A crossover or crossover utility vehicle (CUV) is a vehicle built on a unibody car platform combining in highly variable degrees features of a sport utility vehicle (SUV) with those of a passenger vehicle, especially a station wagon or hatchback.
Using unibody construction typical of passenger vehicles instead of the body-on-frame design of light trucks and the original SUVs, the crossover combines SUV features – such as a tall interior, high H-point seating, high ground-clearance, and AWD – with those of an automobile – including independent rear suspension, car-like handling, and lighter weight and better fuel economy than trucks or truck-based vehicles.
A crossover may borrow features from a station wagon or hatchback, such as the two-box design of a shared passenger and cargo volume with rear access via a third or fifth door, a liftgate – and flexibility to allow configurations that favor either passenger or cargo volume, e.g., fold-down rear seats.
The term "crossover" emerged as a marketing tool.[when?] A 2008 CNNMoney article indicated that many consumers cannot tell the difference between an SUV and a crossover. A January 2008 Wall Street Journal blog article called crossovers "wagons that look like sport utility vehicles, but ride like cars."
Among the earliest ancestors of what evolved into the modern crossover was the 1948 Willys-Overland Jeepster convertible coupe, which combined car-like features with Willys' proven off-road capabilities. In 1955, the Russian GAZ-M20 Pobeda was modified into the M-72 version to become the first unibody all-wheel drive car. A concept car using a Jeep Wagoneer (SJ) drivetrain was designed in Greece as a luxury limousine and four vehicles were made by Neorion. The Russian off-road Vaz 2121 Niva was introduced in 1976 featuring a unibody body and some mechanical components from the VAZ-2101 compact sedan, the Fiat 124-based Lada, and it saw success as a vehicle "best described as agricultural." Another contender before the crossover description became common was the 1977 Matra Rancho.
A more direct modern crossover antecedent is the AMC Eagle, a passenger road vehicle introduced in 1979 that "pioneered the crossover SUV" category before either had a name. American Motors' took a conventional unibody car and engineered a fully automatic four-wheel-drive system that gave it a raised ride-height, thus "begat today's modern crossovers." It was "the first production four-wheel-drive passenger car." The AMC Eagle "foreshadowed current crossover SUVs and AWD cars." Featuring "passenger-car comfort, plus 4wd security for all-weather security" the Eagle sedans and station wagons were a contrast to the fuel-thirsty vehicles built for rugged off-road that were marketed in the US at the time. AMC had "predicted that consumers would embrace a vehicle with the comfort of an automobile, but the ride height and foul-weather capabilities of a four-wheel-drive utility vehicle." As a precursor to today's crossover models, AMC's "vehicles worked well and sold well" and the "surviving Eagles look like the 'early man' version of a CUV, sort of a missing link of the car world." The AMC Eagle can claim "pioneering an entire segment of the automotive landscape."
Although "a lot of automakers lay claim to developing the very first crossover, but the AMC Eagle really was the very first crossover." A staff writer at The Atlantic wrote that Toyota debuted the first crossover in 1996 with the RAV 4 because "it was built on a car body." The current use of the term for this market segment spans a wide range of vehicles. In some cases, manufacturers have marketed vehicles as crossovers simply to avoid calling them station wagons, or have produced crossovers mainly because station wagons have fallen out of favor with buyers in a particular region such as the United States.
By 2006, the segment came into strong visibility in the U.S., when crossover sales "made up more than 50% of the overall SUV market." Sales increased in 2007 by 16%. For Audi, the Audi Q5 has become their second best-selling vehicle in the United States market after the Audi A4 sedan. Around half of Lexus' sales volume come from its SUVs since the late 1990s, the big majority of which is the Lexus RX crossover.
In the U.S., domestic manufacturers were slow to switch from their emphasis on light truck-based SUVs, and foreign automakers developed crossovers targeting the U.S. market, as an alternative to station wagons that are unpopular there. But by the 2010 model year, domestic automakers had quickly caught up. The segment has strong appeal to aging baby boomers.
The term crossover and SUV are sometimes interchangeable, sometimes used in combination, depending on the marketing or public perception of a particular vehicle. The broad spectrum of crossovers includes, among many others that are marketed in various markets:
The European MPV or large MPV may broadly resemble the crossover, including vehicles such as the Mercedes-Benz R-Class, and Ford S-Max. During the development of the Dodge Journey (Fiat Freemont), Dodge benchmarked several European vehicles.
Current crossovers with their platform genealogy (similar vehicles are grouped together):
|Acura MDX||Honda mid-size "CD" platform (Honda Accord)|
|Acura RDX||Honda compact "C" platform (Honda Civic)|
|Alfa Romeo Stelvio||Giorgio (Alfa Romeo Giulia)|
|Audi allroad (aka A6 allroad)||Volkswagen Group C5 platform (Audi A6)|
|Audi Q3||Volkswagen Group A5 platform (Audi A3)|
|Audi Q5 / Porsche Macan||Volkswagen Group B8 platform (Audi A4)|
|Audi Q7 / Porsche Cayenne / Volkswagen Touareg||Volkswagen Group PL71 platform|
|Bentley Bentayga||Volkswagen Group MLB|
|BMW X1||BMW 3 Series|
|BMW X3||BMW 3 Series|
|BMW X5||BMW 5 Series|
|BMW X6||BMW 5 Series|
|Cadillac XT5 / GMC Acadia||GM C1XX platform (SWB)|
|Chevrolet Captiva||GM Theta platform|
|Chevrolet Equinox / Buick Envision / GMC Terrain||GM D2XX platform|
|Chevrolet Traverse / Buick Enclave||GM C1XX platform (LWB)|
|Chevrolet Trax / Buick Encore / Opel Mokka||GM Gamma II platform|
|Citroën C4 Cactus||PSA PF1 platform|
|Citroën DS 6WR||PSA PF2 platform|
|Dacia/Renault Duster / Nissan Terrano (India)||Nissan B / Dacia B0 platform (Dacia/Renault Logan)|
|Dacia/Renault Sandero Stepway||Nissan B / Dacia B0 platform (Dacia/Renault Sandero)|
|Dacia/Renault Lodgy Stepway||Nissan C platform (Dacia/Renault Lodgy)|
|Daihatsu Terios / Toyota Rush / Perodua Nautica||Proprietary platform|
|Dodge Journey/Fiat Freemont||Mitsubishi GS platform (Dodge Avenger)|
|DS 4 Crossback||PSA PF2 Platform|
|Fiat 500L Trekking||GM Fiat Small platform (Fiat 500L)|
|Fiat 500X / Jeep Renegade||GM Fiat Small platform (Fiat 500L)|
|Fiat Idea Adventure Locker||Fiat Idea|
|Fiat Panda 4x4||Fiat Panda|
|Fiat Palio Weekend Adventure Locker||Fiat Palio|
|Fiat Strada Adventure Locker||Fiat Strada|
|Ford Escape/Mazda Tribute/Mercury Mariner||Ford CD2 platform|
|Ford EcoSport||Ford B3 platform (Ford Fiesta)|
|Ford Edge / Lincoln MKX||Ford CD3 platform (Lincoln Zephyr/MKZ, Ford Fusion)|
|Ford Explorer (fifth generation)||Ford D3 platform|
|Ford Flex||Ford D4 platform|
|Holden Adventra / HSV Avalanche||Holden Commodore|
|Holden Crewman / HSV Avalanche XUV||Holden Commodore|
|Honda CR-V / Honda HR-V||Honda compact "C" platform (Honda Civic)|
|Honda Pilot||Honda mid-size "CD" platform (Honda Accord)|
|Hyundai Creta/Hyundai ix25||Hyundai i20 (2nd generation)|
|Hyundai Tucson/ix35 / Kia Sportage||Hyundai Elantra (J3/J4/J5)|
|Hyundai Santa Fe/Santa Fe Sport / Hyundai Veracruz (ix55) / Kia Sorento||Hyundai-Kia Y6|
|Infiniti EX||Nissan FM platform|
|Infiniti FX||Nissan FM platform (Infiniti G35)|
|Infiniti QX60||Nissan D platform (Nissan Altima/Renault Laguna)|
|Jeep Compass||GM Fiat Small platform|
|Jeep Cherokee (2013-present)||Fiat Compact platform|
|Kia Sorento||Hyundai-Kia Y6|
|Land Rover Discovery Sport||Ford EUCD platform|
|Land Rover Freelander 2/LR2||Ford EUCD platform|
|Lexus NX||Toyota MC platform (Toyota Corolla, RAV4)|
|Lexus RX||Toyota K platform (Toyota Camry)|
|Lexus UX||TNGA: GA-C|
|Mahindra XUV 500||M&M 'W' Platform|
|Mazda CX-3||Mazda SKYACTIV platform (Mazda 2 DJ)|
|Mazda CX-5||Mazda SKYACTIV platform (Mazda 3 BM)|
|Mazda CX-9||Ford CD3 platform (Mazda 6 GG)|
|Mercedes-Benz GLK-Class||Mercedes-Benz W204 (C-Class)|
|Mercedes-Benz M-Class (second generation)||E-Class platform|
|Mercedes-Benz GL-Class||Mercedes-Benz M-Class|
|Mini Countryman/Mini Paceman||R60 platform (MINI and BMW components)|
|Mitsubishi ASX (RVR/Outlander Sport)/Citroën C4 Aircross/Peugeot 4008||Mitsubishi GS platform (Mitsubishi Lancer)|
|Mitsubishi Endeavor||Mitsubishi Galant|
|Mitsubishi Outlander Mk2 and newer/Citroën C-Crosser/Peugeot 4007||Mitsubishi GS platform (Mitsubishi Lancer)|
|Nissan Juke||Nissan B platform (Nissan Versa/Micra)|
|Nissan Murano||Nissan D platform (Nissan Altima/Renault Laguna)|
|Nissan Pathfinder (4th generation)||Nissan D platform (Nissan Altima/Renault Laguna)|
|Nissan Rogue / Nissan Qashqai (Dualis)/Renault Koleos (Renault-Samsung QM5)||Nissan C platform (Nissan Sentra/Renault Mégane/Scénic)|
|Nissan X-Trail||Nissan C platform (Nissan Sentra / Renault Mégane/Scénic)|
|Opel Insignia Country Tourer||GM Epsilon II platform (Opel Insignia)|
|Peugeot 207 SW Outdoor||PSA PF1 platform|
|Peugeot 2008||PSA PF1 platform|
|Peugeot 3008||PSA PF2 platform|
|Range Rover Evoque||Ford EUCD platform|
|Renault Captur / Renault Samsung QM3||Nissan B platform (Renault Clio)|
|Renault Kadjar||Renault-Nissan CMF platform (Nissan Sentra/Renault Mégane/Scénic)|
|Renault Scénic RX4||Renault/AMC Compact platform (Renault Scénic)|
|Renault Scénic Conquest/XMOD||Nissan C platform (Nissan Sentra/Renault Mégane/Scénic)|
|Škoda Kodiaq||Volkswagen Group A5 platform|
|Škoda Octavia Scout||Volkswagen Group A5 platform|
|Škoda Yeti||Volkswagen Group A5 platform|
|Subaru XV Crosstrek||Subaru Impreza fourth generation|
|Subaru Forester||Subaru Impreza|
|Subaru Outback||Subaru Legacy|
|Subaru Tribeca||Subaru Legacy|
|Suzuki Aerio SX||Suzuki Esteem|
|Suzuki SX4 / Fiat Sedici||modified Suzuki Swift platform|
|Tata Aria||Tata Indigo Manza|
|Tesla Model X||Tesla Generation II Platform|
|Toyota Highlander/Kluger||Toyota K platform (Toyota Camry)|
|Toyota RAV4||Toyota MC platform (Toyota Corolla)|
|Volkswagen CrossPolo||Volkswagen Group A0 platform (Volkswagen Polo)|
|Volkswagen CrossGolf||Volkswagen Group A5 platform (Volkswagen Golf Plus)|
|Volkswagen Passat Alltrack||Volkswagen Group B6/B7 platform (Volkswagen Passat)|
|Volkswagen CrossTouran||Volkswagen Group A5 platform (Volkswagen Touran)|
|Volkswagen Tiguan||Volkswagen Group MQB platform|
|Volvo XC40||Volvo/Geely Compact Modular Architecture platform (CMA)|
|Volvo XC60||Volvo Scalable Product Platform (SPA)|
|Volvo XC90||Volvo Scalable Product Platform (SPA)|
The price of entry, even for these most modest of luxury wagons, is about $40,000; $50,000 for a well-equipped version.
None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.
All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.
The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.