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Debye Length

Published: 2016/02/17

Channel: Hagen@Cal Poly

1b Rigorous definition of plasma: Debye length

Published: 2016/02/01

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Debye length

Published: 2015/11/29

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Debye Length in Doped Semiconductors

Published: 2016/01/15

Channel: Christian Wurm

Lecture 1 - Definition of a plasma, examples, plasma temperature, Debye shielding, plasma criteria

Published: 2017/04/24

Channel: USYD - Senior Plasma Physics Lectures

01B Plasma State Debye Shielding | Introduction to Plasma Physics by J D Callen

Published: 2015/12/24

Channel: Lucius Fox

Debye Meaning

Published: 2015/04/20

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Debye Interaction

Published: 2016/02/08

Channel: Hagen@Cal Poly

Tritium Nuclear Fusion Experiment - Part 2 : Debye Length

Published: 2017/11/09

Channel: jaynes network

Chemical Thermodynamics 9.7 - Debye-Huckel Law (Old Version)

Published: 2014/11/01

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Lecture 22: Electrical Double Layer (EDL)

Published: 2017/03/26

Channel: Bahga Lab IIT Delhi

2. Debye Model of Vibrations in Solids; Drude Theory of Electrons in Metals

Published: 2016/10/24

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Debye Length in a Symmetric Electrolyte Solution

Published: 2012/06/04

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Mod-01 Lec-01 Introduction to Plasmas

Published: 2013/04/25

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debye sears effekt experiment

Published: 2012/03/28

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ph12c lecture06 Debye

Published: 2016/03/31

Channel: John Preskill

Debye Length in a Symmetric Electrolyte Solution.3gp

Published: 2013/01/16

Channel: Akshat upadhyay

Electrolytic Solutions at Equilibrium - Part II

Published: 2014/08/23

Channel: Professor Vesselin C. Noninski

Chemical Thermodynamics 5.5 - Debye T3 Law

Published: 2016/09/15

Channel: TMP Chem

Debye Screening Length Effects of Nanostructured Materials Springer Tracts in Modern Physics

Published: 2016/10/08

Channel: Trinity Weaver

What Does Cataphoresis Mean?

Published: 2017/12/03

Channel: Sri Directions

Plasma Animation

Published: 2016/02/04

Channel: Tokamak Energy - A Faster Way to Fusion

BASIC PLASMA PARAMETERS.avi

Published: 2012/06/19

Channel: mike hopkins

Professor Debye huldigt jonge wetenschappers, Maastricht 1962

Published: 2015/09/09

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The Debye-Huckel theory of electrolytes

Published: 2016/11/24

Channel: Diego Troya

第13講 Phonon and Debye Theory

Published: 2013/01/11

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StatMolThermo 11.07 Debye-Hückel Theory 1

Published: 2015/11/02

Channel: Chris Cramer

DLVO theory

Published: 2016/02/19

Channel: Hagen@Cal Poly

Chemical Thermodynamics 5.5 - Debye T3 Law (Old Version)

Published: 2014/09/21

Channel: TMP Chem

Download Debye Screening Length Effects of Nanostructured Materials Springer Tracts in Modern Physic

Published: 2016/10/01

Channel: Amedia. C

Ep11 Electric Double Layer (EDL) and DLVO Forces - NANO 202 UCSD Darren Lipomi

Published: 2017/11/07

Channel: Darren Lipomi

Lecture 2 Part 1 Phonons, Debye Theory

Published: 2017/09/19

Channel: Arindam kumar chatterjee

Screening length Meaning

Published: 2015/04/26

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How to say "debye"! (High Quality Voices)

Published: 2017/02/03

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Prof. Debye in zijn werkkamer op Ithaca (New York)

Published: 2015/09/10

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Lecture 2 Part 2 Phonons, Debye Theory

Published: 2017/09/19

Channel: Arindam kumar chatterjee

nanoHUB-U Nanobiosensors T3.1: Sensitivity - Homework Solution III (Potentiometric)

Published: 2016/03/14

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[전기전자재료공학: 6월14일 첫번째] 이온전도체 응용

Published: 2017/06/19

Channel: 김규태

Electro Chemistry(26- Debye Huckel Onsager equation)

Published: 2016/11/08

Channel: DIGICLASS A

Plasma Sheath

Published: 2013/11/13

Channel: Tessa Kummerer

Langmuir Double Probe (measurements in a capacitively coupled plasma)

Published: 2011/05/24

Channel: ImpedansTV

What Does Cataphoresis Mean?

Published: 2017/06/27

Channel: SS Health Tips

Chemical Thermodynamics 9.7 - Debye-Huckel Law

Published: 2016/09/15

Channel: TMP Chem

debye

Published: 2013/03/08

Channel: Debye Marroquin

25. Continuous Spins at Low Temperatures Part 5

Published: 2015/02/17

Channel: MIT OpenCourseWare

What is PLASMA ETCHER? What does PLASMA ETCHER mean? PLASMA ETCHER meaning & explanation

Published: 2017/11/25

Channel: The Audiopedia

Debye Series for parallel polarized light with d=100µm and wavelength of 405nm

Published: 2012/06/27

Channel: TheLightScattering

Large Plasma Device - Video Learning - WizScience.com

Published: 2015/09/10

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Chemistry : Electrochemistry

Published: 2017/03/29

Channel: Dr. Vandana Swarnkar

Den simple Debye-Hückel ligning

Published: 2013/09/25

Channel: Jan Jensen

In plasmas and electrolytes, the **Debye length** (also called **Debye radius**), named after the Dutch physicist and physical chemist Peter Debye, is a measure of a charge carrier's net electrostatic effect in solution and how far its electrostatic effect persists. A **Debye sphere** is a volume whose radius is the Debye length. With each Debye length, charges are increasingly electrically screened. Every Debye‐length , the electric potential will decrease in magnitude by 1/e. Debye length is an important parameter in plasma physics, electrolytes, and colloids (DLVO theory). The corresponding Debye screening wave vector for particles of density , charge at a temperature is given by in Gaussian units. Expressions in MKS units will be given below. The analogous quantities at very low temperatures () are known as the Thomas-Fermi length and the Thomas-Fermi wave vector. They are of interest in describing the behaviour of electrons in metals at room temperature.

The Debye length arises naturally in the thermodynamic description of large systems of mobile charges. In a system of different species of charges, the -th species carries charge and has concentration at position . According to the so-called "primitive model", these charges are distributed in a continuous medium that is characterized only by its relative static permittivity, . This distribution of charges within this medium gives rise to an electric potential that satisfies Poisson's equation:

- ,

where , is the electric constant, and is a charge density external (logically, not spatially) to the medium.

The mobile charges not only establish but also move in response to the associated Coulomb force, . If we further assume the system to be in thermodynamic equilibrium with a heat bath at absolute temperature , then the concentrations of discrete charges, , may be considered to be thermodynamic (ensemble) averages and the associated electric potential to be a thermodynamic mean field. With these assumptions, the concentration of the -th charge species is described by the Boltzmann distribution,

- ,

where is Boltzmann's constant and where is the mean concentration of charges of species .

Identifying the instantaneous concentrations and potential in the Poisson equation with their mean-field counterparts in Boltzmann's distribution yields the Poisson–Boltzmann equation:

- .

Solutions to this nonlinear equation are known for some simple systems. Solutions for more general systems may be obtained in the high-temperature (weak coupling) limit, , by Taylor expanding the exponential:

- .

This approximation yields the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation

which also is known as the Debye–Hückel equation:^{[1]}^{[2]}^{[3]}^{[4]}^{[5]} The second term on the right-hand side vanishes for systems that are electrically neutral. The term in parentheses divided by , has the units of an inverse length squared and by dimensional analysis leads to the definition of the characteristic length scale

that commonly is referred to as the Debye–Hückel length. As the only characteristic length scale in the Debye–Hückel equation, sets the scale for variations in the potential and in the concentrations of charged species. All charged species contribute to the Debye–Hückel length in the same way, regardless of the sign of their charges. For an electrically neutral system, the Poisson equation becomes

To illustrate Debye screening, the potential produced by an external point charge is

The bare Coulomb potential is exponentially screened by the medium, over a distance of the Debye length.

The Debye–Hückel length may be expressed in terms of the Bjerrum length as

- ,

where is the integer charge number that relates the charge on the -th ionic species to the elementary charge .

In space plasmas where the electron density is relatively low, the Debye length may reach macroscopic values, such as in the magnetosphere, solar wind, interstellar medium and intergalactic medium (see table):

Plasma | Densityn_{e}(m^{−3}) |
Electron temperatureT(K) |
Magnetic fieldB(T) |
Debye lengthλ_{D}(m) |
---|---|---|---|---|

Solar core | 10^{32} |
10^{7} |
-- | 10^{−11} |

Tokamak | 10^{20} |
10^{8} |
10 | 10^{−4} |

Gas discharge | 10^{16} |
10^{4} |
-- | 10^{−4} |

Ionosphere | 10^{12} |
10^{3} |
10^{−5} |
10^{−3} |

Magnetosphere | 10^{7} |
10^{7} |
10^{−8} |
10^{2} |

Solar wind | 10^{6} |
10^{5} |
10^{−9} |
10 |

Interstellar medium | 10^{5} |
10^{4} |
10^{−10} |
10 |

Intergalactic medium | 1 | 10^{6} |
-- | 10^{5} |

Source: Chapter 20: The Particle Kinetics of Plasma^{[6]} |

Hannes Alfvén pointed out that: "In a low density plasma, localized space charge regions may build up large potential drops over distances of the order of some tens of the Debye lengths. Such regions have been called *electric double layers*. An electric double layer is the simplest space charge distribution that gives a potential drop in the layer and a vanishing electric field on each side of the layer. In the laboratory, double layers have been studied for half a century, but their importance in cosmic plasmas has not been generally recognized."^{[7]}

In a non-isothermic plasma, the temperatures for electrons and heavy species may differ while the background medium may be treated as the vacuum (), and the Debye length is

where

- λ
_{D}is the Debye length, - ε
_{0}is the permittivity of free space, *k*_{B}is the Boltzmann constant,*q*_{e}is the charge of an electron,*T*and_{e}*T*are the temperatures of the electrons and ions, respectively,_{i}*n*is the density of electrons,_{e}*n*is the density of atomic species_{j}*j*, with positive ionic charge*z*_{j}q_{e}

Even in quasineutral cold plasma, where ion contribution virtully seems to be larger due to lower ion temperature, the ion term is actually often dropped, giving

although this is only valid when the mobility of ions is negligible compared to the process's timescale.^{[8]}

In an electrolyte or a colloidal suspension, the Debye length^{[9]} for a monovalent electrolyte is usually denoted with symbol *κ*^{−1}

where

*I*is the ionic strength of the electrolyte, and here the unit should be mole/m^{3}, even though*I*is commonly found in mol per kg of solvent,- ε
_{0}is the permittivity of free space, - ε
_{r}is the dielectric constant, *k*_{B}is the Boltzmann constant,*T*is the absolute temperature in kelvins,*N*is the Avogadro number._{A}- is the elementary charge,

or, for a symmetric monovalent electrolyte,

where

*R*is the gas constant,*F*is the Faraday constant,*C*_{0}is the molar concentration of the electrolyte.

Alternatively,

where

- is the Bjerrum length of the medium.

For water at room temperature, *λ*_{B} ≈ 0.7 nm.

At room temperature (25 °C), one can consider in water the relation:^{[10]}

where

*κ*^{−1}is expressed in nanometers (nm)*I*is the ionic strength expressed in molar (M or mol/L)

The Debye length has become increasingly significant in the modeling of solid state devices as improvements in lithographic technologies have enabled smaller geometries.^{[11]}^{[12]}^{[13]}

The Debye length of semiconductors is given:

where

*ε*is the dielectric constant,*k*_{B}is the Boltzmann's constant,*T*is the absolute temperature in kelvins,*q*is the elementary charge, and*N*is the density of dopants (either donors or acceptors)._{d}

When doping profiles exceed the Debye length, majority carriers no longer behave according to the distribution of the dopants. Instead, a measure of the profile of the doping gradients provides an "effective" profile that better matches the profile of the majority carrier density.

In the context of solids, the Debye length is also called the Thomas–Fermi screening length.

**^**Kirby BJ.*Micro- and Nanoscale Fluid Mechanics: Transport in Microfluidic Devices*.**^**Li D (2004).*Electrokinetics in Microfluidics*.**^**PC Clemmow & JP Dougherty (1969).*Electrodynamics of particles and plasmas*. Redwood City CA: Addison-Wesley. pp. § 7.6.7, p. 236 ff. ISBN 0-201-47986-9.**^**RA Robinson &RH Stokes (2002).*Electrolyte solutions*. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. p. 76. ISBN 0-486-42225-9.**^**See Brydges, David C.; Martin, Ph. A. (1999). "Coulomb Systems at Low Density: A Review".*Journal of Statistical Physics*.**96**(5/6): 1163–1330. arXiv:cond-mat/9904122 . Bibcode:1999JSP....96.1163B. doi:10.1023/A:1004600603161.**^**Kip Thorne (2012). "The Particle Kinetics of Plasma" (PDF). Retrieved September 7, 2017.**^**Hannes Alfvèn - Cosmic Plasma vol. 82 (1981) (D. Reidel Publishing Company 2012), II.6. Electric Double Layers, II.6.1. General Properties of Electric Double Layers, p. 29 books.google.ca/books?id=gAnvCAAAQBAJ**^**I. H. Hutchinson*Principles of plasma diagnostics*ISBN 0-521-38583-0**^**Russel, W.B., Saville, D.A. and Schowalter, W. R.*Colloidal Dispersions*, Cambridge University Press, 1989**^**Israelachvili, J.,*Intermolecular and Surface Forces*, Academic Press Inc., 1985, ISBN 0-12-375181-0**^**Stern, Eric; Robin Wagner; Fred J. Sigworth; Ronald Breaker; Tarek M. Fahmy; Mark A. Reed (2007-11-01). "Importance of the Debye Screening Length on Nanowire Field Effect Transistor Sensors".*Nano Letters*.**7**(11): 3405–3409. Bibcode:2007NanoL...7.3405S. doi:10.1021/nl071792z. PMC 2713684 . PMID 17914853.**^**Guo, Lingjie; Effendi Leobandung; Stephen Y. Chou (199). "A room-temperature silicon single-electron metal–oxide–semiconductor memory with nanoscale floating-gate and ultranarrow channel".*Applied Physics Letters*.**70**(7): 850. Bibcode:1997ApPhL..70..850G. doi:10.1063/1.118236.**^**Tiwari, Sandip; Farhan Rana; Kevin Chan; Leathen Shi; Hussein Hanafi (1996). "Single charge and confinement effects in nano-crystal memories".*Applied Physics Letters*.**69**(9): 1232. Bibcode:1996ApPhL..69.1232T. doi:10.1063/1.117421.

- Goldston & Rutherford (1997).
*Introduction to Plasma Physics*. Philadelphia: Institute of Physics Publishing. - Lyklema (1993).
*Fundamentals of Interface and Colloid Science*. NY: Academic Press.

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