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Simulation of a Crossflow Turbine
Simulation of a Crossflow Turbine
Published: 2015/12/17
Channel: Schneider - Consultant Engineering
cross flow turbine
cross flow turbine
Published: 2012/05/23
Channel: haroonuetian
Pico Cross Flow Turbine running on a test bench-2-Silverboat Technologies
Pico Cross Flow Turbine running on a test bench-2-Silverboat Technologies
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: SILVERBOAT TECHNOLOGIES PVT LTD
Cross Flow Turbine Runner Design and Assembly SolidWorks Tutorial
Cross Flow Turbine Runner Design and Assembly SolidWorks Tutorial
Published: 2017/09/08
Channel: SolidWorks Tutorials & Engineering News
Crossflow turbine for microhydro
Crossflow turbine for microhydro
Published: 2017/03/03
Channel: Govinda Neupane
Assembling Blades on Runner: Cross Flow Turbine
Assembling Blades on Runner: Cross Flow Turbine
Published: 2017/10/22
Channel: SolidWorks Tutorials & Engineering News
Cross Flow Turbine 100 kW Micro Hydro Power
Cross Flow Turbine 100 kW Micro Hydro Power
Published: 2016/05/25
Channel: Think About It
Cross Flow HeksaHydro® Turbine T14-300 series (Pressure Bench Test)
Cross Flow HeksaHydro® Turbine T14-300 series (Pressure Bench Test)
Published: 2013/08/31
Channel: VyamDRC1
T14 Animation t 14 crossFlowturbine
T14 Animation t 14 crossFlowturbine
Published: 2014/08/04
Channel: BPTP Aceh
SolidWorks Basics for Beginners [ Assembly Runner of Cross Flow] Tutorial # 18
SolidWorks Basics for Beginners [ Assembly Runner of Cross Flow] Tutorial # 18
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: SolidWorks Tutorials & Engineering News
Comparison of Pelton, Francis & Kaplan Turbine
Comparison of Pelton, Francis & Kaplan Turbine
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: Learn Engineering
Pico Cross Flow turbine for Energy Recovery
Pico Cross Flow turbine for Energy Recovery
Published: 2015/02/05
Channel: SILVERBOAT TECHNOLOGIES PVT LTD
Cell Crossflow Turbine
Cell Crossflow Turbine
Published: 2014/12/15
Channel: Hydro -tech
Pico Cross Flow Turbine running on a test bench-1-Silverboat Technologies
Pico Cross Flow Turbine running on a test bench-1-Silverboat Technologies
Published: 2015/02/04
Channel: SILVERBOAT TECHNOLOGIES PVT LTD
LOW COST MICRO HYDRO POWER GENERATION: A CROSS-FLOW TURBINE DEVELOPMENT
LOW COST MICRO HYDRO POWER GENERATION: A CROSS-FLOW TURBINE DEVELOPMENT
Published: 2017/06/07
Channel: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)
Cross flow turbine and digital flow controller @500kW
Cross flow turbine and digital flow controller @500kW
Published: 2016/06/01
Channel: Aji Subekti
Turbin crossflow
Turbin crossflow
Published: 2015/11/11
Channel: Rady Turbin
Cross Flow Turbine 2x200kW @Thailand by Renerconsys
Cross Flow Turbine 2x200kW @Thailand by Renerconsys
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: Aji Subekti
cross flow turbine
cross flow turbine
Published: 2013/05/03
Channel: gowrilogi
Crossflow Turbine Test
Crossflow Turbine Test
Published: 2012/07/17
Channel: Nico Lee
Crossflow turbine-Micro hydro power
Crossflow turbine-Micro hydro power
Published: 2015/10/08
Channel: SILVERBOAT TECHNOLOGIES PVT LTD
new patented crossflow hydro turbine 100 kw started with testing t
new patented crossflow hydro turbine 100 kw started with testing t
Published: 2016/03/18
Channel: franci19681
Optimized cross flow turbine   CFD
Optimized cross flow turbine CFD
Published: 2015/01/18
Channel: Afshin Cfd
Cross Flow Turbine ENZY
Cross Flow Turbine ENZY
Published: 2014/03/24
Channel: dejenie dessie
Crossflow Banki water turbine
Crossflow Banki water turbine
Published: 2009/12/29
Channel: Dave Badger
Cross Flow Turbine
Cross Flow Turbine
Published: 2017/07/02
Channel: Tutorials
CROSS FLOW TURBINE
CROSS FLOW TURBINE
Published: 2014/11/22
Channel: anil parihar
LOW HEAD CROSS FLOW TURBINES
LOW HEAD CROSS FLOW TURBINES
Published: 2014/11/22
Channel: anil parihar
Vertical axis cross flow fluid turbine
Vertical axis cross flow fluid turbine
Published: 2013/09/26
Channel: Manju Devi
Tp100b anim 08
Tp100b anim 08
Published: 2016/10/10
Channel: entec indonesia
CROSS FLOW TURBINE
CROSS FLOW TURBINE
Published: 2013/07/14
Channel: Mausam Shrestha
CrossFlow turbine full pressure
CrossFlow turbine full pressure
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: Vincenzo Sammartano
H2O2 Cross-Flow Turbine - EP 2 955 369
H2O2 Cross-Flow Turbine - EP 2 955 369
Published: 2016/01/16
Channel: Sanja Gromilic Vladislav Ostojic
Micro Hydro power Plant 20 years old Cross Flow Turbine
Micro Hydro power Plant 20 years old Cross Flow Turbine
Published: 2016/05/24
Channel: Think About It
Cross Flow Turbine T15 D500, by Renerconsys
Cross Flow Turbine T15 D500, by Renerconsys
Published: 2016/01/26
Channel: Aji Subekti
Making a water turbine [Prototyping V1 & V2]
Making a water turbine [Prototyping V1 & V2]
Published: 2017/02/28
Channel: Remmert
Opinion from Congolese about Cross Flow Turbine T-14 and T-15 by Heksa Hydro and Vertcaptech
Opinion from Congolese about Cross Flow Turbine T-14 and T-15 by Heksa Hydro and Vertcaptech
Published: 2014/02/17
Channel: VERT Capital and Technology
BANKI CROSSFLOW TURBINE BY PHY BELGIUM
BANKI CROSSFLOW TURBINE BY PHY BELGIUM
Published: 2012/04/08
Channel: Yves Piront
The Banki Turbine
The Banki Turbine
Published: 2008/04/24
Channel: 진중용
Water Wheel Turbine Cross Flow Type Students Project
Water Wheel Turbine Cross Flow Type Students Project
Published: 2016/05/25
Channel: Think About It
CROSS FLOW TURBINES
CROSS FLOW TURBINES
Published: 2014/11/22
Channel: anil parihar
H2O2 Cross-flow Turbine / Test drive
H2O2 Cross-flow Turbine / Test drive
Published: 2016/01/15
Channel: Sanja Gromilic Vladislav Ostojic
Waterotor Portable Turbine - High Energy Output from Slow Moving Water
Waterotor Portable Turbine - High Energy Output from Slow Moving Water
Published: 2017/05/23
Channel: Wise Wanderer
CrossFlow Air Turbine (CFAT) Auxiliary Power Unit by AirMach Innovations
CrossFlow Air Turbine (CFAT) Auxiliary Power Unit by AirMach Innovations
Published: 2016/09/01
Channel: Onkar Kulkarni
H2O2 Cross-flow Turbine
H2O2 Cross-flow Turbine
Published: 2013/03/24
Channel: Sanja Gromilic Vladislav Ostojic
Vertical-axis cross-flow turbine actuator line model LES with OpenFOAM (refined mesh)
Vertical-axis cross-flow turbine actuator line model LES with OpenFOAM (refined mesh)
Published: 2015/08/29
Channel: Pete Bachant
turbinesFoam dev snapshot 3: Cross-flow turbine actuator line vorticity contours
turbinesFoam dev snapshot 3: Cross-flow turbine actuator line vorticity contours
Published: 2015/02/01
Channel: Pete Bachant
cink turbina
cink turbina
Published: 2014/12/18
Channel: Hydro -tech
Cross Flow Turbine. Manufacturers - Uttarakhand - India
Cross Flow Turbine. Manufacturers - Uttarakhand - India
Published: 2014/03/15
Channel: anilparihar parihar
CROSS FLOW TURBINE - FIRST EFFORT.mp4
CROSS FLOW TURBINE - FIRST EFFORT.mp4
Published: 2013/02/03
Channel: Anil Parihar
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Diagram of a Cross-flow turbine
1 — air-venting valve
2 — distributor
3 — turbine casing (all thick grey)
4 — runner
5 — removable rear casing
6 — blades
7 — water flow
8 — shaft

A cross-flow turbine, Bánki-Michell turbine, or Ossberger turbine[1] is a water turbine developed by the Australian Anthony Michell, the Hungarian Donát Bánki and the German Fritz Ossberger. Michell obtained patents for his turbine design in 1903, and the manufacturing company Weymouth made it for many years. Ossberger's first patent was granted in 1933 ("Free Jet Turbine" 1922, Imperial Patent No. 361593 and the "Cross Flow Turbine" 1933, Imperial Patent No. 615445), and he manufactured this turbine as a standard product. Today, the company founded by Ossberger is the leading manufacturer of this type of turbine.

Unlike most water turbines, which have axial or radial flows, in a cross-flow turbine the water passes through the turbine transversely, or across the turbine blades. As with a water wheel, the water is admitted at the turbine's edge. After passing to the inside of the runner, it leaves on the opposite side, going outward. Passing through the runner twice provides additional efficiency. When the water leaves the runner, it also helps clean it of small debris and pollution. The cross-flow turbine is a low-speed machine that is well suited for locations with a low head but high flow.

Although the illustration shows one nozzle for simplicity, most practical cross-flow turbines have two, arranged so that the water flows do not interfere.

Cross-flow turbines are often constructed as two turbines of different capacity that share the same shaft. The turbine wheels are the same diameter, but different lengths to handle different volumes at the same pressure. The subdivided wheels are usually built with volumes in ratios of 1:2. The subdivided regulating unit, the guide vane system in the turbine's upstream section, provides flexible operation, with 33, 66 or 100% output, depending on the flow. Low operating costs are obtained with the turbine's relatively simple construction.

Details of design[edit]

Ossberger turbine section

The turbine consists of a cylindrical water wheel or runner with a horizontal shaft, composed of numerous blades (up to 37), arranged radially and tangentially. The blade's edges are sharpened to reduce resistance to the flow of water. A blade is made in a part-circular cross-section (pipe cut over its whole length). The ends of the blades are welded to disks to form a cage like a hamster cage and are sometimes called "squirrel cage turbines"; instead of the bars, the turbine has the trough-shaped steel blades.

The water flows first from the outside of the turbine to its inside. The regulating unit, shaped like a vane or tongue, varies the cross-section of the flow. The water jet is directed towards the cylindrical runner by nozzle. The water enters the runner at an angle of about 45/120 degrees,transmitting some of the water's kinetic energy to the active cylindrical blades.

Ossberger turbine runner

The regulating device controls the flow based on the power needed, and the available water. The ratio is that (0–100%) of the water is admitted to 0-100%×30/4 blades. Water admission to the two nozzles is throttled by two shaped guide vanes. These divide and direct the flow so that the water enters the runner smoothly for any width of opening. The guide vanes should seal to the edges of the turbine casing so that when the water is low, they can shut off the water supply. The guide vanes therefore act as the valves between the penstock and turbine. Both guide vanes can be set by control levers, to which an automatic or manual control may be connected.

The turbine geometry (nozzle-runner-shaft) assures that the water jet is effective. The water acts on the runner twice, but most of the power is transferred on the first pass, when the water enters the runner. Only ⅓ of the power is transferred to the runner when the water is leaving the turbine.

The water flows through the blade channels in two directions: outside to inside, and inside to outside. Most turbines are run with two jets, arranged so two water jets in the runner will not affect each other. It is, however, essential that the turbine, head and turbine speed are harmonised.

The cross-flow turbine is of the impulse type, so the pressure remains constant at the runner.

Advantages[edit]

The peak efficiency of a cross-flow turbine is somewhat less than a Kaplan, Francis or Pelton turbine. However, the cross-flow turbine has a flat efficiency curve under varying load. With a split runner and turbine chamber, the turbine maintains its efficiency while the flow and load vary from 1/6 to the maximum.

Since it has a low price, and good regulation, cross-flow turbines are mostly used in mini and micro hydropower units of less than two thousand kW and with heads less than 200 m.

Particularly with small run-of-the-river plants, the flat efficiency curve yields better annual performance than other turbine systems, as small rivers' water is usually lower in some months. The efficiency of a turbine determines whether electricity is produced during the periods when rivers have low flows. If the turbines used have high peak efficiencies, but behave poorly at partial load, less annual performance is obtained than with turbines that have a flat efficiency curve.

Due to its excellent behaviour with partial loads, the cross-flow turbine is well-suited to unattended electricity production. Its simple construction makes it easier to maintain than other turbine types; only two bearings must be maintained, and there are only three rotating elements. The mechanical system is simple, so repairs can be performed by local mechanics.

Another advantage is that it can often clean itself. As the water leaves the runner, leaves, grass etc. will not remain in the runner, preventing losses. Therefore, although the turbine's efficiency is somewhat lower, it is more reliable than other types. No runner cleaning is normally necessary, e.g. by flow inversion or variations of the speed. Other turbine types are clogged more easily, and consequently face power losses despite higher nominal efficiencies.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ E.F. Lindsley, Water power for your home, Popular Science, May 1977, Vol. 210, No. 5, 87-93.

External links[edit]

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