology. Case is marked by the particle that initiates a noun phrase, and like most East Polynesian languages, Cook Islands Māori has nominative-accusative case marking.

The unmarked constituent order is predicate initial. That is, verb initial in verbal sentences and nominal-predicate initial in non-verbal sentences.

Personal pronouns[edit]

Person Singular Dual Plural
1st inclusive au tāua tātou1
1st exclusive māua mātou2
2nd koe kōrua kōtou
3rd aia rāua rātou
  1. you -2 or more- and I
  2. they and I

Tense-Aspect-Mood markers[edit]

Marker Aspect Examples
Tē... nei present continuous

manako nei au i te 'oki ki te 'are 'I am thinking of going back to the house'
kata nei rātou 'They are laughing'
Kāre au e tanu nei i te pia 'I'm not planting any arrowroot'

Kia Mildly imperative or exhortatory, expressing a desire, a wish rather than a strong command.

Kia vave mai! 'be quick ! (don't be long!)'
Kia viviki mai! 'be quick (don't dawdle!)'
Kia manuia! 'good luck!'
Kia rave ana koe i tēnā 'anga'anga  : would you do that job;
Kia tae mai ki te anga'anga ā te pōpongi Mōnitē : come to work on Monday morning;
Teia te tātāpaka, kia kai koe : Here's the breadfruit pudding, eat up.

e Imperative, order

e 'eke koe ki raro : you get down;
e tū ki kō : stand over there

Auraka interdiction, don't

Auraka rava koe e 'āmiri i tēia niuniu ora, ka 'uti'utiꞌia koe : Don't on any account touch this live wire, you'll get a shock

kāre indicate the negation, not, nothing, nowhere

Kāre nō te ua : It 'll not rain; Kāre a Tī tuatua : Tī doesn't have anything to say

e… ana habitual action or state

E 'aere ana koe ki te 'ura : Do you go to the dance?:
E no'o ana aia ki Nikao i tē reira tuātau : he used to live in Nikao at that time

Ka Refers prospectively to the commencement of an action or state. Often translatable by and English future tense or "going to" construction

Ka imene a Mere ākonei ite pō : Mary is going to sing later on tonight;
Kua kite au ē ka riri a Tere : I know (or knew) that Tere will (or would) be angry

Kua translatable by an English simple past or a present tense (with adjectives)

Kua kite mai koe ia mātou : You saw us;
Kua meitaki koe ? : Are you better now?
Kua oti te tārekareka : the match is over now

Most of the preceding examples were taken from Cook Islands Maori Dictionary, by Jasper Buse with Raututi Taringa edited by Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moeka'a, Auckland, 1995.

Possessives[edit]

Like most other Polynesian languages (Tahitian, New Zealand Māori, Hawaiian, Samoan, Tongan ...), Cook Islands Māori has two categories of possessives, "a" and "o".

Generally, the "a" category is used when the possessor has or had control over the initiation of the possessive relationship. Usually this means that the possessor is superior or dominant to what is owned, or that the possession is considered as alienable. The "o" category is used when the possessor has or had no control over the initiation of the relationship. This usually means that the possessor is subordinate or inferior to what is owned, or that the possession is considered to be inalienable.

The following list indicates the types of things in the different categories:

  • a is used in speaking of

– Movable property, instruments,

– Food and drink,

– Husband, wife, children, grandchildren, girlfriend, boyfriend,

– Animals and pets, (except for horses)

– People in an inferior position

Te puaka a tērā vaꞌine : the pig belonging to that woman; ā Tere tamariki : Tere's children; Kāre ā Tupe mā ika inapō : Tupe and the rest didn't get any fish last night

Tāku ; Tāꞌau ; Tāna ; Tā tāua ; Tā māua…. : my, mine ; your, yours ; his, her, hers, our ours…

Ko tāku vaꞌine tēia : This is my wife; Ko tāna tāne tērā : That's her husband; Tā kotou ꞌapinga : your possession(s); Tā Tare ꞌapinga : Tērā possession(s);

  • o is used in speaking of

– Parts of anything

– Feelings

– Buildings and transport (including horses)

– Clothes

– Parents or other relatives (not husband, wife, children…)

– Superiors

Te 'are o Tere : The house belonging to Tere; ō Tere pare : Tere's hat; Kāre ō Tina no'o anga e no'o ei : Tina hasn't got anywhere to sit;

Tōku ; Tō'ou ; Tōna ; Tō tāua ; Tō māua…: my, mine  ; your, yours ; his, her, hers ; our, ours …

Ko tōku 'are tēia : This is my house; I tōku manako, ka tika tāna : In my opinion, he'll be right; Tēia tōku, tērā tō'ou : This is mine here, that's yours over there

Vocabulary[edit]

Pia : Polynesian arrowroot

Kata : laugh at; laughter; kata 'āviri : ridicule, jeer, mock

Tanu : to plant, cultivate land

'anga'anga : work, job

Pōpongi : morning

Tātāpaka : a kind of breadfruit pudding

'ura : dance, to dance

Tuātau : time, period, season ; ē tuātau 'ua atu : forever

'īmene : to sing, song

Riri : be angry with (ki)

Tārekareka : entertain, amuse, match, game, play game

Dialectology[edit]

Although most words of the various dialects of Cook Islands Māori are identical, there are some variations:

Rarotonga Aitutaki Mangaia Ngāputoru Manihiki Tongareva English
tuatua 'autara taratara Araara vananga akaiti speak, speech
ꞌānau ꞌānau ꞌānau fanau hanau family
kūmara kū'ara kū'ara kūmara kūmara kumala sweet potatoes
kāre kā'ore, 'ā'ore E'i, 'āore ꞌāita, kāre kaua, kāre kore no, not
tātā kiriti tātā tātā tātā tata write
'ura koni 'ura 'ingo, oriori, ꞌura Hupahupa kosaki dance
'akaipoipo 'akaipoipo 'ā'āipoipo 'akaipoipo fakaipoipo selenga wedding
'īkoke koroio rakiki tūngāngā Hikoke mokisi thin
'are 'are 'are 'are fare hare house
ma'ata 'atupaka ngao nui, nunui, ranuinui kore reka polia big
matū, pete ngenengene pori poripori menemene suesue fat

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Rarotonga at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Tongareva (Penrhyn) at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
    Rakahanga-Manihiki at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2013-census/profile-and-summary-reports/ethnic-profiles.aspx?request_value=24709&tabname=Languagesspoken
  3. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Rarotongan". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  4. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Penrhyn". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Rakahanga-Manihiki". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. 
  6. ^ Since 1915, English had been the only official language of the Cook Islands
  7. ^ in the sense of having mutual intelligibility
  8. ^ Tongarevan is sometimes also considered as a distinct language.

Sources[edit]

  • Cook Islands Maori Database Project, An online project created to build a collection of Cook Islands Maori Words based on existing print dictionaries and other sources.
  • Cook Islands Maori Dictionary, by Jasper Buse with Raututi Taringa, edited by Bruce Biggs and Rangi Moeka'a, Auckland, 1995.
  • A dictionary of the Maori Language of Rarotonga, Manuscript by Stephen Savage, Suva : IPS, USP in association with the Ministry of Education of the Cook Islands, 1983.
  • Kai Korero : Cook Islands Maori Language Coursebook, Tai Carpentier and Clive Beaumont, Pasifika Press, 1995. (A useful learning Method with oral skills cassette)
  • Cook Islands Cook Book by Taiora Matenga-Smith. Published by the Institute of Pacific Studies.
  • Maori Lessons for the Cook Islands, by Taira Rere. Wellington, Islands Educational Division, Department of Education, 1960.
  • Conversational Maori, Rarotongan Language, by Taira Rere. Rarotonga, Government Printer. 1961.
  • Some Maori Lessons, by Taira Rere. Rarotonga. Curriculum Production Unit, Department of Education. 1976.
  • More Maori Lessons, by Taira Rere. Suva, University of the South Pacific.1976
  • Maori Spelling: Notes for Teachers, by Taira Rere. Rarotonga: Curriculum Production Unit, Education Department.1977.
  • Traditions and Some Words of the Language of Danger or Pukapuka Island. Journal of the Polynesian Society 13:173-176.1904.
  • Collection of Articles on Rarotonga Language, by Jasper Buse. London: University of London, School of Oriental and African Studies. 1963.
  • Manihikian Traditional Narratives: In English and Manihikian: Stories of the Cook Islands (Na fakahiti o Manihiki). Papatoetoe, New Zealand: Te Ropu Kahurangi.1988
  • Te korero o Aitutaki, na te Are Korero o Aitutaki, Ministry of Cultural Development, Rarotonga, Cook Islands. 1992
  • Atiu nui Maruarua : E au tua ta'ito, Vainerere Tangatapoto et al. University of South Pacific, Suva 1984. (in Maori and English)
  • Learning Rarotonga Maori, by Maki'uti Tongia, Ministry of Cultural Development, Rarotonga 1999.
  • Te uri Reo Maori (translating in Maori), by Maki'uti Tongia, Punanga o te reo. 1996.
  • Atiu, e enua e tona iti tangata, te au tata tuatua Ngatupuna Kautai...(et al.), Suva, University of the South Pacific.1993. (Maori translation of Atiu : an island Community)
  • A vocabulary of the Mangaian language by Christian, F. W. 1924. Bernice P. Bishop Bulletin 2. Honolulu, Bernice P. Bishop Museum.
  • E au tuatua ta'ito no Manihiki, Kauraka Kauraka, IPS, USP, Suva. 1987.

External links[edit]

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