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Aluminium Cutter 72
Aluminium Cutter 72' Lifting Keel - Boatshed - Boat Ref#221435
Published: 2016/05/27
Channel: boatshedboats
My Classic Boat  Maurice Griffiths 26ft Gaff cutter
My Classic Boat Maurice Griffiths 26ft Gaff cutter
Published: 2016/02/28
Channel: My Classic Boat
My Classic Boat. Betty II 25ft Gaff cutter. 1921
My Classic Boat. Betty II 25ft Gaff cutter. 1921
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: My Classic Boat
Cape George Cutter  (Presented by Living Aboard Boats.com)
Cape George Cutter (Presented by Living Aboard Boats.com)
Published: 2013/08/08
Channel: Curtis Westsail
My Classic Boat  Peggy Bawn, G L  Watson 36ft Cutter 1894
My Classic Boat Peggy Bawn, G L Watson 36ft Cutter 1894
Published: 2016/08/01
Channel: My Classic Boat
Boat #1: 1982 Pearson 36 Cutter
Boat #1: 1982 Pearson 36 Cutter
Published: 2016/02/08
Channel: HaveWindWillTravel.com
4: LiveAboard Boat Tour Bristol Channel Cutter
4: LiveAboard Boat Tour Bristol Channel Cutter
Published: 2013/01/14
Channel: Teresa and Ben Carey
Classic yacht: new 43ft 1880s style gentleman
Classic yacht: new 43ft 1880s style gentleman's cutter Integrity
Published: 2013/01/18
Channel: Yachting World
Bristol Channel Pilot Cutter 32 ft  Sail Boat . Andrei Rochian
Bristol Channel Pilot Cutter 32 ft Sail Boat . Andrei Rochian
Published: 2016/12/05
Channel: Andrei Rochian
Cutter Boat Video
Cutter Boat Video
Published: 2012/09/09
Channel: Hector Garcia
Imperial Cutter Party-Boat Shenanigans
Imperial Cutter Party-Boat Shenanigans
Published: 2016/08/13
Channel: Rinzler o7o7o7
Rope cutter test
Rope cutter test
Published: 2008/12/17
Channel: motorboatsmonthly
Bristol Channel Cutter 28 2002 Offered by Bob Reed
Bristol Channel Cutter 28 2002 Offered by Bob Reed's St Clair Sailboat Center
Published: 2014/03/25
Channel: SaintClairSailBoat
Battery Powered Lake Pond Sea Weed Cutter Mower Mounts to Boat
Battery Powered Lake Pond Sea Weed Cutter Mower Mounts to Boat
Published: 2017/02/01
Channel: lakeweeds
2002 George Buehler Double Ended Cutter Sail Boat
2002 George Buehler Double Ended Cutter Sail Boat
Published: 2013/06/19
Channel: GoTradeco
Cutter Boat
Cutter Boat
Published: 2017/06/24
Channel: sd togo
Cutter Boat video
Cutter Boat video
Published: 2016/12/13
Channel: Nest
Grass Cutter Boat
Grass Cutter Boat
Published: 2015/08/09
Channel: 3N
BERKY Weed cutter boat type 6410, BERKY mowing boat type 6410, BERKY Mähboot Typ 6410
BERKY Weed cutter boat type 6410, BERKY mowing boat type 6410, BERKY Mähboot Typ 6410
Published: 2013/01/30
Channel: BERKYmedia
'MARY WINIFRED' A Gaff cutter yacht sailing around
Published: 2015/10/22
Channel: Richard Gregson
1. Testfahrt --- Brush Cutter on a Boat ---
1. Testfahrt --- Brush Cutter on a Boat ---
Published: 2013/03/09
Channel: Clubman Shaeky
第58回全日本カッター競技大会ダイジェスト All Japan cutter boat competition 2014 Digest
第58回全日本カッター競技大会ダイジェスト All Japan cutter boat competition 2014 Digest
Published: 2014/05/31
Channel: muuline
Sailing Classic Gaff Rigged Cutter Emma & Kate Back into Blyth
Sailing Classic Gaff Rigged Cutter Emma & Kate Back into Blyth
Published: 2012/08/22
Channel: Boristheram
Wooden  Gaff Rigged Cutter 36  - Boatshed - Boat Ref#214626
Wooden Gaff Rigged Cutter 36 - Boatshed - Boat Ref#214626
Published: 2016/09/18
Channel: boatshedboats
Review build | Shrimp Cutter boat | Artitec Models
Review build | Shrimp Cutter boat | Artitec Models
Published: 2017/01/19
Channel: Just another Scale Modeler
Union 36 Cutter - Boatshed - Boat Ref#214406
Union 36 Cutter - Boatshed - Boat Ref#214406
Published: 2015/12/30
Channel: boatshedboats
Cornubia – Pilot Cutter
Cornubia – Pilot Cutter
Published: 2016/10/27
Channel: Classic Yacht TV
Falmouth Pilot Cutter - classic sailing boat
Falmouth Pilot Cutter - classic sailing boat
Published: 2009/07/29
Channel: Theophilus Thistler
Hans Christian 33 Cutter rigged Sailboat Walk Through
Hans Christian 33 Cutter rigged Sailboat Walk Through
Published: 2015/04/17
Channel: Dorgan Yachts,Inc
US Delivers Cutter, Patrol Boats to Vietnam Coast Guard
US Delivers Cutter, Patrol Boats to Vietnam Coast Guard
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: United News International
Cutter boat operations. Notching into an FRC.
Cutter boat operations. Notching into an FRC.
Published: 2016/11/11
Channel: Travis Ruterbusch
Cutter Boat recovery
Cutter Boat recovery
Published: 2013/01/09
Channel: Edward Eastlack
Aquatic Mower - Boat Mounted Lake Weed Cutter Seaweed Cutting Machine
Aquatic Mower - Boat Mounted Lake Weed Cutter Seaweed Cutting Machine
Published: 2017/01/04
Channel: lakeweeds
My Classic Boat   Ivy Green, 35ft gaff Cutter
My Classic Boat Ivy Green, 35ft gaff Cutter
Published: 2016/07/21
Channel: My Classic Boat
Kelp Cutter Boat
Kelp Cutter Boat
Published: 2011/05/09
Channel: ryanerb
Wooden  Gaff Rigged Cutter 36  - Boatshed - Boat Ref#214626
Wooden Gaff Rigged Cutter 36 - Boatshed - Boat Ref#214626
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: boatshedboats
BERKY Mähboot Typ 6310, BERKY Weed cutter boat type 6310
BERKY Mähboot Typ 6310, BERKY Weed cutter boat type 6310
Published: 2015/06/12
Channel: BERKYmedia
Tour of the Bristol Channel Cutter Odyssey
Tour of the Bristol Channel Cutter Odyssey
Published: 2016/04/04
Channel: iliohale Productions
Weed Cutter Boat
Weed Cutter Boat
Published: 2016/07/07
Channel: Harry Pirouet
6410 BERKY Mähboot Typ 6410 im Mäheinsatz, BERKY Weed Cutter Boat type 6410 at cutting work
6410 BERKY Mähboot Typ 6410 im Mäheinsatz, BERKY Weed Cutter Boat type 6410 at cutting work
Published: 2014/12/30
Channel: BERKYmedia
【浜寺ボート(HAMADERA BOAT)】cutter boat(6m)made in japan
【浜寺ボート(HAMADERA BOAT)】cutter boat(6m)made in japan
Published: 2013/08/23
Channel: officehamaderaboat
Union 36 Cutter - Boatshed.com - Boat Ref#146010
Union 36 Cutter - Boatshed.com - Boat Ref#146010
Published: 2012/12/12
Channel: boatshedboats
Charlie
Charlie's Wave Cutter remote control boat
Published: 2014/11/03
Channel: CHEG Channel
How to build a 39 ft Offshore sailing cutter at home
How to build a 39 ft Offshore sailing cutter at home
Published: 2012/01/22
Channel: seatosummit100
2005 William Atkin 36
2005 William Atkin 36' Gaff Cutter - GBP 39,999
Published: 2017/02/12
Channel: Apollo Duck
LITTLE TERN (37
LITTLE TERN (37' gaff cutter)
Published: 2015/06/29
Channel: Richard Gregson
Wooden  Gaff Rigged Cutter 36  - Boatshed - Boat Ref#214626
Wooden Gaff Rigged Cutter 36 - Boatshed - Boat Ref#214626
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: boatshedboats
2005 Grew Cutter XL 173 i/o
2005 Grew Cutter XL 173 i/o
Published: 2016/05/05
Channel: Charles McGeoghan
Boat Mounted Gas Powered Water Weed Wacker - cattail cutter
Boat Mounted Gas Powered Water Weed Wacker - cattail cutter
Published: 2012/10/04
Channel: lakeweeds
1957 Cutter boat ready to be painted  April 5, 2012 2:54 PM
1957 Cutter boat ready to be painted April 5, 2012 2:54 PM
Published: 2012/04/05
Channel: madhattermon1
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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A gaff cutter, Kleine Freiheit, with a genoa jib set

A cutter is typically a small, but in some cases a medium-sized, watercraft designed for speed rather than for capacity.[1][2] Traditionally a cutter sailing vessel is a small single-masted boat, fore-and-aft rigged, with two or more headsails and often a bowsprit. The cutter's mast may be set farther back than on a sloop.[3]

In modern usage, a cutter can be either a small- or medium-sized vessel whose occupants exercise official authority. Examples are harbor pilots' cutters and cutters of the U.S. Coast Guard[4] or UK Border Force.

Cutters can also be a small boat serving a larger one to ferry passengers or light stores between larger boats and the shore. This type of cutter may be powered by oars, sails or a motor.[clarification needed]

Sailing[edit]

French cutter

The cutter is one of several types of sailboats. Traditionally the sloop rig was a rig with a single mast located forward of 70% of the length of the sailplan. In this traditional definition a sloop could have multiple jibs on a fixed bowsprit.[citation needed]

Cutters had a rig with a single mast more centrally located, which could vary from 50% to 70% of the length of the sailplan, with multiple headsails and a running bowsprit.[citation needed] A mast located aft of 50% would be considered a mast aft rig.

Somewhere in the 1950s or 1960s there was a shift in these definitions such that a sloop only flew one headsail and a cutter had multiple headsails and mast position became irrelevant. In this modern idiom, a cutter is a sailing vessel with more than one head sail and one mast. Cutters carry a staysail directly in front of the mast, set from the forestay. A traditional vessel would also normally have a bowsprit to carry one or more jibs from its end via jibstay(s) on travelers (to preserve the ability to reef the bowsprit). In modern vessels the jib may be set from a permanent stay fixed to the end of a fixed (non-reeving) bowsprit, or directly to the stem fitting of the bow itself. In these cases, that may be referred to as the forestay, and the inner one, which will be less permanent in terms of keeping the mast up, may be called the stays'l stay. A sloop carries only one head sail, called either the foresail or jib.[citation needed].

The cutter rig, especially a gaff rig version where the sails aft the mast were divided between a mainsail below the gaff and a topsail above, was useful for sailing with small crews as the total sail area was divided into smaller individual sails. These could be managed without the need for large crews, winches, or complex tackles, making the cutter especially suitable for pilot, customs and coast guard duties. For example, a pilot cutter may only have two people on board for its outward trip—the pilot to be delivered to a ship and an assistant who had to sail the cutter back to port single-handed. The cutter sailing rig became so ubiquitous for these tasks that the modern-day motorised vessels now engaged in these duties are known as 'cutters'.

Rowing[edit]

Cutter race at Sunbury Amateur Regatta

The open cutter carried aboard naval vessels in the 18th Century was rowed by pairs of men sitting side-by-side on benches. The cutter, with its transom, was broader in proportion compared to the longboat, which had finer lines.[5]

The Watermen of London used similar boats in the 18th Century often decorated as depicted in historical prints and pictures of the River Thames in the 17th & 18th Centuries. The modern Waterman’s Cutter is based on drawings of these boats. They are 34 feet (10 m) long with a beam of 4 ft 6 in (1.37 m) They can have up to six oarsmen either rowing or sculling and can carry a cox and passengers. The organisers of the Great River Race developed the modern version in the 1980s and now many of the fleet of 24 compete annually in this "Marathon of the River". Watermen’s Cutters also compete annually in the Port of London Challenge, and the Port Admirals’ Challenge. Cutter races are also to be found at various town rowing and skiffing regattas. In addition the cutters perform the role of ceremonial Livery Barges with the canopies and armorial flags flying on special occasions.[6]

Cutters have been used for record-breaking attempts and crews have achieved record times for sculling the English Channel (2 h 42 min) in 1996 and for sculling non-stop from London to Paris (4 d 15 min) in 1999.[7]

Pulling[edit]

A pulling cutter was a boat carried by sailing ships for work in fairly sheltered water in which load-carrying capacity was needed, for example in laying a kedge. This operation was the placing of a relatively light anchor at a distance from the ship so as to be able to haul her off in its direction. The oars were double-banked. That is, there were two oarsmen on each thwart. In a seaway, the longboat was preferred to the cutter as the finer lines of the stern of the former meant that it was less likely to broach to in a following sea. In the Royal Navy the cutters were replaced by 25 and 32-foot (9.8 m) motor cutters. However, the cutters' traditional work had grown beyond the capacity of a boat as ships became larger. Though primarily a pulling boat, this cutter could also be rigged for sailing.

Naval cutter[edit]

1/50-scale model of the 14-carronade cutters that were in service in the French Navy during the 1830s.

Cutters were widely used by several navies in the 17th and 18th centuries and were usually the smallest commissioned ships in the fleet. As with cutters in general they were distinguished by their large fore-aft sail plans with multiple headsails, usually carried on a very long bowsprit, which was sometimes as long as half the length of the boat's hull. The rig gave the cutter excellent maneuverability and they were much better at sailing to windward than a larger square rigged ship. Larger naval cutters often had the ability to hoist two or three square-rigged sails from their mast to improve their downwind sailing performance as well. Navies used cutters for coastal patrol, customs duties, escort, carrying personnel and dispatches, and for small 'cutting out' raids. As befitted their size and intended role naval cutters, such as those of the Royal Navy), were lightly armed, often with between six and ten small cannon (or carronades).[5]

In the rating system of the Royal Navy 'cutter' was the lowest classification, coming below the sloop-of-war as an 'unrated' vessel. Whilst the classification included true sailing cutters the rating was given to any ship of suitable size and/or importance. Under the system a 'cutter' was commanded by a lieutenant who would be the only commissioned officer on board. HMS Bounty was classed as a cutter under the command of Lieutenant William Bligh despite being a true ship with three square-rigged masts.

Pilot cutter[edit]

Wooden pilot cutter Lizzie May under sail in Brest, France

The pilot cutter developed from the need for a fast boat to take maritime pilots from harbour to incoming large trading vessels.

As most early pilots were local fisherman who undertook both jobs, although licensed by the harbour to operate within their jurisdiction, pilots were generally self-employed, and the quickest transport meant greater income. As their fishing boats were heavy working boats, and filled with fishing equipment, they needed a new type of boat; early boats were developed from single masted fishing cutter designs and twin masted yawls, and latterly into the specialist pilot cutter.

The natural dangers of the Bristol Channel brought about over many years the development of the specialist Bristol Channel Pilot Cutter. According to records from Pill, Somerset now housed in the Bristol Museum, the first official Bristol Channel pilot was barge master George James Ray, appointed by the Corporation of Bristol in May 1497 to pilot John Cabot's Matthew from Bristol harbour to the open sea beyond. In 1837 Pilot George Ray guided Brunel's SS Great Western, and in 1844 William Ray piloted the larger SS Great Britain on her maiden voyage.[8]

Customs services[edit]

The term cutter is also used for any seaworthy vessel used in the law enforcement duties of Great Britain's Border Force, the United States Coast Guard (because of its descent from the Revenue Cutter Service) or the customs services of other countries.

In America, the early Revenue Cutter Service operated customs cutters that were commonly schooners or brigs. In Britain, they were usually rigged as defined under Sailing (above). The British Board of Customs also used other vessels as hulks, which were moored in places such as tidal creeks. Customs officers worked from the hulks in smaller boats.

In the UK, the Border Force (successor to the UK Border Agency and HM Customs and Excise) currently operates a fleet of 42 m corvette-type vessels throughout UK territorial waters as border cutters, inspecting vessels for illicit cargoes.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bennett, Jenny (2005). Sailing Rigs: An Illustrated Guide. Naval Institute Press. p. 55. ISBN 1591148138. 
  2. ^ "Cutter". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  3. ^ Kemp, Peter, ed. (1976). The Oxford Companion to Ships & the Sea. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 221–222. a small, decked ship with one mast and bowsprit, with a gaff mainsail on a boom, a square yard and topsail, and two jibs or a jib and a staysail. 
  4. ^ "U.S. Coast Guard History: Frequently Asked Questions: What is a Cutter?". U.S. Coast Guard. 2008-12-09. Retrieved 2009-04-10. 
  5. ^ a b Keegan, John (1989). The Price of Admiralty. New York: Viking. p. 277. ISBN 0-670-81416-4. 
  6. ^ Thames Traditional Rowing Association
  7. ^ Guinness World Records
  8. ^ "History of Pilot Cutters". Annabel J. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 

External links[edit]

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