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First Democratic Primary Debate - October 13 2015 on CNN
First Democratic Primary Debate - October 13 2015 on CNN
Published: 2016/04/16
Channel: 2016 US Presidential Debates
*Almost* Every CNN Projection from the 2016 Primaries
*Almost* Every CNN Projection from the 2016 Primaries
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: ElectionProjection
The 2016 Democratic Primaries: Every Day
The 2016 Democratic Primaries: Every Day
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: EmperorTigerstar
Warren agrees DNC was rigged against Sanders
Warren agrees DNC was rigged against Sanders
Published: 2017/11/03
Channel: CNN
CNN Primary Coverage 2016 - All CNN Projections and Key Race Alerts (Republican & Democrat)
CNN Primary Coverage 2016 - All CNN Projections and Key Race Alerts (Republican & Democrat)
Published: 2016/11/30
Channel: Hillary Trump
2008 ABC News Democratic Primary Debate   (August 19, 2007 – Des Moines, Iowa)
2008 ABC News Democratic Primary Debate (August 19, 2007 – Des Moines, Iowa)
Published: 2016/05/14
Channel: Josh Burdick
Primaries and Caucuses: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
Primaries and Caucuses: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)
Published: 2016/05/23
Channel: LastWeekTonight
What Lesson Will The #Democratic Party Learn From The 2016 Primary?
What Lesson Will The #Democratic Party Learn From The 2016 Primary?
Published: 2016/06/11
Channel: Thom Hartmann Program
Understanding the Primaries: Delegates, Democracy, and America
Understanding the Primaries: Delegates, Democracy, and America's Nonstop Political Party
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: vlogbrothers
2016 US Democratic Party Primary Election The Simpsons Animated Version
2016 US Democratic Party Primary Election The Simpsons Animated Version
Published: 2016/04/13
Channel: solarvolcano
2016 Democratic Party Delegates
2016 Democratic Party Delegates
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: Citizen Genius
EVERY 2016 Democratic Primary Commercial!
EVERY 2016 Democratic Primary Commercial!
Published: 2016/07/26
Channel: ElectionProjection
Federal Judge Confirms The Democratic Party Cheated Sanders By Rigging Primaries
Federal Judge Confirms The Democratic Party Cheated Sanders By Rigging Primaries
Published: 2017/08/31
Channel: DailyWorldwideNews
Oklahoma Primaries 2016
Oklahoma Primaries 2016
Published: 2016/06/29
Channel: NewsOK
2020 United States Democratic Presidential Primaries Prediction (Castro vs Sanders)
2020 United States Democratic Presidential Primaries Prediction (Castro vs Sanders)
Published: 2017/02/25
Channel: Acre !
Democrat primary rigged for Hillary Clinton
Democrat primary rigged for Hillary Clinton
Published: 2017/11/03
Channel: mark kaiju
Bernie Sanders Takes The Lead In The 2016 Democratic Primary Race
Bernie Sanders Takes The Lead In The 2016 Democratic Primary Race
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: The Young Turks
Hillary Clinton accepts Democratic nomination
Hillary Clinton accepts Democratic nomination
Published: 2016/07/29
Channel: CNN
2020 Presidential Election: Democrat Primaries.
2020 Presidential Election: Democrat Primaries.
Published: 2017/10/21
Channel: readonly pdf
Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren Admits the 2016 Democratic Primary Was Rigged
Democratic Senator Elizabeth Warren Admits the 2016 Democratic Primary Was Rigged
Published: 2017/11/04
Channel: Select News
Donna Brazile Exposes Hillary Clinton and The Corrupt Democratic Party (REACTION)
Donna Brazile Exposes Hillary Clinton and The Corrupt Democratic Party (REACTION)
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: Anthony Brian Logan
CBS Already Reporting On 2016 Democrat Presidential  Primary
CBS Already Reporting On 2016 Democrat Presidential Primary
Published: 2013/01/24
Channel: GOP War Room
Democratic Debate Cold Open - SNL
Democratic Debate Cold Open - SNL
Published: 2015/10/18
Channel: Saturday Night Live
NBC News-YouTube Democratic Debate (Full)
NBC News-YouTube Democratic Debate (Full)
Published: 2016/01/18
Channel: NBC News
2020 Democratic Primary Prediction: Castro vs Merkley vs Harris
2020 Democratic Primary Prediction: Castro vs Merkley vs Harris
Published: 2017/06/25
Channel: Stellar Spark
“FIRST DEMOCRATIC DEBATE HIGHLIGHTS: 2015” —- A Bad Lip Reading of the First Democratic Debate
“FIRST DEMOCRATIC DEBATE HIGHLIGHTS: 2015” —- A Bad Lip Reading of the First Democratic Debate
Published: 2015/10/28
Channel: Bad Lip Reading
My 2016 Democratic Primary Debate REVIEW
My 2016 Democratic Primary Debate REVIEW
Published: 2015/10/14
Channel: Justinj1232
Sanders, Trump win Michigan presidential primaries
Sanders, Trump win Michigan presidential primaries
Published: 2016/03/09
Channel: WOOD TV8
Elizabeth Warren says 2016 Democratic primary was rigged
Elizabeth Warren says 2016 Democratic primary was rigged
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: PBS NewsHour
The 2008 Democratic Race in 7 Minutes
The 2008 Democratic Race in 7 Minutes
Published: 2008/05/03
Channel: quantass
Joe: Democratic Primary System Rigged Against Voters | Morning Joe | MSNBC
Joe: Democratic Primary System Rigged Against Voters | Morning Joe | MSNBC
Published: 2016/04/11
Channel: MSNBC
SMNW Presidential Primaries 2016
SMNW Presidential Primaries 2016
Published: 2016/02/18
Channel: KUGR
Hillary Clinton Claims Victory in Democratic Presidential Primary
Hillary Clinton Claims Victory in Democratic Presidential Primary
Published: 2016/06/08
Channel: Fox5NY
2008 MSNBC Democratic Primary Debate   (August 7, 2007 – Chicago, Illinois)
2008 MSNBC Democratic Primary Debate (August 7, 2007 – Chicago, Illinois)
Published: 2016/05/14
Channel: Josh Burdick
UNCOUNTED: The True Story of the California Primary
UNCOUNTED: The True Story of the California Primary
Published: 2016/06/20
Channel: TYT Politics
State By State Roll Call Vote For The 2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination
State By State Roll Call Vote For The 2016 Democratic Presidential Nomination
Published: 2016/07/27
Channel: wwwMOXNEWScom
SC Democratic Presidential Primary preview
SC Democratic Presidential Primary preview
Published: 2016/03/15
Channel: Marla Rooker
2016 South Carolina Democratic Primary Up Next
2016 South Carolina Democratic Primary Up Next
Published: 2016/02/22
Channel: WCBD NEWS 2
2016 Presidential Debates - Only 6 Planned for Democratic Primary
2016 Presidential Debates - Only 6 Planned for Democratic Primary
Published: 2015/09/04
Channel: Wautil
2020 Election Night | Joe Biden vs Elizabeth Warren | Democratic Primary 2020
2020 Election Night | Joe Biden vs Elizabeth Warren | Democratic Primary 2020
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Let's Talk Elections
PBS NewsHour Democratic Debate
PBS NewsHour Democratic Debate
Published: 2016/02/12
Channel: PBS NewsHour
Hillary Clinton
Hillary Clinton's election fraud finally exposed. California stolen from Bernie Sanders!
Published: 2016/06/09
Channel: Scott Hunt
The 2016 Republican Primaries: Every Day
The 2016 Republican Primaries: Every Day
Published: 2016/07/14
Channel: EmperorTigerstar
USA 2016 Presidential Primaries Prediction with Vibrational Astrology
USA 2016 Presidential Primaries Prediction with Vibrational Astrology
Published: 2016/04/27
Channel: David Cochrane
(2/11/2016) PBS Democratic Presidential Debate (FULL VIDEO)
(2/11/2016) PBS Democratic Presidential Debate (FULL VIDEO)
Published: 2016/02/12
Channel: kukmintv
Democratic Primary 2016 - Western Saturday Predictions
Democratic Primary 2016 - Western Saturday Predictions
Published: 2016/03/27
Channel: aaron niles
Democratic Primary Debate 2004 (U of New Hampshire)
Democratic Primary Debate 2004 (U of New Hampshire)
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: theSuperMetroid
Sanders wins Democratic presidential primary in Wisconsin
Sanders wins Democratic presidential primary in Wisconsin
Published: 2016/04/06
Channel: WORLD NEWS TODAY
Democratic Primary Debate 08/23/87
Democratic Primary Debate 08/23/87
Published: 2016/09/22
Channel: theSuperMetroid
BREAKING: Donna Brazile admits Hillary Rigged Democratic Primary.
BREAKING: Donna Brazile admits Hillary Rigged Democratic Primary.
Published: 2017/11/02
Channel: TYT Nation
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Democratic Party presidential primaries, 2016
US Democratic Party Logo.svg
← 2012 February 1 – June 14, 2016 2020 →

4,763 delegate votes to the Democratic National Convention
2,382 delegate votes needed to win
  Hillary Clinton by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg Bernie Sanders September 2015 cropped.jpg
Candidate Hillary Clinton Bernie Sanders
Home state New York Vermont
Delegate count 2,842 1,865
Contests won 34 23
Popular vote 16,914,722[a][1] 13,206,428[a][1]
Percentage 55.2%[a] 43.1%[a]

Democratic Party presidential primaries results, 2016.svg
First place by first-instance vote

Democratic convention 2016 roll call map.svg
First place finishes by convention roll call

Previous Democratic nominee

Barack Obama

Democratic nominee

Hillary Clinton

The 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses were a series of electoral contests organized by the Democratic Party to select the 4,051 delegates to the Democratic National Convention held July 25–28 and determine the nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 U.S. presidential election. The elections took place within all fifty U.S. states, the District of Columbia, and five U.S. territories and occurred between February 1 and June 14, 2016. An extra 716 unpledged delegates (712 votes) or "superdelegates", including party leaders and elected officials, were appointed by the party leadership independently of the primaries' electoral process. The convention also approved the party's platform and vice-presidential nominee. The Democratic nominee challenged other presidential candidates in national elections to succeed President Barack Obama at noon on January 20, 2017, following his two terms in office.

A total of six major candidates entered the race starting April 12, 2015, when former Secretary of State and New York Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton formally announced her second bid for the presidency. She was followed by Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders, former Governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley, former Governor of Rhode Island Lincoln Chafee, former Virginia Senator Jim Webb and Harvard Law Professor Lawrence Lessig. Incumbent Vice President Joe Biden heavily considered a third run, but eventually chose against it. A draft movement was started to encourage Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren to seek the presidency, but Warren declined to run. Prior to the Iowa caucuses on February 1, 2016, Webb and Chafee both withdrew after consistently polling below 2%.[2] Lessig withdrew after the rules of a debate were changed so that he would no longer qualify to participate.[3]

Clinton won Iowa by the closest margin in the history of the state's Democratic caucus. O'Malley suspended[b] his campaign after a distant third-place finish, leaving Clinton and Sanders the only two candidates. The electoral battle turned out to be more competitive than expected, with Sanders winning the New Hampshire primary while Clinton scored victories in the Nevada caucuses and South Carolina primary. On four different Super Tuesdays, Clinton secured numerous important wins in each of the nine most populous states including California, New York, Florida, and Texas, while Sanders scored various victories in between he then laid off a majority of staff after the New York primary and Clinton's multi-state sweep on April 26.[5]

On June 6, 2016, the Associated Press and NBC News stated that Clinton had become the presumptive nominee after reaching the required number of delegates, including both pledged and unpledged delegates (superdelegates), to secure the nomination. In doing so, she had become the first woman to ever be the presumptive nominee of any major political party in the United States.[6] On June 7, Clinton officially secured a majority of pledged delegates after winning in the California and New Jersey primaries.[7] President Barack Obama, Vice President Joe Biden and Senator Elizabeth Warren formally endorsed Clinton on June 9, 2016.[8][9] Sanders confirmed on June 24 that he would vote for Clinton over Donald Trump in the general election[10] and, on July 12, 2016, formally endorsed Clinton in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.[11]

On July 22, the Democratic National Committee email leak was published by WikiLeaks as part of an alleged operation by the Russian government to boost Republican nominee Donald Trump and undermine Hillary Clinton.[12] The leak cast doubt on the DNC's neutrality and according to Sanders operatives and multiple media commentators portrayed an organization invested in promoting the Clinton candidacy and sabotaging that of Bernie Sanders. In further emails from Clinton campaign chairman John Podesta, leaked online in early October, Clinton campaign officials are shown planning ahead the primary schedule to set some important disputes, such as New York and New Jersey, earlier than in 2008 so as to benefit Clinton.[13][14] The debate schedule had already been criticized as far back as 2015, including by aspiring candidate Martin O'Malley, as biased in Clinton's favor.[15] Democratic Party Chairwoman Donna Brazile, who succeeded Debbie Wasserman Schultz as DNC chair after the first batch of leaks, is shown in the e-mails leaking primary debate questions to the Clinton campaign before the debates were held.[16]

On July 26, 2016, the Democratic National Convention officially nominated Clinton for president and Virginia Senator Tim Kaine for vice president.[17] On November 8, 2016, Republican nominee Donald Trump defeated Clinton in the general election.

Candidates[edit]

Nominee[edit]

Candidate Most recent position Candidacy Total pledged delegates Contests won[c]
Hillary Clinton official Secretary of State portrait crop.jpg
Hillary Clinton
67th
U.S. Secretary of State

(2009–13)
Hillary for America 2016 logo.svg
(CampaignPositions)
FEC Filing
2205 / 4051 (54%) 34
AL, AR, AS, AZ,
CA, CT, DC, DE, FL,
GA, GU, IA, IL, KY,
LA, MA, MD, MO,
MP, MS, NC, NJ,
NM, NV, NY, OH,
PA, PR, SC, SD,[d]
TN, TX, VA, VI

Withdrew at the convention[edit]

Candidate Most recent position Candidacy Total pledged delegates Contests won[c]
Bernie Sanders September 2015 cropped.jpg
Bernie Sanders
U.S. Senator from Vermont
(2007–present)
Bernie Sanders 2016 logo.svg
(CampaignPositions)
FEC Filing
1846 / 4051 (46%) 23
AK, CO, DA, HI,
ID, IN, KS, ME,
MI, MN, MT, NE,[e]
NH, ND, OK, OR,
RI, UT, VT, WA,[f]
WI, WV, WY[d]

Withdrew during the primaries[edit]

Candidate Born Most recent position Announced Withdrew Candidacy Ref
Governor O'Malley Portrait (cropped).jpg
Martin O'Malley
January 18, 1963
(age 53)
Washington, D.C.
61st Governor of Maryland
(2007–15)
May 31, 2015 February 1, 2016
(endorsed Hillary Clinton after she became presumptive nominee)[18]
O'Malley for President 2016 Logo.png
(CampaignWebsite)
FEC Filing
[19][20]

Withdrew before the primaries[edit]

Candidate Born Most recent position Announced Withdrew Candidacy Ref
RI governor Lincoln Chafee in 2007 (cropped).jpg
Lincoln Chafee
March 26, 1953 (age 63)
Providence, Rhode Island
74th Governor of Rhode Island (2011–15) June 3, 2015 October 23, 2015 Chafee for President.png
(CampaignWebsite)
[21][22]
Jim Webb official 110th Congress photo (cropped).jpg
Jim Webb
February 9, 1946 (age 70)
Saint Joseph, Missouri
U.S. Senator from Virginia (2007–13) July 7, 2015 October 20, 2015 Webb 2016.png
(CampaignWebsite)
[23][24]
Lessig (cropped) 2.png
Lawrence Lessig
June 3, 1961 (age 55)
Rapid City, South Dakota
Professor at Harvard Law School (2009–16) September 9, 2015 November 2, 2015 Lessig 2016.png
(CampaignWebsite)
[25][26]

Other candidates' results[edit]

The following candidates were frequently interviewed by news channels and were invited to forums and candidate debates. For reference, Clinton received 16,849,779 votes in the primaries.

Candidates in this section are sorted by amount of votes received
Martin O'Malley Lawrence Lessig Jim Webb Lincoln Chafee
Governor O'Malley Portrait.jpg
Lessig (cropped) 2.png
Jim Webb official 110th Congress photo (cropped).jpg
Lincoln Chafee (14103606100 cc56e38ddd h).jpg
61st
Governor of Maryland
(2007–2015)
Harvard Law Professor
(2009–2016)
U.S. Senator
from Virginia
(2007–2013)
74th
Governor of Rhode Island
(2011–2015)
Campaign
Campaign
Campaign
Campaign

110,423 votes

4 write-in votes in New Hampshire

2 write-in votes in New Hampshire

0 votes

Other candidates participated in one or more state primaries without receiving major coverage or substantial vote counts.

Timeline[edit]

Background[edit]

Secretary Hillary Clinton in April 2015

In the weeks following the re-election of President Obama in the 2012 election, media speculation regarding potential candidates for the Democratic presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election began to circulate. The speculation centered on the prospects of Clinton, then-Secretary of State, making a second presidential bid in the 2016 election. Clinton had previously served as a U.S. Senator for New York (2001–09) and was the First Lady of the U.S. (1993–2001).[27][28] A January 2013 Washington PostABC News poll indicated that she had high popularity among the American public.[29][30] This polling information prompted numerous political pundits and observers to anticipate that Clinton would mount a second presidential bid in 2016, entering the race as the early front-runner for the Democratic nomination.[31] From the party's liberal left wing came calls for a more progressive candidate to challenge what was perceived by many within this segment as the party's establishment.[32] Elizabeth Warren quickly became a highly touted figure within this movement as well as the object of a draft movement to run in the primaries,[33] despite her repeated denials of interest in doing so.[32][34] The MoveOn.org campaign 'Run Warren Run' announced that it would disband on June 8, 2015, opting to focus its efforts toward progressive issues.[35] The draft campaign's New Hampshire staffer, Kurt Ehrenberg, had joined Sanders' team and most of the remaining staffers were expected to follow suit.[36] Given the historical tendency for sitting vice presidents to seek the presidency in election cycles in which the incumbent president is not a candidate, there was also considerable speculation regarding a potential presidential run by incumbent Vice President Joe Biden,[37][38] who had previously campaigned for the Democratic presidential nomination in the election cycles of 1988 and 2008.[39] This speculation was further fueled by Biden's own expressions of interest in a possible run in 2016.[39][40] However, on October 21, 2015, speaking from a podium in the Rose Garden with his wife and President Obama by his side, Biden announced his decision not to enter the race, as he was still dealing with the loss of his son, Beau, who died weeks earlier at the age of 47.[41][42][43]

Senator Bernie Sanders during a rally, in July 2015

On May 26, 2015, Sanders officially announced his run as a presidential candidate for the Democratic nomination, after an informal announcement on April 30 and speculation since early 2014.[44][45][46] Sanders has previously served as Mayor of Burlington, Vermont (1981–89), Vermont's sole U.S. Representative (1991–2007) and Vermont's junior Senator (2007–present).[47] He emerged as the biggest rival to Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primaries, backed by a strong grassroots campaign and a social media following.[48] In November 2014, Jim Webb, a former U.S. Senator who had once served as the U.S. Secretary of the Navy during the Reagan administration, announced the formation of an exploratory committee in preparation for a possible run for the Democratic presidential nomination.[49] This made Webb the first major potential candidate to take a formal action toward seeking the party's 2016 nomination.[49] Martin O'Malley, former Governor of Maryland as well as a former Mayor of Baltimore, made formal steps toward a campaign for the party's nomination in January 2015 with the hiring and retaining of personnel who had served the previous year as political operatives in Iowa – the first presidential nominating state in the primary elections cycle – as staff for his political action committee (PAC). O'Malley had started the "O’ Say Can You See" PAC in 2012 which had, prior to 2015, functioned primarily as fundraising vehicles for various Democratic candidates, as well as for two 2014 ballot measures in Maryland.[50] With the 2015 staffing moves, the PAC ostensibly became a vehicle for O'Malley – who had for several months openly contemplated a presidential bid – to lay the groundwork for a potential campaign for the party's presidential nomination.[51] In August 2015, Lawrence Lessig unexpectedly announced his intention to enter the race, promising to run if his exploratory committee raised $1 million by Labor Day.[52][53] After accomplishing this, Lessig formally announced his campaign.[54] He described his candidacy as a referendum on electoral reform legislation, prioritizing a single issue: the Citizen Equality Act of 2017, a proposal that couples campaign finance reform with other laws aimed at curbing gerrymandering and ensuring voting access.[55][56]

Overview[edit]

Nominee
Ended campaigns
Iowa Caucuses
Super Tuesday
D.C. Primary
Convention 2016
Jim Webb presidential campaign, 2016 Lincoln Chafee presidential campaign, 2016 Lawrence Lessig presidential campaign, 2016 Martin O'Malley presidential campaign, 2016 Bernie Sanders presidential campaign, 2016 Hillary Clinton presidential campaign, 2016

February 2016: Early primaries[edit]

Date State/territory Clinton Sanders
February 1 Iowa 49.8% 49.6%
February 9 New Hampshire 38.0% 60.4%
February 20 Nevada 52.6% 47.3%
February 27 South Carolina 73.5% 26.0%

Despite being heavily favored in polls issued weeks earlier, Clinton was able to defeat Sanders in the first-in-the-nation Iowa Caucus by the closest margin in the history of the contest: 49.8% to 49.6% (Clinton collected 700.47 state delegate equivalents to Sanders' 696.92, a difference of one quarter of a percentage point).[57] The victory, which was projected to award her 23 pledged national convention delegates (two more than Sanders), made Clinton the first woman to win the Caucus and marked a clear difference from 2008, where she finished in third place behind Obama and John Edwards.[58][59][60][61] Martin O'Malley suspended[b] his campaign after a disappointing third-place finish with only 0.5% of the state delegate equivalents awarded, leaving Clinton and Sanders the only two major candidates in the race.[62] A week later, Sanders won the New Hampshire primary, receiving 60.4% of the popular vote to Clinton's 38%, putting him ahead of Clinton in the overall pledged delegate count by four, and making him the first Jewish candidate of a major party to win a primary.[63][64][65] Clinton's loss in New Hampshire was a regression from 2008, when she defeated Obama, Edwards, and a handful of other candidates including Joe Biden with 39% of the popular vote.[66]

Bernie Sanders speaks in Littleton, New Hampshire

Sanders' narrow loss in Iowa and convincing victory in New Hampshire generated speculation about a possible loss for Clinton in Nevada, the next state to hold its caucuses on February 20.[67][68] For her part, Clinton, who had won the state eight years prior in the 2008 Nevada Democratic caucuses, hoped that a victory would allay concerns about a possible repetition of 2008, when she ultimately lost to Obama despite entering the primary season as the favorite for the nomination.[69] Ultimately, Clinton emerged victorious with 52.6% of the county delegates, a margin of victory similar to her performance in 2008.[70] Sanders, who attained 47.3% of the vote, was projected to receive five fewer pledged delegates than Clinton and the result was not promising for the following weekend's primary in South Carolina, more demographically favorable to Clinton than the prior contests. On February 27, Clinton won the South Carolina primary with 73.5% of the vote, receiving a larger percentage of the African American vote than Barack Obama had eight years earlier – 90% to Obama's 80%.[71]

March 1, 2016: Super Tuesday[edit]

Super Tuesday
State/territory Clinton Sanders
Alabama 77.8% 19.2%
American Samoa 68.4% 25.7%
Arkansas 66.3% 29.7%
Colorado 40.4% 59.0%
Georgia 71.3% 28.2%
Massachusetts 50.1% 48.7%
Minnesota 38.3% 61.7%
Oklahoma 41.5% 51.9%
Tennessee 66.1% 32.4%
Texas 65.2% 33.2%
Vermont 13.6% 86.1%
Virginia 64.3% 35.2%
Hillary Clinton during a rally, in March 2016

The 2016 primary schedule was significantly different than that of 2008. During that election cycle, many states moved their primaries or caucuses to earlier in the calendar to have greater influence over the race. In 2008, February 5 was the earliest date allowed by the Democratic National Committee, leading 23 states and territories to move their elections to that date, the biggest Super Tuesday to ever take place. For 2016, the calendar was more disparate than it was in 2008, with several groups of states voting on different dates, the most important being March 1, March 15, April 26 and June 7. The day with the most contests was March 1, 2016, in which primaries or caucuses were held in 11 states (including six in the Southern United States) and American Samoa. A total of 865 pledged delegates were at stake.

Clinton secured victories in all of the southern contests except Oklahoma. Her biggest victory of the day came in Alabama, where she won 77.8% of the vote against Sanders' 19.2%, although her most significant delegate prize came from Texas, where she received 65.2% of the vote with strong support from non-white as well as white voters. Collectively, the southern states gave Clinton a net gain of 165 pledged delegates.[72] Apart from the South, Clinton also narrowly defeated Sanders in Massachusetts, as well as winning in the territory of American Samoa. Sanders scored comfortable wins in the Minnesota and Colorado caucuses and Oklahoma primary and won an 86.1%–13.6% landslide in his home state of Vermont - one of only two times either of the two main candidates missed the 15% threshold in a state or territory, with the U.S. Virgin Islands, where Clinton received over 87% of the vote, being the other one. Although the results overall were unfavorable for Sanders, his four wins and narrow loss allowed him to remain in the race in anticipation of more favorable territory in New England, the Great Plains, Mountain States and the Pacific Northwest.[73] At the end of the day, Clinton collected 518 pledged delegates to Sanders' 347, taking her lead to roughly 200 pledged delegates.[74]

Mid-March contests[edit]

Mid-March contests
State/territory Clinton Sanders
Florida 64.4% 33.3%
Illinois 50.5% 48.7%
Kansas 32.3% 67.7%
Louisiana 71.1% 23.2%
Maine 35.5% 64.3%
Michigan 48.3% 49.8%
Mississippi 82.6% 16.5%
Missouri 49.6% 49.4%
Nebraska 42.9% 57.1%
North Carolina 54.6% 40.8%
N. Mariana Islands 54.0% 34.4%
Ohio 56.5% 42.7%
Hillary Clinton speaks in Phoenix, Arizona, in March 2016
Bill Clinton campaigning for his wife in March 2016

Sanders found more hospitable ground on the weekend of March 5, 2016, winning caucuses in Kansas, Maine and Nebraska by significant margins. Clinton answered with an even larger win in Louisiana's primary, limiting Sanders' net gain for the weekend to only four delegates. Clinton would also win the Northern Mariana Islands caucus, held the following weekend on March 12. Two states had held nominating contests on March 8 – Michigan and Mississippi – with Clinton heavily favored to win both.[75][76] Mississippi went for Clinton, as expected, by a landslide margin. The Mississippi primary was the highest vote share Clinton won in any state. However, Sanders stunned by scoring a narrow win in Michigan.[77] Analysts floated a number of theories to explain the failure of the Michigan polling, with most centering on pollsters' erroneous assumptions about the composition of the electorate stemming from the 2008 primary in Michigan not having been contested due to an impasse between the state party and DNC.[78][79][80] Although Clinton expanded her delegate lead, some journalists suggested Sanders' upset might presage her defeat in other delegate-rich Midwestern states,[81] such as Missouri, Ohio and Illinois, who voted a week later on March 15, along with North Carolina and Florida, where Clinton was more clearly favored.[82][83] Clinton was able to sweep all five primaries, extending her pledged delegate lead by around 100 delegates, although Sanders was able to hold Clinton to narrow margins in her birth-state of Illinois and especially Missouri, where Clinton won by a mere 0.2 points.[84] Missouri state law allowed for a possible recount had any of the candidates requested it; however, Sanders forwent the opportunity on the basis that it would not significantly affect the delegate allocation.[85][86] By the end of the evening, Clinton had expanded her pledged delegate lead to more than 320, several times larger than her greatest deficit in the 2008 primary.[87]

Late March and early April[edit]

Late March / Early April contests
State/territory Clinton Sanders
Alaska 18.4% 81.6%
Arizona 56.5% 41.1%
Democrats Abroad 30.9% 68.9%
Hawaii 28.4% 71.5%
Idaho 21.2% 78.0%
Utah 20.3% 79.3%
Washington 27.1% 72.7%
Wisconsin 43.1% 56.6%
Wyoming 44.3% 55.7%

Following the March 15 primaries, the race moved to a series of contests more favorable for Sanders. On March 21, the results of the Democrats Abroad primary (held March 1–8) were announced. Sanders was victorious and picked up nine delegates to Clinton's four, closing his delegate deficit by five.[88] Arizona, Idaho and Utah held primaries on March 22, dubbed "Western Tuesday" by media.[89] Despite continued efforts by Sanders to close the gap in Arizona after his surprise win in Michigan, Clinton won the primary with 56.3% of the vote.[90] However, Clinton lost both Idaho and Utah by roughly 60 points, allowing Sanders to close his delegate deficit by 25.[91][92]

Sanders speaks in Seattle, Washington, March 2016

The next states to vote were Alaska, Hawaii and Washington on March 26, 2016.[93] All three states were considered as favorable for Sanders, and most political analysts expected him to win them all, given the demographics and Sanders' strong performance in previous caucuses.[94] Sanders finished the day with a net gain of roughly 66 delegates over Clinton. His largest win was in Alaska, where he defeated Clinton with 64% of the vote, although the majority of his delegate gain came from the considerably more populous state of Washington, which he won by a 46% margin,[95] outperforming then-Senator Obama's 2008 results, when he defeated Clinton 68%–31%.[96] The Clinton and Sanders campaigns reached an agreement on April 4 for a ninth debate to take place on April 14 (five days before the New York primary) in Brooklyn, New York, which would air on CNN and NY1.[97] On April 5, Sanders won the Wisconsin primary by 14 points, closing his delegate deficit by 10 more. The Wyoming caucuses were held on April 9, which Sanders won with 55.7% of the state convention delegates choosing him; however, Clinton had a stronger showing than expected, given her demographic disadvantage and that she did not campaign personally in the state. Each candidate was estimated to have earned 7 of Wyoming's 14 pledged delegates.[98]

Late April and May[edit]

Late April and May
State/territory Clinton Sanders
New York 58.0% 42.0%
Connecticut 51.7% 46.5%
Delaware 59.8% 39.2%
Maryland 63.0% 33.3%
Pennsylvania 55.6% 43.6%
Rhode Island 43.3% 55.0%
Indiana 47.5% 52.5%
Guam 59.5% 40.5%
West Virginia 35.8% 51.4%
Kentucky 46.8% 46.3%
Oregon 42.5% 55.9%
Sanders speaks in Brooklyn, New York, April 2016

On April 19, Clinton won New York by 16 points. While Sanders performed well in Upstate New York and with younger voters, Clinton performed well among all other age groups and non-whites, and she won a majority in all boroughs of New York City.[99]

Five Northeastern states held primaries a week later on April 26. The day was dubbed the "Super Tuesday III" or the "Acela Primary" after Amtrak's Acela Express train service that connects these states.[100] Clinton won in Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and Connecticut while Sanders won the Rhode Island primary.

On May 3, Sanders pulled off a surprise victory in the Indiana primary, winning over Clinton by a five-point margin despite trailing in all the state's polls.[101] Clinton then won the Guam caucus on May 7[102] and, on May 10, she won the non-binding Nebraska primary[103] while Sanders won in West Virginia.

Clinton narrowly won Kentucky on May 17 by half a percentage point and gained one delegate, after heavily campaigning in the state. On the same day, Sanders won his second closed primary in Oregon where he gained nine delegates, a net gain of eight on the day. Clinton then went on to win the non-binding Washington primary on May 24.[104]

June contests[edit]

June contests
State/territory Clinton Sanders
Virgin Islands 87.1% 12.9%
Puerto Rico 59.4% 37.5%
California 53.1% 46.0%
Montana 44.6% 51.0%
New Jersey 63.3% 36.7%
New Mexico 51.5% 48.5%
North Dakota 25.6% 64.2%
South Dakota 51.0% 49.0%
District of Columbia 78.7% 21.1%
Clinton speaks in Washington, D.C., June 2016

June contained the final contests of the Democratic primaries, and both Sanders and Clinton invested heavily into winning the California primary. Clinton led the polls in California but some predicted a narrow race.[105] On June 4 and 5, Clinton won two decisive victories in the Virgin Islands caucus[106] and Puerto Rico primary.[107] On June 6, both the Associated Press and NBC News reported that Clinton had sufficient support from pledged and unpledged delegates to become the presumptive Democratic nominee.[108] Clinton's campaign seemed reluctant to accept the mantle of "presumptive nominee" before all the voting was concluded,[109] while Sanders' campaign stated it would continue to run and accused the media of a "rush to judgement."[110] Six states held their primaries on June 7. Clinton won in California, New Jersey, New Mexico and South Dakota. Sanders won Montana and North Dakota, the latter being the only caucus contest held on that day.[111] Clinton finally declared victory on the evening of June 7, as the results ensured that she had won a majority of the pledged delegates and the popular vote.[111] Sanders stated he would continue to run for the Democratic Party's nomination in the final primary in the District of Columbia on June 14,[112] which Clinton won. Both campaigns met at a downtown Washington D.C. hotel after the primary.[113] The Sanders campaign said that they would release a video statement on June 16 to clarify the future of Sanders' campaign; the video announced that Sanders looked forward to help Clinton defeat Trump.[114] On July 12, 2016, Sanders endorsed Clinton in Portsmouth, New Hampshire.[115]

July 2016: E-mail leaks and National Convention[edit]

On July 22, 2016, Wikileaks released online tens of thousands of messages hacked from the e-mail accounts of seven key DNC staff.[116] The e-mails demonstrate how, even during the late stage of the campaign, when Hillary Clinton's lead had been crystallized, the DNC still appeared committed to undermine the Sanders campaign.[116] The e-mails show DNC staff discussing the possibility of coordinating negative stories about the Sanders campaign with the press. DNC CFO Brad Marshall suggested using the media to attack Sanders from a religious angle, portraying him as an atheist, ahead of the Kentucky and West Virginia primaries. DNC CEO Amy K. Dacey responded approvingly with, "Amen."[116] Then DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz appears attacking Sanders staffers as liars.[116] The e-mails also show that the DNC exchanged messages with the Clinton campaign on strategies to attack the Sanders campaign. The e-mails provoked Wasserman Schultz's resignation ahead of the convention,[117] and that of Marshals, Dacey, and Communications Director Luis Miranda afterwards.[118] In November 2017, Donna Brazile confirmed that the Clinton campaign had systematically rigged the primary by taking control of the DNC's funding.[119]

The 2016 Democratic National Convention was held from July 25–28 at the Wells Fargo Center in Philadelphia, with some events at the Pennsylvania Convention Center. The delegates selected the Democratic presidential and vice presidential nominees and wrote the party platform. A simple majority of 2,383 delegates was needed to win the presidential nomination.[120] While most of the delegates were bound on the first ballot according to the results of the primaries, a progressively larger number of pledged delegates would have become unbound if the nomination required more than one ballot.[121] Clinton was nominated on the first ballot by acclamation, although all states were allowed to announce how they would have voted under a typical roll call vote. On July 12, 2016, the Vermont delegates had supported Clinton in Sanders' request; asking for party unity, he dropped out on July 26, 2016 and announced he'd return to the Senate as an Independent.[122]

Graphical summary of polling since 2013[edit]

Democratic Party presidential primary polling for the 2016 election (moving average is calculated from the last twelve polls)
  Hillary Clinton
  Bernie Sanders
  Joe Biden
  Martin O'Malley
  Jim Webb
  Lincoln Chafee
  Lawrence Lessig

Campaign finance[edit]

This is an overview of the money used in the campaign as it is reported to Federal Election Commission (FEC) and released on April 27, 2016. Outside groups are independent expenditure only committees—also called PACs and SuperPACs. Several such groups normally support each candidate, but the numbers in the table are a total of all of them. This means that a group of committees can be shown as technically insolvent (shown in red) even though it is not the case of all of them. The Campaign Committee's debt are shown in red if the campaign is technically insolvent. The source of all the numbers is Center for Responsive Politics.[123] Some spending totals are not available, due to withdrawals before the FEC deadline.

Campaign committee (as of April 30) Outside groups (as of May 16) Total spent Campaign
suspended[b]
Money raised Money spent Cash on hand Debt Money raised Money spent Cash on hand
Hillary Clinton[124] $204,258,301 $174,101,369 $30,156,932 $612,248 $84,815,067 $38,332,454 $46,482,614 $212,433,823 Convention
Bernie Sanders[125] $227,678,274 $219,695,969 $8,015,274 $898,879 $869,412 $1,069,765 $-200,353 $220,765,734 July 26
Martin O'Malley $6,073,767 $5,965,205 $108,562 $19,423 $1,105,138 $1,298,967 $-193,829 $7,264,172 February 1
Lawrence Lessig $1,196,753 N/A N/A N/A $0 $0 $0 N/A November 2
Jim Webb $764,992 $558,151 $206,842 $0 $27,092 $31,930 $-4,838 $590,081 October 20
Lincoln Chafee $418,136 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A October 23

Process[edit]

The Democratic Party presidential primaries and caucuses are indirect elections in which voters elect delegates to the 2016 Democratic National Convention; these delegates in turn directly elect the Democratic Party's presidential nominee. In some states, the party may disregard voters' selection of delegates or selected delegates may vote for any candidate at the state or national convention (non-binding primary or caucus). In other states, state laws and party rules require the party to select delegates according to votes, and delegates must vote for a particular candidate (binding primary or caucus). There are 4,051 pledged delegates and 714 superdelegates in the 2016 cycle.[126] Under the party's delegate selection rules, the number of pledged delegates allocated to each of the 50 U.S. states and Washington, D.C. is determined using a formula based on three main factors:

  1. The proportion of votes each state gave to the Democratic candidate in the last three presidential elections (2004, 2008, and 2012)
  2. The number of electoral votes each state has in the United States Electoral College.
  3. The stage of the primary season when they held their contest. States and territories that held their contests later are given bonus seats.

A candidate must win 2,383 delegates at the national convention, in order to win the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination.[126] For the U.S. territories of Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands and for Democrats Abroad, fixed numbers of pledged delegates are allocated. All states and territories then must have used a proportional representation system, where their pledged delegates were awarded proportionally to the election results.[127] A candidate must receive at least 15% of the popular vote to win pledged delegates in a state. The current 714 unpledged superdelegates (or "soft" delegates) will include members of the United States House of Representatives and Senate, state and territorial governors, members of the Democratic National Committee, and other party leaders. Because of possible deaths, resignations, or the results of intervening or special elections, the final number of these superdelegates may be reduced before the convention.[127] The Democratic National Committee also imposed rules for states that wished to hold early contests in 2016. No state was be permitted to hold a primary or caucus in January and only Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina and Nevada were entitled to February contests. Any state that violated these rules were penalized half its pledged delegates and all its superdelegates to the 2016 convention.[127]

Schedule and results[edit]

2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries popular vote.svg 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries delegate count.svg 2016 Democratic Party presidential primaries delegates.svg

The following are the results of candidates that won at least one state. These candidates were on the ballots for every state, territory and federal district contest. The results of caucuses did not always have attached preference polls and attendance was extremely limited. The unpledged delegate count did not always reflect the latest declared preferences.

Date State/territory Calculated delegates Type[g] Popular vote or equivalent[h] Estimated delegates[i]
Clinton
Hillary Clinton by Gage Skidmore 2.jpg
Sanders
Bernie Sanders September 2015 cropped.jpg
Clinton Sanders Available[j]
P U T P U T P U T P U T
Feb 1 Iowa[128] 44 7 51 Semi-open caucus 700 SDE (49.8%) 697 SDE (49.6%) 23 6 29 21 0 21 0 1 1
Feb 9 New Hampshire[129] 24 8 32 Semi-closed primary 95,355 (37.7%) 152,193 (60.1%) 9 6 15 15 1 16 0 1 1
Feb 20 Nevada[130] 35 8 43 Closed caucus 6,316 CD (52.6%) 5,678 CD (47.3%) 20 7 27 15 1 16 0 0 0
Feb 27 South Carolina[131] 53 6 59 Open primary 272,379 (73.4%) 96,498 (26.0%) 39 5 44 14 0 14 0 1 1
Mar 1 Alabama[132] 53 7 60 Open primary 309,926 (77.8%) 76,401 (19.2%) 44 6 50 9 0 9 0 1 1
American Samoa[133] 6 5 11 Closed caucus 162 (68.4%) 61 (25.7%) 4 4 8 2 1 3 0 0 0
Arkansas[134] 32 5 37 Open primary 146,057 (66.1%) 66,236 (30.0%) 22 5 27 10 0 10 0 0 0
Colorado[135] 66 12 78 Closed caucus 49,789 (40.3%) 72,846 (59.0%) 25 9 34 41 0 41 0 3 3
Georgia[136] 102 15 117 Open primary 543,008 (71.3%) 214,332 (28.2%) 73 11 84 29 0 29 0 4 4
Massachusetts[137][138] 91 24 115 Semi-closed primary 606,822 (49.7%) 589,803 (48.3%) 46 21 67 45 1 46 0 2 2
Minnesota[139] 77 16 93 Open caucus 73,510 (38.4%) 118,135 (61.6%) 31 12 43 46 2 48 0 2 2
Oklahoma[140][141] 38 4 42 Semi-closed primary 139,443 (41.5%) 174,228 (51.9%) 17 1 18 21 1 22 0 2 2
Tennessee[142] 67 8 75 Open primary 245,930 (66.1%) 120,800 (32.5%) 44 8 52 23 0 23 0 0 0
Texas[143] 222 29 251 Open primary 936,004 (65.2%) 476,547 (33.2%) 147 21 168 75 0 75 0 8 8
Vermont[144][145] 16 10 26 Open primary 18,338 (13.6%) 115,900 (85.7%) 0 5 5 16 5 21 0 0 0
Virginia[146] 95 13 108 Open primary 504,741 (64.3%) 276,370 (35.2%) 62 12 74 33 0 33 0 1 1
Mar 5 Kansas[147] 33 4 37 Closed caucus 12,593 (32.3%) 26,450 (67.7%) 10 4 14 23 0 23 0 0 0
Louisiana[148] 51 8 59 Closed primary 221,733 (71.1%) 72,276 (23.2%) 37 6 43 14 0 14 0 2 2
Nebraska[149] 25 5 30 Closed caucus 14,340 (42.9%) 19,120 (57.1%) 10 3 13 15 1 16 0 1 1
Mar 6 Maine[150] 25 5 30 Closed caucus 1,232 SCD (35.5%) 2,231 SCD (64.3%) 8 4 12 17 1 18 0 0 0
Mar 1–8 Democrats Abroad[151] 13 4[k] 17 Closed primary 10,689 (30.9%) 23,779 (68.9%) 4 9 ½ 0 1 1
Mar 8 Michigan[152][153] 130 17 147 Open primary 581,775 (48.3%) 598,943 (49.7%) 63 13 76 67 0 67 0 4 4
Mississippi[154] 36 5 41 Open primary 187,334 (82.5%) 37,748 (16.6%) 31 3 34 5 2 7 0 0 0
Mar 12 Northern Marianas[155] 6 5 11 Closed caucus 102 (54.0%) 65 (34.4%) 4 5 9 2 0 2 0 0 0
Mar 15 Florida[156][157] 214 32 246 Closed primary 1,101,414 (64.4%) 568,839 (33.3%) 141 24 165 73 2 75 0 6 6
Illinois[158] 156 27 183 Open primary 1,039,555 (50.6%) 999,494 (48.6%) 79 24 103 77 1 78 0 1[j] 1[j]
Missouri[159] 71 13 84 Open primary 312,285 (49.6%) 310,711 (49.4%) 36 11 47 35 0 35 0 2 2
North Carolina[160] 107 14 121 Semi-closed primary 622,915 (54.5%) 467,018 (40.9%) 60 9 69 47 2 49 0 3 3
Ohio[161][162] 143 17 160 Semi-open primary 696,681 (56.1%) 535,395 (43.1%) 81 16 97 62 1 63 0 0 0
Mar 22 Arizona[163][164] 75 10 85 Closed primary 262,459 (56.3%) 192,962 (41.4%) 42 6 48 33 1 34 0 3 3
Idaho[165] 23 4 27 Open caucus 5,065 (21.2%) 18,640 (78.0%) 5 1 6 18 2 20 0 1 1
Utah[166] 33 4 37 Semi-open caucus 15,666 (20.3%) 61,333 (79.3%) 6 2 8 27 2 29 0 0 0
Mar 26 Alaska[167][168] 16 4 20 Closed caucus 2,146 (20.2%) 8,447 (79.6%) 3 1 4 13 1 14 0 2 2
Hawaii[169] 25 9 34 Semi-closed caucus 10,125 (30.0%) 23,530 (69.8%) 8 5 13 17 2 19 0 2 2
Washington[170] 101 17 118 Open caucus 7,140 LDD (27.1%) 19,159 LDD (72.7%) 27 11 38 74 0 74 0 6 6
Apr 5 Wisconsin[171][172] 86 10 96 Open primary 433,739 (43.1%) 570,192 (56.6%) 38 9 47 48 1 49 0 0 0
Apr 9 Wyoming[173] 14 4 18 Closed caucus 124 SCD (44.3%) 156 SCD (55.7%) 7 4 11 7 0 7 0 0 0
Apr 19 New York[174][175][176] 247 44 291 Closed primary 1,133,980 (57.5%) 820,256 (41.6%) 139 41 180 108 0 108 0 3 3
Apr 26 Connecticut[177][178] 55 16 71 Closed primary 170,045 (51.8%) 152,379 (46.4%) 28 15 43 27 0 27 0 1 1
Delaware[179][180] 21 11 32 Closed primary 55,954 (59.8%) 36,662 (39.2%) 12 11 23 9 0 9 0 0 0
Maryland[181][182] 95 24 119 Closed primary 573,242 (62.5%) 309,990 (33.8%) 60 17 77 35 1 36 0 6 6
Pennsylvania[183] 189 19 208 Closed primary 935,107 (55.6%) 731,881 (43.5%) 106 19 125 83 0 83 0 1 1
Rhode Island[184][185] 24 9 33 Semi-closed primary 52,749 (43.1%) 66,993 (54.7%) 11 9 20 13 0 13 0 0 0
May 3 Indiana[186] 83 9 92 Open primary 303,705 (47.5%) 335,074 (52.5%) 39 7 46 44 0 44 0 2 2
May 7 Guam[187] 7 5 12 Closed caucus 777 (59.5%) 528 (40.5%) 4 5 9 3 0 3 0 0 0
May 10 Nebraska[188] N/A Closed primary 42,692 (53.1%) 37,744 (46.9%) Non-binding primary with no delegates allocated.
West Virginia[189] 29 8 37 Semi-closed primary 86,914 (35.8%) 124,700 (51.4%) 11 6 17 18 2 20 0 0 0
May 17 Kentucky[190][191] 55 5 60 Closed primary 212,534 (46.8%) 210,623 (46.3%) 28 2 30 27 0 27 0 3 3
Oregon[192][193][194] 61 13 74 Closed primary 269,846 (42.1%) 360,829 (56.2%) 25 7 32 36 3 39 0 3 3
May 24 Washington[195] N/A Open primary[196][l] 420,461 (52.4%) 382,293 (47.6%) Non-binding primary with no delegates allocated.
Jun 4 Virgin Islands[197][198][199] 7 5 12 Closed caucus 1,326 (87.12%) 196 (12.88%) 7 5 12 0 0 0 0 0 0
Jun 5 Puerto Rico[200] 60 7 67 Open primary 52,658 (59.7%) 33,368 (37.9%) 37 6 43 23 0 23 0 1 1
Jun 7 California[201][202] 475 76 551 Semi-closed primary 2,745,302 (53.1%) 2,381,722 (46.0%) 254 66 320 221 0 221 0 10 10
Montana[203][204] 21 6 27 Open primary 55,805 (44.2%) 65,156 (51.6%) 10 5 15 11 1 12 0 0 0
New Jersey[205][206][207] 126 16 142 Semi-closed primary 566,247 (63.3%) 328,058 (36.7%) 79 12 91 47 2 49 0 2 2
New Mexico[208][209] 34 9 43 Closed primary 111,334 (51.5%) 104,741 (48.5%) 18 9 27 16 0 16 0 0 0
North Dakota[210] 18 5 23 Open caucus[211][m] 106 SCD (25.6%) 258 SCD (64.2%) 5 1 6 13 1 14 0 3 3
South Dakota[212][213] 20 5 25 Semi-closed primary[214] 27,047 (51.0%) 25,959 (49.0%) 10 2 12 10 0 10 0 3 3
Jun 14 District of Columbia[215][216] 20 25 45 Closed primary 76,704 (78.0%) 20,361 (20.7%) 16 23 39 4 2 6 0 0 0
Total 4,051 712 4,763 16,847,084
(55.20%)[a]
13,168,222
(43.14%)[a]
2,205 570½ 2,775½ 1,846 43½ 1,889½ 0 97[j] 97[j]
Date State/territory P U T Type Clinton Sanders P U T P U T P U T
Calculated delegates Popular vote or equivalent Clinton delegates Sanders delegates Available delegates

Superdelegate endorsements[edit]

Superdelegates are elected officials and members of the Democratic National Committee who will vote at the Democratic National Convention for their preferred candidate. Also known as unpledged delegates, they comprise 15% of the convention (712 votes out of 4,763) and they may change their preference at any time. The table below reflects current public endorsements of candidates by superdelegates, as detailed and sourced in the full list above. Because commonly referenced estimates of superdelegate support, including those by CNN[217] and the AP,[218] do not identify individual delegates as supporting a given candidate, their published tallies may differ from the totals computed here.

Distinguished party leaders Governors Senators Representatives DNC members Totals
Hillary Clinton 17 20 45 177 311½ 570½
Bernie Sanders 1 0 2 7 34½ 44½
Martin O'Malley 0 0 0 0 1 1
No endorsement 2 1 0 7 86 96
Totals 20 21 47 191 433 712

Note: Democrats Abroad Superdelegates are assigned half-votes; each of them accounts for ½ rather than 1 in the table above.

Maps[edit]

See also[edit]

Related

Democratic Party articles

Presidential primaries

National conventions

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Does not include popular vote totals from Iowa, Maine, Nevada, North Dakota, Washington, Wyoming, or non-binding primaries
  2. ^ a b c In US elections, suspending a campaign allows candidates to cease active campaigning while still legally raising funds to pay off their debts.[4]
  3. ^ a b According to popular vote or pledged delegate count (not counting superdelegates); see below for detail.
  4. ^ a b Pledged delegates split evenly between Sanders and Clinton.
  5. ^ Hillary Clinton won the non-binding Nebraska Democratic Primary.
  6. ^ Hillary Clinton won the non-binding Washington Democratic Primary.
  7. ^ Differences between types:
    • Open: Anyone can participate regardless of their registered party affiliation.
    • Semi-open: Anyone can participate except registered Republicans.
    • Semi-closed: Only registered Democrats or undeclared can participate.
    • Closed: Only registered Democrats can participate.
  8. ^ Differences between types:
    • CD: 'Popular vote' tallies the county delegates.
    • LDD: 'Popular vote' tallies the legislative district delegates.
    • SCD: 'Popular vote' tallies the state convention delegates.
    • SDE: 'Popular vote' tallies the state delegate equivalents.
  9. ^ Pledged delegates are elected with the understanding that they will support a specific candidate.
    Unpledged delegates (superdelegates) are not required to voice support for a specific candidate.
  10. ^ a b c d e One Illinois superdelegate is still committed to O'Malley. Therefore, the total number of available delegates is one less than expected.
  11. ^ There are 8 unpledged delegates from Democrats Abroad that each cast half a vote at the national convention.
  12. ^ Open to all voters excluding those who caucused with the Republicans on February 20.
  13. ^ Open to all voters, though those who attend must state they will identify as a Democrat for the 2016 election.

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