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1: Current/Voltage characteristics
1: Current/Voltage characteristics
Published: 2012/10/23
Channel: Advanced Physics Tutor
Voltage Current Graphs - Physics - Science - Get That C In your GCSE and IGCSE
Voltage Current Graphs - Physics - Science - Get That C In your GCSE and IGCSE
Published: 2015/10/18
Channel: Christopher Thornton
Voltage-Current characteristics of p-n Junction Diode | Knee voltage & Zener voltage in HINDI
Voltage-Current characteristics of p-n Junction Diode | Knee voltage & Zener voltage in HINDI
Published: 2017/08/02
Channel: EduPoint
Current-voltage characteristic of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
Current-voltage characteristic of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT)
Published: 2012/02/10
Channel: HomoFaciens
MOSFET: Derivation of the Current-Voltage Characteristics
MOSFET: Derivation of the Current-Voltage Characteristics
Published: 2016/11/21
Channel: Mateo Aboy
NI Multisim: Diode current-voltage characteristic
NI Multisim: Diode current-voltage characteristic
Published: 2012/01/04
Channel: NTS
Voltage-Current Graphs
Voltage-Current Graphs
Published: 2013/04/11
Channel: ATPHYSICS1
Calculate Current-Voltage Characteristics in Virtual NanoLab
Calculate Current-Voltage Characteristics in Virtual NanoLab
Published: 2013/11/13
Channel: QuantumWise
Do Volts or Amps Kill You? Voltage, Current and Resistance
Do Volts or Amps Kill You? Voltage, Current and Resistance
Published: 2014/03/08
Channel: RimstarOrg
Which is the Killer, Current or Voltage?
Which is the Killer, Current or Voltage?
Published: 2014/03/10
Channel: ElectroBOOM
Current and Voltage
Current and Voltage
Published: 2008/05/08
Channel: Matrix Education
Electric Circuits:  Basics of the voltage and current laws.
Electric Circuits: Basics of the voltage and current laws.
Published: 2015/06/12
Channel: Physics Videos by Eugene Khutoryansky
Basics of voltage & current | Easiest explanation | HD
Basics of voltage & current | Easiest explanation | HD
Published: 2016/12/25
Channel: Gaurav J
What is voltage? || What is current? || What is resistance?
What is voltage? || What is current? || What is resistance?
Published: 2017/04/14
Channel: IKUKS ELECTRONICS
電路學70:電容電流與電壓關係(Current–voltage terminal characteristics of the capacitor)
電路學70:電容電流與電壓關係(Current–voltage terminal characteristics of the capacitor)
Published: 2016/03/30
Channel: Buf Idea
Voltage, Current and Resistance
Voltage, Current and Resistance
Published: 2011/05/16
Channel: Bozeman Science
#54: Back to Basics Tutorial: Voltage / Current in capacitors and inductors
#54: Back to Basics Tutorial: Voltage / Current in capacitors and inductors
Published: 2012/07/23
Channel: w2aew
The Basics of Voltage, Current and Resistance
The Basics of Voltage, Current and Resistance
Published: 2013/10/02
Channel: Step-by-Step Science
Voltage, Current and Power explained
Voltage, Current and Power explained
Published: 2016/12/08
Channel: ALL ABOUT ELECTRONICS
Ideal Voltage Source vs. Practical Voltage Source
Ideal Voltage Source vs. Practical Voltage Source
Published: 2017/01/18
Channel: ALL ABOUT ELECTRONICS
Electrical Engineering: Ch 6: Capacitors (7 of 26) Current - Voltage Relationship (1 of 2)
Electrical Engineering: Ch 6: Capacitors (7 of 26) Current - Voltage Relationship (1 of 2)
Published: 2016/05/17
Channel: Michel van Biezen
Voltage and Current Parameters of Digital Logic Families
Voltage and Current Parameters of Digital Logic Families
Published: 2016/04/30
Channel: EE Academy
GCSE Science Revision - Current and Voltage
GCSE Science Revision - Current and Voltage
Published: 2012/04/22
Channel: JamJarMMX
Voltage-current characteristics of light bulbs (including CFL and LED)
Voltage-current characteristics of light bulbs (including CFL and LED)
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: Zaichun Feng
Voltage, Current, Resistance & Power
Voltage, Current, Resistance & Power
Published: 2016/04/12
Channel: John Ward
Brief Intro to Voltage, Current, and Power | AddOhms #4
Brief Intro to Voltage, Current, and Power | AddOhms #4
Published: 2013/07/12
Channel: AddOhms
VI Characteristics of Voltage and Current Sources by Dr G R Sinha
VI Characteristics of Voltage and Current Sources by Dr G R Sinha
Published: 2017/09/19
Channel: Dr G R Sinha: Conceptualizing and Motivating
UNSW current voltage (I-V) solar cell characterisation
UNSW current voltage (I-V) solar cell characterisation
Published: 2017/11/27
Channel: UNSWelearning
Diode and Applications Episode 05 Urdu/Hindi  -VOLTAGE CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS
Diode and Applications Episode 05 Urdu/Hindi -VOLTAGE CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS
Published: 2017/02/16
Channel: Easy Learn
Current-Voltage Relationship in Inductor
Current-Voltage Relationship in Inductor
Published: 2016/06/30
Channel: EE Academy
How to understand the relationship between Voltage, Current, and Resistance
How to understand the relationship between Voltage, Current, and Resistance
Published: 2010/05/25
Channel: electronhacks
nMOS current vs voltage characteristics with parametric variation in voltage (part-I)
nMOS current vs voltage characteristics with parametric variation in voltage (part-I)
Published: 2016/10/31
Channel: Team VLSI
Tutorial for Current Voltage characteristics  for nanotube using Atomistix toolkit
Tutorial for Current Voltage characteristics for nanotube using Atomistix toolkit
Published: 2011/12/19
Channel: Shambhu Das
Which one is kill human ? Voltage or current ....new 2017....
Which one is kill human ? Voltage or current ....new 2017....
Published: 2016/12/12
Channel: Edison world
Current Voltage characteristics of Organic devices-1 (EE611  L13 )
Current Voltage characteristics of Organic devices-1 (EE611 L13 )
Published: 2017/11/10
Channel: baquer mazhari
Current - Voltage Characteristics AQA GCSE Required Practical Follow Up
Current - Voltage Characteristics AQA GCSE Required Practical Follow Up
Published: 2018/02/18
Channel: Foster's Physics
Charge, Current and Voltage | GCSE Physics | Doodle Science
Charge, Current and Voltage | GCSE Physics | Doodle Science
Published: 2014/01/27
Channel: DoodleScience
Voltage-Current (VI) Characteristics of a pn Junction, 30/9/2015
Voltage-Current (VI) Characteristics of a pn Junction, 30/9/2015
Published: 2015/10/02
Channel: Lutfi Al-Sharif The University of Jordan
Voltage Vs Current
Voltage Vs Current
Published: 2016/09/10
Channel: ashish kumar
Amperage & Voltage on Welding
Amperage & Voltage on Welding
Published: 2014/05/31
Channel: Fieldres
01. Charge Current Voltage and Power
01. Charge Current Voltage and Power
Published: 2014/01/12
Channel: gEEch
voltage, current and power in hindi
voltage, current and power in hindi
Published: 2016/10/14
Channel: Niket Shah Plus
CURRENT VOLTAGE & WATT in hindi by Pravesh Kaushik
CURRENT VOLTAGE & WATT in hindi by Pravesh Kaushik
Published: 2017/05/28
Channel: PRAVESH KAUSHIK
Voltage Current and Resistance
Voltage Current and Resistance
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: MakeCrate
Pinch-off Voltage
Pinch-off Voltage
Published: 2016/11/23
Channel: Neso Academy
Electrical Engineering: Current/Voltage/Power (problem example)
Electrical Engineering: Current/Voltage/Power (problem example)
Published: 2018/02/19
Channel: sacademy
Electric Current: Crash Course Physics #28
Electric Current: Crash Course Physics #28
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: CrashCourse
What is Voltage, Current, Resistance in Hindi !! Difference Between Current, Voltage and Resistance.
What is Voltage, Current, Resistance in Hindi !! Difference Between Current, Voltage and Resistance.
Published: 2017/07/16
Channel: Rajkumar Kushwaha
How to Measure DC Voltage and Current in a Series Resistor Circuit.
How to Measure DC Voltage and Current in a Series Resistor Circuit.
Published: 2014/12/30
Channel: Clyde Lettsome
Voltage, Current, and Resistance - Tutorial 1
Voltage, Current, and Resistance - Tutorial 1
Published: 2011/12/16
Channel: ebird97
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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The current–voltage characteristics of four devices: a resistor with large resistance, a resistor with small resistance, a P–N junction diode, and a battery with nonzero internal resistance. The horizontal axis represents the voltage drop, the vertical axis the current. All four plots use the passive sign convention.

A current–voltage characteristic or I–V curve (current–voltage curve) is a relationship, typically represented as a chart or graph, between the electric current through a circuit, device, or material, and the corresponding voltage, or potential difference across it.

In electronics[edit]

MOSFET drain current vs. drain-to-source voltage for several values of the overdrive voltage, ; the boundary between linear (Ohmic) and saturation (active) modes is indicated by the upward curving parabola.

In electronics, the relationship between the direct current (DC) through an electronic device and the DC voltage across its terminals is called a current–voltage characteristic of the device. Electronic engineers use these charts to determine basic parameters of a device and to model its behavior in an electrical circuit. These characteristics are also known as IV curves, referring to the standard symbols for current and voltage.

In electronic components with more than two terminals, such as vacuum tubes and transistors, the current-voltage relationship at one pair of terminals may depend on the current or voltage on a third terminal. This is usually displayed on a more complex current–voltage graph with multiple curves, each one representing the current-voltage relationship at a different value of current or voltage on the third terminal.[1]

For example the diagram at right shows a family of IV curves for a MOSFET as a function of drain voltage with overvoltage (VGS − Vth) as a parameter.

The simplest IV curve is that of a resistor, which according to Ohm's Law exhibits a linear relationship between the applied voltage and the resulting electric current; the current is proportional to the voltage, so the IV curve is a straight line through the origin with positive slope. The reciprocal of the slope is equal to the resistance.

The IV curve of an electrical component can be measured with an instrument called a curve tracer. The transconductance and Early voltage of a transistor are examples of parameters traditionally measured from the device's IV curve.

Types of IV curves[edit]

The shape of an electrical component's characteristic curve reveals much about its operating properties. IV curves of different devices can be grouped into categories:

The quadrants of the I–V plane. Power sources have curves passing through the red regions.
In contrast, devices with IV curves which pass through the second or fourth quadrants are active components, power sources, which can produce electric power. Examples are batteries and generators. When it is operating in the second or fourth quadrant, current is forced to flow through the device from the negative to the positive voltage terminal, against the opposing force of the electric field, so the electric charges are gaining potential energy. Thus the device is converting some other form of energy into electric energy.
  • Linear vs nonlinear: A straight line through the origin represents a linear circuit element, while a curved line represents a nonlinear element. For example, resistors, capacitors, and inductors are linear, while diodes and transistors are nonlinear. An IV curve which is a straight line through the origin with positive slope represents a linear or ohmic resistor, the most common type of resistance encountered in circuits. It obeys Ohm's law; the current is proportional to the applied voltage over a wide range. Its resistance, equal to the reciprocal of the slope of the line, is constant. A curved IV line represents a nonlinear resistance, such as a diode. In this type the resistance varies with the applied voltage or current.
  • Negative resistance vs positive resistance: An IV curve which is nonmonotonic (having peaks and valleys) represents a device which has negative resistance. Regions of the curve which have a negative slope (declining to the right) represent operating regions where the device has negative differential resistance, while regions of positive slope represent positive differential resistance. Tunnel diodes and Gunn diodes are examples of components that have negative resistance.
  • Hysteresis vs single-valued: Devices which have hysteresis; that is, in which the current-voltage relation depends not only on the present applied input but also on the past history of inputs, have IV curves consisting of families of closed loops. Each branch of the loop is marked with a direction represented by an arrow. Examples of devices with hysteresis include iron-core inductors and transformers, thyristors such as SCRs and DIACs, and gas-discharge tubes such as neon lights.


In electrophysiology[edit]

An approximation of the potassium and sodium ion components of a so-called "whole cell" I–V curve of a neuron.

While I-V curves are applicable to any electrical system, they find wide use in the field of biological electricity, particularly in the sub-field of electrophysiology. In this case, the voltage refers to the voltage across a biological membrane, a membrane potential, and the current is the flow of charged ions through channels in this membrane. The current is determined by the conductances of these channels.

In the case of ionic current across biological membranes, currents are measured from inside to outside. That is, positive currents, known as "outward current", corresponding to positively charged ions crossing a cell membrane from the inside to the outside, or a negatively charged ion crossing from the outside to the inside. Similarly, currents with a negative value are referred to as "inward current", corresponding to positively charged ions crossing a cell membrane from the outside to the inside, or a negatively charged ion crossing from inside to outside.

The figure to the right shows an V–I curve that is more relevant to the currents in excitable biological membranes (such as a neuronal axon). The blue line shows the V–I relationship for the potassium ion. Note that it is linear, indicating no voltage-dependent gating of the potassium ion channel. The yellow line shows the V–I relationship for the sodium ion. Note that it is not linear, indicating that the sodium ion channel is voltage-dependent. The green line indicates the I–V relationship derived from summing the sodium and potassium currents. This approximates the actual membrane potential and current relationship of a cell containing both types of channel.

References[edit]

  1. ^ H. J. van der Bijl (1919). "Theory and Operating Characteristics of the Themionic Amplifier". Proceedings of the IRE. Institute of Radio Engineers. 7 (2): 97–126. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1919.217425. 

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