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'We already are in a cyber war' with Russia
Published: 2017/03/31
Channel: Tech Insider
Russia
Russia's Growing Cyber Warfare Threat
Published: 2017/01/05
Channel: Channel One News
Cyber WARFARE Russia China Cyber Threats to USA End of the world as we know it
Cyber WARFARE Russia China Cyber Threats to USA End of the world as we know it
Published: 2015/10/01
Channel: Utoo B Heavenbound
Russian Cyber Capabilities
Russian Cyber Capabilities
Published: 2014/05/12
Channel: PotomacInst
Bogachev and Russia
Bogachev and Russia's Cyber Black Market: CYBERWAR (Clip)
Published: 2016/12/06
Channel: VICELAND
Did Russia Hack Ukraine
Did Russia Hack Ukraine's Electrical Grid?: CYBERWAR (Clip)
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: VICELAND
Cyber warfare between US and Russia? - BBC Scotland GMS - 20/10/2017 -
Cyber warfare between US and Russia? - BBC Scotland GMS - 20/10/2017 -
Published: 2017/10/20
Channel: Bill Buchanan
Anonymous - The Truth About Cyber Warfare
Anonymous - The Truth About Cyber Warfare
Published: 2017/06/01
Channel: Anonymous#1867
CYBER WAR LIVE - Watch Cyber Warfare Live In Real Time
CYBER WAR LIVE - Watch Cyber Warfare Live In Real Time
Published: 2014/09/05
Channel: Elite NWO Agenda
DDoS ATTACKS EXPLAINED! The worrying rise of cyber warfare and Trump
DDoS ATTACKS EXPLAINED! The worrying rise of cyber warfare and Trump
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: BostWiki
How Did Russia Get Good at Cyber Warfare? Expert Blames Edward Snowden
How Did Russia Get Good at Cyber Warfare? Expert Blames Edward Snowden
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: Fox5NY
Breaking: CIA Prepares For Cyberwar With Russia
Breaking: CIA Prepares For Cyberwar With Russia
Published: 2016/10/15
Channel: The Alex Jones Channel
Cyberwars - Invisible Warfare (Documentary of 2011)
Cyberwars - Invisible Warfare (Documentary of 2011)
Published: 2014/08/22
Channel: wocomoDOCS
Zero Days
Zero Days
Published: 2016/07/08
Channel: MagnoliaPicturesVOD
America And Russia
America And Russia's Cyber Warfare | CNBC
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: CNBC
Cyber Warfare - Russia-Gerogia conflict
Cyber Warfare - Russia-Gerogia conflict
Published: 2011/07/06
Channel: IQPCMarketing
‘No wonder US blaming Russians for cyber attacks’ – security expert
‘No wonder US blaming Russians for cyber attacks’ – security expert
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: RT
Rubio discusses Russia’s cyber warfare threats in Europe
Rubio discusses Russia’s cyber warfare threats in Europe
Published: 2017/05/17
Channel: SenatorMarcoRubio
Russia has pushed for a cyber warfare treaty with US since 1996
Russia has pushed for a cyber warfare treaty with US since 1996
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: RT America
Russia
Russia's covert cyber-warfare will end in human death warns latvia's foreign minister
Published: 2017/09/07
Channel: Hot News
Hacking a Car with an Ex-NSA Hacker: CYBERWAR (Clip)
Hacking a Car with an Ex-NSA Hacker: CYBERWAR (Clip)
Published: 2016/07/08
Channel: Motherboard
Crime & Government: Russia
Crime & Government: Russia's Hackers - CYBERWAR (Trailer)
Published: 2016/11/30
Channel: VICELAND
Exploring Russia’s Cyber Operations
Exploring Russia’s Cyber Operations
Published: 2016/11/13
Channel: Information 15
Russia
Russia's covert cyber-warfare will end in human death warns latvia's foreign minister
Published: 2017/10/02
Channel: Robert C. Anderson
Russia Continues Info-War Tactics In US | Rachel Maddow | MSNBC
Russia Continues Info-War Tactics In US | Rachel Maddow | MSNBC
Published: 2017/03/22
Channel: MSNBC
GLOBAL CYBER WARFARE - Cyber Attacks on U.S. Government At All Time High
GLOBAL CYBER WARFARE - Cyber Attacks on U.S. Government At All Time High
Published: 2014/11/10
Channel: Elite NWO Agenda
CYBER WARFARE: RUSSIA/CHINA CYBER TECH SURPASSES U.S, US/EU MEET ON CYBER SECURITY
CYBER WARFARE: RUSSIA/CHINA CYBER TECH SURPASSES U.S, US/EU MEET ON CYBER SECURITY
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: JoeyBellmore
America and Russia
America and Russia's cyber warfare | CNBC International
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: CNBC International
Is Russia stealing US cyber secrets ?
Is Russia stealing US cyber secrets ?
Published: 2017/10/07
Channel: World Of Weapon
The Mad Scientists at DARPA Plan to Crush Russia and China - MOST ADVANCED WEAPONS FUTURE US ARMY
The Mad Scientists at DARPA Plan to Crush Russia and China - MOST ADVANCED WEAPONS FUTURE US ARMY
Published: 2016/08/15
Channel: Military Update
Cyber Warfare Between the U.S. and Russia and the False Left/Right Paradigm
Cyber Warfare Between the U.S. and Russia and the False Left/Right Paradigm
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: MARK13RECORDS
Russia Waging Cyber Warfare? US officials trace
Russia Waging Cyber Warfare? US officials trace 'sophisticated cyber-attack' to Russia
Published: 2015/08/07
Channel: UKRAINE TODAY
Cyber warfare and mass media in Russia
Cyber warfare and mass media in Russia
Published: 2014/04/30
Channel: Jenya Savtchenko
Now It
Now It's Official: U.S. Points Finger At Russia For Political Cyberwarfare
Published: 2016/10/07
Channel: Wochit Politics
(WW3) CYBERWAR ON RUSSIA VIOLATES NATO ARTICLES OF WAR
(WW3) CYBERWAR ON RUSSIA VIOLATES NATO ARTICLES OF WAR
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: MenOfValor12
(WW3) US DECLARES CYBERWAR ON RUSSIA
(WW3) US DECLARES CYBERWAR ON RUSSIA
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: MenOfValor12
Obama Plans To Exact Revenge On Russia, First Cyber War, Then War
Obama Plans To Exact Revenge On Russia, First Cyber War, Then War
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: X22 Report News Flash
The Third Woe Cometh Quickly: US Started Cyberwar With Russia
The Third Woe Cometh Quickly: US Started Cyberwar With Russia
Published: 2016/11/05
Channel: GMSVegasSitdowns
CrossTalk: From Anna Chapman to Cyber Warfare
CrossTalk: From Anna Chapman to Cyber Warfare
Published: 2010/07/14
Channel: RT
US and Russia preparing for cyber warfare
US and Russia preparing for cyber warfare
Published: 2016/12/16
Channel: Leon Mosley
OBAMA Threatens CYBERWAR with RUSSIA, Hints Putin tol Hack US Elections for TRUMP.
OBAMA Threatens CYBERWAR with RUSSIA, Hints Putin tol Hack US Elections for TRUMP.
Published: 2016/09/09
Channel: MLordandGod
[10/28/16] - 128. Cybersecurity, Cyberwarfare, the US, and Russia with Jeffrey Carr
[10/28/16] - 128. Cybersecurity, Cyberwarfare, the US, and Russia with Jeffrey Carr
Published: 2016/11/07
Channel: Wake Up Call Podcast
ABCs Dowd Frets Over Cyberwar With Russia That Hacked Election
ABCs Dowd Frets Over Cyberwar With Russia That Hacked Election
Published: 2017/01/08
Channel: The Echo Chamber
After Action Report: Cyber Peace With Russia?
After Action Report: Cyber Peace With Russia?
Published: 2017/07/11
Channel: The Weichert Report
RUSSIA AND CHINA ! AND CYBER WAR!
RUSSIA AND CHINA ! AND CYBER WAR!
Published: 2013/05/26
Channel: joetalk100
Us launches cyber war on"Iran, Russia, and China"
Us launches cyber war on"Iran, Russia, and China"
Published: 2013/02/21
Channel: seekingthekingdom101
Cyber Warfare Between the U S  and Russia and the False Left Right Paradigm
Cyber Warfare Between the U S and Russia and the False Left Right Paradigm
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: Bible Study Central
US/Russia Cyber War???
US/Russia Cyber War???
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Dan Adams
Russia launched ‘cyberwar & propaganda campaign’ against UK   media
Russia launched ‘cyberwar & propaganda campaign’ against UK media
Published: 2016/12/17
Channel: terahsia MALA Ur
US Declares Cyberwar on Russia | Ep 138 | OnTheMoveShow
US Declares Cyberwar on Russia | Ep 138 | OnTheMoveShow
Published: 2016/10/17
Channel: OnTheMoveShow
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Cyberwarfare by Russia includes denial of service attacks, hacker attacks, dissemination of disinformation and propaganda, participation of state-sponsored teams in political blogs, internet surveillance using SORM technology, persecution of cyber-dissidents and other active measures. According to investigative journalist Andrei Soldatov,[1] some of these activities have been coordinated by the Russian signals intelligence, which is part of the FSB and was formerly a part of the 16th KGB department, An analysis by the Defense Intelligence Agency in 2017 outlines Russia's view of "Information Confrontation" or IPb (informatsionnoye protivoborstvo) as "strategically decisive and critically important to control its domestic populace and influence adversary states", delineating the term 'Information Confrontation' into two categories of "Informational-Technical" and "Informational-Psychological" Effects. The former encompasses network operations relating to defense, attack, and exploitation with the latter relating to "attempts to change people's behavior or beliefs in favor of Russian governmental objectives."[2]

Online presence[edit]

US journalist Pete Earley described his interviews with former senior Russian intelligence officer Sergei Tretyakov, who defected in the United States in 2000:

Sergei would send an officer to a branch of New York Public Library where he could get access to the Internet without anyone knowing his identity. The officer would post the propaganda on various websites and send it in emails to US publications and broadcasters. Some propaganda would be disguised as educational or scientific reports. ... The studies had been generated at the Center by Russian experts. The reports would be 100% accurate [3]

Tretyakov did not specify the targeted web sites, but made clear they selected the sites which are most convenient for distributing the specific disinformation. During his work in New York City in the end of the 1990s, one of the most frequent disinformation subjects was War in Chechnya.[citation needed]

According to a publication in Russian computer weekly Computerra, "just because it became known that anonymous editors are editing articles in English Wikipedia in the interests of UK and US intelligence and security services, it is also likely that Russian security services are involved in editing Russian Wikipedia, but this is not even interesting to prove it — because everyone knows that security bodies have a special place in structure of our [Russian] state"[4]

Cyberattacks[edit]

It has been claimed that Russian security services organized a number of denial of service attacks as a part of their cyber-warfare against other countries,[5] most notably the 2007 cyberattacks on Estonia and the 2008 cyberattacks on Russia, South Ossetia, Georgia, and Azerbaijan.[6] One identified young Russian hacker said that he was paid by Russian state security services to lead hacking attacks on NATO computers. He was studying computer sciences at the Department of the Defense of Information. His tuition was paid for by the FSB.[7]

Georgia[edit]

Concerning the 2008 cyberattacks on Georgia, an independent US-based research institute US Cyber Consequences Unit report stated the attacks had "little or no direct involvement from the Russian government or military". According to the institute's conclusions, some several attacks originated from the PCs of multiple users located in Russia, Ukraine and Latvia. These users were willingly participating in cyberwarfare, being supporters of Russia during the 2008 South Ossetia war, while some other attacks also used botnets.[8][9]

Germany[edit]

In 2015 a high-ranking security official stated that it was "highly plausible" that a cybertheft of files from the German Parliamentary Committee investigating the NSA spying scandal later published by WikiLeaks was conducted by Russian hackers.[10][11] In late 2016 Bruno Kahl, president of the Bundesnachrichtendienst warned of data breaches and misinformation-campaigns steered by Russia.[12] According to him there are insights that cyberattacks occur with no other purpose than political uncertainty.[13][14] Süddeutsche Zeitung reported in February 2017 that a year-long probe by German intelligence "found no concrete proof of [Russian] disinformation campaigns targeting the government."[15] Hans-Georg Maaßen, head of the country's Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, notes "growing evidence of attempts to influence the [next] federal election" in September 2017 and "increasingly aggressive cyber espionage" against political entities in Germany.[16] The New York Times reported on September 21, 2017, three days before the German federal election, that there was little to suggest any Russian interference in the election.[17]

Russia (domestic)[edit]

According to Soldatov Agentura was apparently directed by the secret services in the middle of the Moscow theater hostage crisis.[1]

Ukraine[edit]

In March 2014, a Russian cyber weapon called Snake or "Ouroboros" is reported to have created havoc on Ukrainian government systems.[18] The Snake tool kit began spreading into Ukrainian computer systems in 2010. It performed Computer Network Exploitation (CNE), as well as highly sophisticated Computer Network Attacks (CNA).[19]

According to CrowdStrike from 2014 to 2016, the Russian APT Fancy Bear used Android malware to target the Ukrainian Army's Rocket Forces and Artillery. They distributed an infected version of an Android app whose original purpose was to control targeting data for the D-30 Howitzer artillery. The app, used by Ukrainian officers, was loaded with the X-Agent spyware and posted online on military forums. CrowdStrike claims the attack was successful, with more than 80% of Ukrainian D-30 Howitzers destroyed, the highest percentage loss of any artillery pieces in the army (a percentage that had never been previously reported and would mean the loss of nearly the entire arsenal of the biggest artillery piece of the Ukrainian Armed Forces[20]).[21] According to the Ukrainian army this number is incorrect and that losses in artillery weapons "were way below those reported" and that that these losses "have nothing to do with the stated cause".[22]

The U.S. government concluded after a study that a cyber attack caused a power outage in Ukraine which left more than 200,000 people temporarily without power. The Russian hacking group Sandworm or the Russian government were possibly behind the malware attack on the Ukrainian power grid as well as a mining company and a large railway operator in December 2015.[23][24][25][26][27][28]

2014 Ukrainian presidential election[edit]

Pro-Russian hackers launched a series of cyberattacks over several days to disrupt the May 2014 Ukrainian presidential election, releasing hacked emails, attempting to alter vote tallies, and delaying the final result with distributed denial-of-service (DDOS) attacks.[29][30] Malware that would have displayed a graphic declaring far-right candidate Dmytro Yarosh the electoral winner was removed from Ukraine's Central Election Commission less than an hour before polls closed. Despite this, Channel One Russia "reported that Mr. Yarosh had won and broadcast the fake graphic, citing the election commission's website, even though it had never appeared there."[29][31] According to Peter Ordeshook: "These faked results were geared for a specific audience in order to feed the Russian narrative that has claimed from the start that ultra-nationalists and Nazis were behind the revolution in Ukraine."[29]

United Kingdom "Brexit" referendum[edit]

In the run up to the referendum on the United Kingdom exiting the European Union ("Brexit"), Prime Minister David Cameron suggested that Russia "might be happy" with a positive Brexit vote, while the Remain campaign accused the Kremlin of secretly backing a positive Brexit vote.[32] In December 2016, Ben Bradshaw MP claimed in Parliament that Russia had interfered in the Brexit referendum campaign.[33] In February 2017, Bradshaw called on the British intelligence service, Government Communication Headquarters, currently under Boris Johnson as Foreign Secretary, to reveal the information it had on Russian interference.[34] In April 2017, the House of Commons Public Administration and Constitutional Affairs Select Committee issued a report stating, in regard to the June 2016 collapse of the government's voter registration website less than two hours prior to the originally scheduled registration deadline (which was then extended), that "the crash had indications of being a DDOS 'attack.'" The report also stated that there was "no direct evidence" supporting "these allegations about foreign interference." A Cabinet Office spokeswoman responded to the report: "We have been very clear about the cause of the website outage in June 2016. It was due to a spike in users just before the registration deadline. There is no evidence to suggest malign intervention."[35][36]

In June 2017 it was reported by The Guardian that "Leave" campaigner Nigel Farage was a "person of interest" in the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation into Russian interference in the United States 2016 Presidential election.[37]

United States[edit]

In April 2015, CNN reported that "Russian hackers" had "penetrated sensitive parts of the White House" computers in "recent months." It was said that the FBI, the Secret Service, and other U.S. intelligence agencies categorized the attacks "among the most sophisticated attacks ever launched against U.S. government systems."[38]

In 2015, CNN reported that Russian hackers, likely working for the Russian government, are suspected in the State Department hack. Federal law enforcement, intelligence and congressional officials briefed on the investigation say the hack of the State email system is the "worst ever" cyberattack intrusion against a federal agency.[39]

In February 2016, senior Kremlin advisor and top Russian cyber official Andrey Krutskikh told the Russian national security conference in Moscow that Russia was working on new strategies for the “information arena” that was equivalent to testing a nuclear bomb and would “allow us to talk to the Americans as equals.”[40]

In 2016, the release of hacked emails belonging to the Democratic National Committee, John Podesta, and Colin Powell, among others, through DCLeaks and WikiLeaks was said by private sector analysts[41] and US intelligence services[42] to have been of Russian origin.[43][44] Also, in December 2016, Republican and Democratic Senators on the United States Armed Services Committee called for "a special select committee to investigate Russian attempts to influence the presidential election."[45][46]

Victim of cyberattack[edit]

Trans-Siberian Pipeline explosion[edit]

When Russia was still the Soviet Union in 1982, a portion of its Trans-Siberian Pipeline within its territory exploded, allegedly due to computer malware implanted in the pirated Canadian software by the Central Intelligence Agency. The malware caused the SCADA system running the pipeline to malfunction. The "Farewell Dossier" provided information on this attack, and wrote that compromised computer chips would become a part of Soviet military equipment, flawed turbines would be placed in the gas pipeline, and defective plans would disrupt the output of chemical plants and a tractor factory. This caused the "most monumental nonnuclear explosion and fire ever seen from space". However, the Soviet Union did not blame the attack on the United States.[47]

In popular culture[edit]

Alleged FSB activities on the internet have been described in the short story "Anastasya" by Russian writer Grigory Svirsky, who was interested in the moral aspects of their work.[48] He wrote:

"It seems that offending, betraying, or even "murdering" people in the virtual space is easy. This is like killing an enemy in a video game: one does not see a disfigured body or the eyes of the person who is dying right in front of you. However, the human soul lives by its own basic laws that force it to pay the price for the virtual crime in his real life".[49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b State control over the internet, a talk show by Yevgenia Albats at the Echo of Moscow, January 22, 2006; interview with Andrei Soldatov and others
  2. ^ "Military Power Publications". www.dia.mil. Retrieved 2017-09-25. 
  3. ^ Pete Earley, "Comrade J: The Untold Secrets of Russia's Master Spy in America After the End of the Cold War", Penguin Books, 2007, ISBN 978-0-399-15439-3, pages 194-195
  4. ^ Is there only one truth? by Kivy Bird, Computerra, 26 November 2008
  5. ^ Cyberspace and the changing nature of warfare Archived 2008-12-03 at the Wayback Machine.. Strategists must be aware that part of every political and military conflict will take place on the internet, says Kenneth Geers.
  6. ^ "www.axisglobe.com". Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  7. ^ Andrew Meier, Black Earth. W. W. Norton & Company, 2003, ISBN 0-393-05178-1, pages 15-16.
  8. ^ Siobhan Gorman (18 August 2009). "Hackers Stole IDs for Attacks". WSJ. 
  9. ^ "Georgian cyber attacks launched by Russian crime gangs". 
  10. ^ "Russia behind hack on German parliament, paper reports". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  11. ^ Wehner, Markus; Lohse, Eckart (11 December 2016). "Wikileaks: Sicherheitskreise: Russland hackte geheime Bundestagsakten". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  12. ^ "Vor Bundestagswahl: BND warnt vor russischen Hackerangriffen". SPIEGEL ONLINE. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  13. ^ "Was bedeuten die neuen Cyberangriffe für die Bundestagswahl?" (in German). 1 November 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  14. ^ "BND-Präsident warnt vor Cyberangriffen aus Russland". Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  15. ^ King, Esther (2017-02-07). "German intelligence finds no evidence of Russian meddling". Politico. Retrieved 2017-10-21. 
  16. ^ "BfV: Russia is trying to destabilise Germany". AlJazeera. Retrieved 30 January 2017. 
  17. ^ Schwirtz, Michael (2017-09-21). "German Election Mystery: Why No Russian Meddling?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2017-10-21. 
  18. ^ The Christian Science Monitor (12 March 2014). "Russia’s cyber weapons hit Ukraine: How to declare war without declaring war". The Christian Science Monitor. 
  19. ^ Mazanec, Brain M. (2015). The Evolution of Cyber War. USA: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 221–222. ISBN 9781612347639. 
  20. ^ Ukraine's military denies Russian hack attack , Yahoo! News (6 January 2017)
  21. ^ "Danger Close: Fancy Bear Tracking of Ukrainian Field Artillery Units". CrowdStrike. 22 December 2016. 
  22. ^ Defense ministry denies reports of alleged artillery losses because of Russian hackers' break into software, Interfax-Ukraine (6 January 2017)
  23. ^ "Malware Found Inside Downed Ukrainian Grid Management Points to Cyberattack". Motherboard. 
  24. ^ "SANS Industrial Control Systems Security Blog - Potential Sample of Malware from the Ukrainian Cyber Attack Uncovered - SANS Institute". Retrieved 1 August 2016. 
  25. ^ "First known hacker-caused power outage signals troubling escalation". Ars Technica. 
  26. ^ "Ukraine power grid attacks continue but BlackEnergy malware ruled out". 
  27. ^ "U.S. government concludes cyber attack caused Ukraine power outage". 25 February 2016. Retrieved 1 August 2016 – via Reuters. 
  28. ^ "BlackEnergy malware activity spiked in runup to Ukraine power grid takedown". The Register. Retrieved 26 December 2016. 
  29. ^ a b c Clayton, Mark (June 17, 2014). "Ukraine election narrowly avoided 'wanton destruction' from hackers". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  30. ^ Watkins, Ali (August 14, 2017). "Obama team was warned in 2014 about Russian interference". Politico. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  31. ^ Kramer, Andrew E.; Higgins, Andrew (August 16, 2017). "In Ukraine, a Malware Expert Who Could Blow the Whistle on Russian Hacking". The New York Times. Retrieved August 16, 2017. 
  32. ^ S Rosenberg, ‘EU referendum: What does Russia gain from Brexit?’ (26 June 2016) BBC News
  33. ^ Highly probable' that Russia interfered in Brexit referendum, Labour MP says' (13 December 2016) Independent
  34. ^ J Kanter and A Bienkov, 'Labour MPs think the government is hiding info about Russia interfering with Brexit' (23 February 2016) Business Insider
  35. ^ Syal, Rajeev (2017-04-12). "Brexit: foreign states may have interfered in vote, report says". The Guardian. Retrieved 2017-10-21. 
  36. ^ Teffer, Peter (2017-04-12). "MPs and media create Brexit hacking scare". EUobserver. Retrieved 2017-10-21. 
  37. ^ 'Nigel Farage is 'person of interest' in FBI investigation into Trump and Russia' (2 June 2017) Guardian
  38. ^ Evan Perez; Shimon Prokupecz (8 April 2015). "How the U.S. thinks Russians hacked the White House". CNN. Retrieved 17 December 2016. Russian hackers behind the damaging cyber intrusion of the State Department in recent months used that perch to penetrate sensitive parts of the White House computer system, according to U.S. officials briefed on the investigation. 
  39. ^ CNN, Evan Perez and Shimon Prokupecz. "Sources: State Dept Hack the 'worst ever'". CNN. Retrieved 2017-02-05. 
  40. ^ Ignatius, David (18 January 2017). "Russia’s radical new strategy for information warfare". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 March 2017. 
  41. ^ Thielman, Sam; Ackerman, Spencer (29 July 2016). "Cozy Bear and Fancy Bear: did Russians hack Democratic party and if so, why?". The Guardian. 
  42. ^ Ackerman, Spencer; Thielman, Sam (8 October 2016). "US officially accuses Russia of hacking DNC and interfering with election". 
  43. ^ Corera, Gordon (22 December 2016). "Can US election hack be traced to Russia?". BBC. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  44. ^ Gallagher, Sean. "Did the Russians "hack" the election? A look at the established facts". arstechnica. Retrieved 23 December 2016. 
  45. ^ Savage, David (18 December 2016). "'How much and what damage?' Senators call for a special committee to investigate Russian hacking". LA Times. Retrieved 20 December 2016. 
  46. ^ Nakashima, Ellen (22 December 2016). "Cybersecurity firm finds evidence that Russian military unit was behind DNC hack". Washington Post. Retrieved 22 December 2016. 
  47. ^ Mazanec, Brain M. (2015). The Evolution of Cyber War. USA: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 235–236. ISBN 9781612347639. 
  48. ^ " Grigory Svirsky Anastasya. A story on-line (Full text in Russian)
  49. ^ (in Russian) Eye for an eye[permanent dead link]
  50. ^ "F-Secure - The Dukes". 
  51. ^ The Dukes Whitepaper
  52. ^ "Press Release Archive". 

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