||This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. (May 2010)|
The species in a cryptic complex are typically very close relatives, or sibling species, and in many cases cannot be easily distinguished by molecular phylogenetic studies. If lineage sorting has not yet been completed, members of a cryptic species complex widely share plesiomorphic haplotypes, while individual species might not have evolved distinctive autapomorphic mutations yet. But usually, individual species within the complex can be separated by analysing data from multiple sources, such as by comparing polytene chromosomes, DNA sequence analyses, bioacoustics and thorough life history studies.
They may be parapatric, are frequently sympatric, and are sometimes allopatric. Cryptic species complexes are not the same as populations undergoing speciation: they typically represent a situation where speciation has already broken the gene flow between populations, but where evolution has not progressed to a point where easily recognizable adaptations have taken place.
Cryptic species that do not form a complex may be somewhat more distantly related and simply represent lineages that have been so successful as to require little evolutionary change, possibly coupled with parallel evolution. A famous example are the Eurasian and Short-toed Treecreepers, perhaps the first cryptic species to be recognized as such (by Christian Ludwig Brehm in 1820). Other ornithologists refused to accept that more than one species was involved until Brehm presented his bioacoustic studies, which left no room for doubt. The European Treecreeper has since been found to be a very close relative of the Himalayan Hodgson's Treecreeper, while the Short-toed Treecreeper is probably the sister species of the North American Brown Creeper. Cryptic species are also common in certain families of insects such as Chironomidae. 
A related concept is the superspecies. This is a clade of at least two more or less distinctive species with approximately parapatric distributions. Not all cryptic species complexes are superspecies, and vice versa, but many are.
It has been suggested that cryptic species complexes are very common in the marine environment. Although this suggestion antedated the detailed analysis of many systems using DNA sequence data, it has been proven correct. The increased use of DNA sequence in the investigation of organismal diversity (also called Phylogeography and DNA barcoding) has led to the discovery of a great many cryptic species complexes in all habitats. In the marine bryozoan Celleporella hyalina, detailed morphological analyses and mating compatibility tests between the isolates identified by DNA sequence analysis were used to confirm that these groups consisted of more than 10 ecologically distinct species that had been diverging for many million years.
Evidence from the identification of cryptic species has led some[who?] to conclude that current estimates of global species richness are too low. For example, mitochondrial DNA research published in January 2008 suggests that there are at least 11 genetically distinct populations of giraffes. Similar methods also found that the Amazonian frog Eleutherodactylus ockendeni is actually at least 3 different species that diverged over 5 million years ago.
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