Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Country code top level domain (ccTLD). What are pros and cons of having it?
Country code top level domain (ccTLD). What are pros and cons of having it?
Published: 2017/03/19
Channel: GFluence
Country code top-level domain
Country code top-level domain
Published: 2014/08/08
Channel: Audiopedia
Country-code Top-level Domains
Country-code Top-level Domains
Published: 2011/01/10
Channel: resellerspanel
Internationalized country code top-level domain Top # 6 Facts
Internationalized country code top-level domain Top # 6 Facts
Published: 2015/10/26
Channel: Srimali Prakash
Country code top-level domain
Country code top-level domain
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: WikiAudio
Internationalized country code top-level domain
Internationalized country code top-level domain
Published: 2016/08/12
Channel: WikiWikiup
What are gTLDs (generic Top Level Domains)? | 123-reg Support
What are gTLDs (generic Top Level Domains)? | 123-reg Support
Published: 2014/04/09
Channel: 123 Reg
If I use a ccTLD, can I indicate my geographic location is not in that country?
If I use a ccTLD, can I indicate my geographic location is not in that country?
Published: 2013/02/27
Channel: Google Webmasters
Using Top Level Domains in Your Research
Using Top Level Domains in Your Research
Published: 2014/01/13
Channel: Imagine Easy Solutions
Top Level Domains - URLs
Top Level Domains - URLs
Published: 2009/05/22
Channel: japresley
ccTLD
ccTLD
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: BOCRA
Brands, Trademarks, and Domain Names - Panel Discussion
Brands, Trademarks, and Domain Names - Panel Discussion
Published: 2015/01/30
Channel: 101domain
Country-code Domains - Video.flv
Country-code Domains - Video.flv
Published: 2012/03/31
Channel: Sagi Aweber
CcTLD Meaning
CcTLD Meaning
Published: 2015/04/26
Channel: ADictionary
What Is A Top Level Domain Name?
What Is A Top Level Domain Name?
Published: 2017/08/22
Channel: Robert Robert
Increasing ccTLD Domain Name PPC Revenue Secret
Increasing ccTLD Domain Name PPC Revenue Secret
Published: 2010/03/29
Channel: digitalbroker
.ZA - Most Widely Accepted Internet Domain Space
.ZA - Most Widely Accepted Internet Domain Space
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: .za Domain Name Authority
Top level domains and top level country code domains. Club Funk Ah 2 Music 1:16
Top level domains and top level country code domains. Club Funk Ah 2 Music 1:16
Published: 2014/10/05
Channel: Nicco Schaal
Understanding ccTLD Strategies for Global Expansion
Understanding ccTLD Strategies for Global Expansion
Published: 2016/04/21
Channel: MarkMonitor
ae Domain Administration
ae Domain Administration
Published: 2014/04/29
Channel: AeDA Domain Adminstration
Website Address
Website Address
Published: 2016/11/20
Channel: Giloo Team
Regional Market Opportunities, IDN and ccTLDs
Regional Market Opportunities, IDN and ccTLDs
Published: 2014/06/13
Channel: NamesCon - The Domain Name Industry Event
Angry German Kid Looking for .DE Domain Names
Angry German Kid Looking for .DE Domain Names
Published: 2012/10/24
Channel: Name.com
What Is CF Domain?
What Is CF Domain?
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: wise sparky
Domain Name Registration
Domain Name Registration
Published: 2011/04/26
Channel: Adhocinfoway
Should I use ccTLDs for sites not targeted to those countries?
Should I use ccTLDs for sites not targeted to those countries?
Published: 2013/07/29
Channel: Google Webmasters
Country Code People - An Interview with Abibu R. Ntahigiye, .tznic - Tanzania  ccTLD
Country Code People - An Interview with Abibu R. Ntahigiye, .tznic - Tanzania ccTLD
Published: 2017/08/21
Channel: Joe Alagna
Registering New Internet Domain Names (2012)
Registering New Internet Domain Names (2012)
Published: 2014/02/01
Channel: The Film Archives
What Is TK Domain?
What Is TK Domain?
Published: 2017/07/18
Channel: wise sparky
Country Code People - An Interview with Patricio Poblete of NIC CL
Country Code People - An Interview with Patricio Poblete of NIC CL
Published: 2017/10/26
Channel: Joe Alagna
Public Premium Domains | inpublic.in
Public Premium Domains | inpublic.in
Published: 2017/04/05
Channel: Jahansha Mahdavi Pur
101domain.com - .uno is a new Top Level Domain name and means "number one" in Spanish and Italian.
101domain.com - .uno is a new Top Level Domain name and means "number one" in Spanish and Italian.
Published: 2014/01/10
Channel: 101domain
ccTLD or gTLD - How to Choose
ccTLD or gTLD - How to Choose
Published: 2017/06/05
Channel: Anton McCarthy
What is Afnic?
What is Afnic?
Published: 2014/06/24
Channel: AFNIC Registry
India
India's very own domain - .IN Registry
Published: 2015/08/12
Channel: .IN Registry
Registro.IT - ccTLD-neutral methodology for ranking domains (CENTR Award 2013 Nomination)
Registro.IT - ccTLD-neutral methodology for ranking domains (CENTR Award 2013 Nomination)
Published: 2013/10/13
Channel: CENTRDNS
New gTLDs Category - Construction
New gTLDs Category - Construction
Published: 2013/12/19
Channel: 101domain
Leonid Todorov (ccTLD .RU), Domain Forum 2012
Leonid Todorov (ccTLD .RU), Domain Forum 2012
Published: 2012/12/04
Channel: domainforum2011
India
India's very own domain - .IN Registry Tamil
Published: 2015/09/03
Channel: .IN Registry
Top-level domain Meaning
Top-level domain Meaning
Published: 2015/04/20
Channel: SDictionary
Who We Are - .za Domain Name Authority
Who We Are - .za Domain Name Authority
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: .za Domain Name Authority
How to register .com.np, .org.np or other .np (NP CCTLD) Domain
How to register .com.np, .org.np or other .np (NP CCTLD) Domain
Published: 2014/11/22
Channel: Sabin Bhatta's Blog
.io
.io
Published: 2014/10/09
Channel: Audiopedia
Top 7 ccTLD emoji domain extensions
Top 7 ccTLD emoji domain extensions
Published: 2017/05/15
Channel: kickstartcommerce
Learn more about the new .REALTOR Top Level Domain
Learn more about the new .REALTOR Top Level Domain
Published: 2013/11/20
Channel: NAR Meetings
Sana Commerce - Web Store Domains
Sana Commerce - Web Store Domains
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Sana Commerce
Internationalized Domain Names Approved By ICANN
Internationalized Domain Names Approved By ICANN
Published: 2010/04/05
Channel: Roadrunner Domains
Panel - Nordic Domain Days - IND15
Panel - Nordic Domain Days - IND15
Published: 2015/11/23
Channel: IIS
Generic top-level domain Meaning
Generic top-level domain Meaning
Published: 2015/04/26
Channel: ADictionary
Track your Google rankings on different ccTLDs like google.de, .co.uk, etc.
Track your Google rankings on different ccTLDs like google.de, .co.uk, etc.
Published: 2014/07/08
Channel: Soflyy
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is an Internet top-level domain generally used or reserved for a country, sovereign state, or dependent territory identified with a country code.

All ASCII ccTLD identifiers are two letters long, and all two-letter top-level domains are ccTLDs. In 2010, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) began implementing internationalized country code top-level domains, consisting of language-native characters when displayed in an end-user application. Creation and delegation of ccTLDs is described in RFC 1591, corresponding to ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country codes.

Types[edit]

As of 2015, IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:[1]

Delegation and management[edit]

IANA is responsible for determining an appropriate trustee for each ccTLD. Administration and control is then delegated to that trustee, which is responsible for the policies and operation of the domain. The current delegation can be determined from IANA's list of ccTLDs. Individual ccTLDs may have varying requirements and fees for registering subdomains. There may be a local presence requirement (for instance, citizenship or other connection to the ccTLD), as for example the Canadian (ca) and German (de) domains, or registration may be open.

History[edit]

The first registered ccTLDs were .us, .uk, and .il, all registered in 1985. In 1986, .au, .de, .fi, .fr, .jp, .kr, .nl and .se were registered.

Relation to ISO 3166-1[edit]

The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the ISO 3166 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list.

Unused ISO 3166-1 codes[edit]

Almost all current ISO 3166-1 codes have been assigned and do exist in DNS. However, some of these are effectively unused. In particular, the ccTLDs for the Norwegian dependency Bouvet Island (bv) and the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen (sj) do exist in DNS, but no subdomains have been assigned, and it is Norid policy not to assign any at present. Two French territories, bl (Saint Barthélemy) and mf (Saint Martin), still await local assignment by France's government.

The code eh, although eligible as ccTLD for Western Sahara, has never been assigned and does not exist in DNS. Only one subdomain is still registered in gb[3][not in citation given (See discussion.)] (ISO 3166-1 for the United Kingdom) and no new registrations are being accepted for it. Sites in the United Kingdom generally use uk (see below).

The former .um ccTLD for the U.S. Minor Outlying Islands was removed in April 2008. Under RFC 1591 rules .um is eligible as a ccTLD on request by the relevant governmental agency and local Internet user community.

ASCII ccTLDs not in ISO 3166-1[edit]

Several ASCII ccTLDs are in use that are not ISO 3166-1 two-letter codes. Some of these codes were specified in older versions of the ISO list.

  • uk (United Kingdom): The ISO 3166-1 code for the United Kingdom is GB. However, the JANET network had already selected uk as a top-level identifier for its pre-existing Name Registration Scheme, and this was incorporated into the DNS root. gb was assigned with the intention of a transition, but this never occurred and the use of uk is now entrenched.
  • su This obsolete ISO 3166 code for the Soviet Union was assigned when the Soviet Union was still extant; moreover, new su registrations are accepted.
  • ac (Ascension Island): This code is a vestige of IANA's decision in 1996 to allow the use of codes reserved in the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 reserve list for use by the Universal Postal Union. The decision was later reversed, with Ascension Island now the sole outlier. (Three other ccTLDs, gg (Guernsey), im (Isle of Man) and je (Jersey) also fell under this category from 1996 until they received corresponding ISO 3166 codes in March 2006.)
  • eu (European Union): On September 25, 2000, ICANN decided to allow the use of any two-letter code in the ISO 3166-1 reserve list that is reserved for all purposes. Only EU currently meets this criterion. Following a decision by the EU's Council of Telecommunications Ministers in March 2002, progress was slow, but a registry (named EURid) was chosen by the European Commission, and criteria for allocation set: ICANN approved eu as a ccTLD, and it opened for registration on 7 December 2005 for the holders of prior rights. Since 7 April 2006, registration is open to all.

Historical ccTLDs[edit]

There are three ccTLDs that have been deleted after the corresponding 2-letter code was withdrawn from ISO 3166-1: cs (for Czechoslovakia), zr (for Zaire) and tp (for East Timor). There may be a significant delay between withdrawal from ISO 3166-1 and deletion from the DNS; for example, ZR ceased to be an ISO 3166-1 code in 1997, but the zr ccTLD was not deleted until 2001. Other ccTLDs corresponding to obsolete ISO 3166-1 codes have not yet been deleted. In some cases they may never be deleted due to the amount of disruption this would cause for a heavily used ccTLD. In particular, the Soviet Union's ccTLD su remains in use more than twenty years after SU was removed from ISO 3166-1.

The historical country codes dd for the German Democratic Republic and yd for South Yemen were eligible for a ccTLD, but not allocated; see also de and ye.

The temporary reassignment of country code cs (Serbia and Montenegro) until its split into rs and me (Serbia and Montenegro, respectively) led to some controversies[4][5] about the stability of ISO 3166-1 country codes, resulting in a second edition of ISO 3166-1 in 2007 with a guarantee that retired codes will not be reassigned for at least 50 years, and the replacement of RFC 3066 by RFC 4646 for country codes used in language tags in 2006.

The previous ISO 3166-1 code for Yugoslavia, YU, was removed by ISO on 2003-07-23, but the yu ccTLD remained in operation. Finally, after a two-year transition to Serbian rs and Montenegrin me, the .yu domain was phased out in March 2010.

Australia was originally assigned the oz country code, which was later changed to au with the .oz domains moved to .oz.au.

Internationalized ccTLDs[edit]

An internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) is a top-level domain with a specially encoded domain name that is displayed in an end user application, such as a web browser, in its language-native script or alphabet, such as the Arabic alphabet, or a non-alphabetic writing system, such as Chinese characters. IDN ccTLDs are an application of the internationalized domain name (IDN) system to top-level Internet domains assigned to countries, or independent geographic regions.

ICANN started to accept applications for IDN ccTLDs in November 2009,[6] and installed the first set into the Domain Names System in May 2010. The first set was a group of Arabic names for the countries of Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. By May 2010, 21 countries had submitted applications to ICANN, representing 11 languages.[7]

ICANN requires all potential international TLDs to use at least one letter that does not resemble a Latin letter, or have at least three letters, in an effort to avoid IDN homograph attacks. Nor shall the international domain name look like another domain name, even if they have different alphabets. Between Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, for example, this could happen.

Unconventional usage[edit]

Lenient registration restrictions on certain ccTLDs have resulted in various domain hacks. Domain names such as I.am, tip.it, start.at and go.to form well-known English phrases, whereas others combine the second-level domain and ccTLD to form one word or one title, creating domains such as blo.gs of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (gs), youtu.be of Belgium (be), del.icio.us of the United States (us), and cr.yp.to of Tonga (to). The .co domain of Colombia has been cited since 2010 as a potential competitor to generic TLDs for commercial use, because it may be an abbreviation for company.[8]

Several ccTLDs allow the creation of emoji domains.

Some ccTLDs may also be used for typosquatting. The domain cm of Cameroon has generated interest due to the possibility that people might miss typing the letter o for sites in the com.[9]

Commercial usage[edit]

Some of the world's smallest countries and non-sovereign or colonial entities with their own country codes have opened their TLDs for worldwide commercial use, some of them free like .tk.

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "IANA root zone database". Iana.org. Retrieved 2015-11-10. 
  2. ^ Jon Postel (March 1994). "RFC 1591 - Domain Name System Structure and Delegation". Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  3. ^ "DNS loookup for dra.hmg.gb". 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-03. 
  4. ^ Leslie Daigle (2003-09-24). "IAB input related to the .cs code in ISO 3166". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  5. ^ Leslie Daigle (2003-09-24). "IAB comment on stability of ISO 3166 and other infrastructure standards". IAB. Retrieved 2008-06-22. 
  6. ^ "ICANN Bringing the Languages of the World to the Global Internet" (Press release). Internet Corporation For Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN). 30 October 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2009. 
  7. ^ "'Historic' day as first non-Latin web addresses go live". BBC News. May 6, 2010. Retrieved 2010-05-07. 
  8. ^ "General .CO FAQs: What makes .CO such a unique opportunity?". cointernet.co. Colombia: .CO Internet S.A.S. Retrieved 2013-07-20. 
  9. ^ "The man who owns the Internet". CNN Money. 2007-06-01. Retrieved 2010-11-05. 

External links[edit]

Related websites

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license