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RESULTS [51 .. 101]
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Largest ancestry groups by county, 2000.

As of December 21, 2014, the United States has a total resident population of 319,448,985, making it the third-most populous country in the world.[1] It is very urbanized, with 81% residing in cities and suburbs as of 2014 (the worldwide urban rate is 54%).[2] California and Texas are the most populous states,[3] as the mean center of U.S. population has consistently shifted westward and southward.[4] New York City is the most populous city in the United States.[5]

The total fertility rate in the United States estimated for 2013 is 1.87 children per woman,[6] which is below the replacement fertility rate of approximately 2.1. Compared to other Western countries, in 2012, U.S. fertility rate was lower than that of France (2.01),[7] Australia (1.93) and the United Kingdom (1.92).[8] However, U.S. population growth is among the highest in industrialized countries,[9] because the differences in fertility rates are less than the differences in immigration levels, which are higher in the U.S.[10][11] The United States Census Bureau shows population increase of 0.75% for the twelve-month period ending in July 2012. Though high by industrialized country standards, this is below the world average annual rate of 1.1%.[9]

There were over 158.6 million females in the United States in 2009. The number of males was 151.4 million. At age 85 and older, there were more than twice as many women as men. People under 20 years of age made up over a quarter of the U.S. population (27.3%), and people age 65 and over made up one-eighth (12.8%) in 2009.[12] The national median age was 36.8 years.[12]

The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. It includes people who reported "White" or wrote in entries such as Irish, German, Italian, Lebanese, Near Easterner, Arab, or Polish."[13] Whites constitute the majority of the U.S. population, with a total of about 245,532,000 or 77.7% of the population as of 2013. There are 62.6% Whites when Hispanics who describe themselves as "white" are taken out of the calculation. Despite major changes due to illegal and legal immigration since the 1960s and the higher birth-rates of nonwhites, the overall current majority of American citizens are still white, and English-speaking, though regional differences exist.

The American population almost quadrupled during the 20th century—at a growth rate of about 1.3% a year—from about 76 million in 1900 to 281 million in 2000. It reached the 200 million mark in 1968, and the 300 million mark on October 17, 2006.[14][15] Population growth is fastest among minorities as a whole, and according to the Census Bureau's estimation for 2012, 50.4% of American children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups.[16]

Hispanic and Latino Americans accounted for 48% of the national population growth of 2.9 million between July 1, 2005, and July 1, 2006.[17] Immigrants and their U.S.-born descendants are expected to provide most of the U.S. population gains in the decades ahead.[18]

The Census Bureau projects a U.S. population of 439 million in 2050, which is a 46% increase from 2007 (301.3 million).[19] However, the United Nations projects a U.S. population of 402 million in 2050, an increase of 32% from 2007 .[20] In either case, such growth is unlike most European countries, especially Germany, and Greece, or Asian countries such as Japan or South Korea, whose populations are slowly declining, and whose fertility rates are below replacement. Official census report, reported that 54.4% (2,150,926 out of 3,953,593) of births in 2010, were non-Hispanic white. This represents an increase of 0.34% compared to the previous year, which was 54.06%.[21]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790 3,929,214
1800 5,236,631 33.3%
1810 7,239,881 38.3%
1820 9,638,453 33.1%
1830 12,866,020 33.5%
1840 17,069,453 32.7%
1850 23,191,876 35.9%
1860 31,443,321 35.6%
1870 38,558,371 22.6%
1880 49,371,340 28.0%
1890 62,979,766 27.6%
1900 76,212,168 21.0%
1910 92,228,531 21.0%
1920 106,021,568 15.0%
1930 123,202,660 16.2%
1940 132,165,129 7.3%
1950 151,325,798 14.5%
1960 179,323,175 18.5%
1970 203,211,926 13.3%
1980 226,545,805 11.5%
1990 248,709,873 9.8%
2000 281,421,906 13.2%
2010 308,745,531 9.7%
Est. 2014 319,404,381 3.5%
Sources: United States Census Bureau[22][23][24]

History[edit]

Manhattan's Little Italy, Lower East Side, circa 1900.

In 1900, when the U.S. population was 76 million, there were 66.8 million Whites in the United States, representing 88% of the total population,[25] 8.8 million African Americans, with about 90% of them still living in Southern states,[26] and slightly more than 500,000 Hispanics.[27]

Under the law, the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965,[28] the number of first-generation immigrants living in the United States has increased,[29] from 9.6 million in 1970 to about 38 million in 2007.[30] Around a million people legally immigrated to the United States per year in the 1990s, up from 250,000 per year in the 1950s.[31] In 2009, 37% of immigrants originated in Asia, 42% in North America, and 11% in Africa.[32]

In 1900, non-Hispanic whites comprised almost 97% of the population of the 10 largest American cities.[33] By 2006, non-Hispanic whites had dwindled to a minority in 35 of the nation's 50 largest cities.[34] The Census Bureau reported that minorities made up 50.4% of the children born in the U.S. between July 2010 and July 2011,[35] compared to 37% in 1990.[36]

In 2010 the state with the lowest fertility rate was Rhode Island, with 1,630.5 children per thousand women, while Utah had the greatest rate with 2,449.0 children per thousand women.[37] This correlates with the ages of the states' populations: Rhode Island has the ninth-oldest median age in the US—39.2—while Utah has the youngest—29.0.[38]

Vital statistics[edit]

The population growth of each U.S. state between 1970 and 2010. Click on this map to see the scale/key for this map.

The U.S. total fertility rate as of 2010 census is 1.931:

Other:

(Note that ~95% of Hispanics are included as "white Hispanics" by CDC, which does not recognize the Census' "Some other race" category and counts people in that category as white.)

Source: National Vital statistics report based on 2010 US Census data[21]

2012 birth data, by races[edit]

The U.S. total fertility rate for 2012 is 1.881:[39][40]

  • 1.886 for White Americans
    • 1.762 for non-Hispanic Whites
  • 1.900 for Black Americans
    • 1.899 for non-Hispanic Blacks
  • 1.350 for Native Americans (including Hispanics)
  • 1.770 for Asian Americans (including Hispanics)

Other:

  • 2.189 for Hispanics (of all racial groups)
Age group USA 100% (percent of the population) White alone 72.41% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) Black alone 12.61% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) Mixed 9.11% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) Asian alone 4.75% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) American Indian and Alaska Native alone 0.95% (percent in the race/percent in the age group) Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander alone 0.17% (percent in the race/percent in the age group)
Population 308 745 538 223 553 265 38 929 319 28 116 441 14 674 252 2 932 248 540 013
0-4 20 201 362 (6.5%) 12 795 675 (5.7%/63.34%) 2 902 590 (7.5%/14.37%) 3 315 480 (11.8%/16.41%) 898 011 (6.1%/4.45%) 244 615 (8.3%/1.21%) 44 991 (8.3%/0.22%)
5-9 20 348 657 (6.6%) 13 293 799 (5.9%/65.33%) 2 882 597 (7.4%/14.17%) 2 957 487 (10.5%/14.53%) 928 248 (6.3%/4.56%) 243 259 (8.3%/1.20%) 43 267 (8.0%/0.21%)
10-14 20 677 194 (6.7%) 13 737 332 (6.1%/66.44%) 3 034 266 (7.8%/14.67%) 2 736 570 (9.7%/13.23%) 881 590 (6.0%/4.26%) 245 049 (8.4%/1.19%) 42 387 (7.8%/0.20%)
15-19 22 040 343 (7.1%) 14 620 638 (6.5%/66.35%) 3 448 051 (8.9%/15.64%) 2 704 571 (9.6%/12.27%) 956 028 (6.5%/4.34%) 263 805 (9.0%/1.20%) 47 250 (8.7%/0.21%)
20-24 21 585 999 (7.0%) 14 535 947 (6.5%/67.34%) 3 111 397 (8.0%/14.41%) 2 538 967 (9.0%/11.76%) 1 106 222 (7.5%/5.12%) 240 716 (8.2%/1.12%) 52 750 (9.8%/0.24%)
25-29 21 101 849 (6.8%) 14 345 364 (6.4%/67.98%) 2 786 254 (7.2%/13.20%) 2 464 343 (8.8%/11.68%) 1 234 322 (8.4%/5.85%) 221 654 (7.6%/1.05%) 49 912 (9.2%/0.24%)
30-34 19 962 099 (6.5%) 13 573 270 (6.1%/68.00%) 2 627 925 (6.8%/13.16%) 2 273 322 (8.1%/11.39%) 1 240 906 (8.5%/6.22%) 202 928 (6.9%/1.02%) 43 748 (8.1%/0.22%)
35-39 20 179 642 (6.5%) 13 996 797 (6.3%/69.36%) 2 613 389 (6.7%/12.95%) 2 038 408 (7.2%/10.10%) 1 296 301 (8.8%/6.42%) 196 017 (6.7%/0.97%) 38 730 (7.2%/0.19%)
40-44 20 890 964 (6.8%) 15 052 798 (6.7%/72.05%) 2 669 034 (6.9%/12.78%) 1 782 463 (6.3%/8.53%) 1 155 565 (7.9%/5.53%) 194 713 (6.6%/0.93%) 36 391 (6.7%/0.17%)
45-49 22 708 591 (7.4%) 17 028 255 (7.6%/74.99%) 2 828 657 (7.3%/12,46%) 1 532 117 (5.4%/6.75%) 1 076 060 (7.3%/4.74%) 207 857 (7.1%/0.92%) 35 645 (6.6%/0.16%)
50-54 22 298 125 (7.2%) 17 178 632 (7.7%/77.04%) 2 694 247 (6.9%/12.08%) 1 222 175 (4.3%/5.48%) 980 282 (6.7%/4.40%) 191 893 (6.5%/0.86%) 30 896 (5.7%/0.14%)
55-59 19 664 805 (6.4%) 15 562 187 (7.0%/79.14%) 2 205 820 (5.7%/11.22%) 873 943 (3.1%/4.44%) 844 490 (5.8%/4.29%) 154 320 (5.3%/0.78%) 24 045 (4.5%/0.12%)
60-64 16 817 924 (5.4%) 13 693 334 (6.1%/81.42%) 1 686 695 (4.3%/10.03%) 611 144 (2.2%/3.63%) 689 601 (4.7%/4.10%) 118 362 (4.0%/0.70%) 18 788 (3.5%/0.11%)
65-69 12 435 263 (4.0%) 10 313 002 (4.6%/82.93%) 1 162 577 (3.0%/9.35%) 394 208 (1.4%/3.17%) 474 327 (3.2%/3.81%) 79 079 (2.7%/0.64%) 12 070 (2.2%/0.10%)
70-74 9 278 166 (3.0%) 7 740 932 (3.5%/83.43%) 852 317 (2.2%/9.19%) 268 574 (1.0%/2.89%) 354 268 (2.4%/3.82%) 53 926 (1.8%/0.58%) 8 149 (1.5%/0.09%)
75-79 7 317 795 (2.4%) 6 224 569 (2.8%/85.06%) 616 789 (1.6%/8.43%) 184 596 (0.7%/2.52%) 251 210 (1.7%/3.43%) 35 268 (1.2%/0.48%) 5 363 (1.0%/0.07%)
80-84 5 743 327 (1.9%) 5 002 427 (2.2%/87.10%) 424 592 (1.1%/7.39%) 122 249 (0.4%/2.13%) 168 879 (1.2%/2.94%) 21 963 (0.7%/0.38%) 3 217 (0.6%/0.06%)
85+ 5 493 433 (1.8%) 4 858 307 (2.2%/88.44%) 382 122 (1.0%/6.96%) 95 824 (0.3%/1.74%) 137 942 (0.9%/2.51%) 16 824 (0.6%/0.31%) 2 414 (0.4%/0.04%)
Average population (x 1,000)[41] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000)[42] Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rate
1935 127,362 2,377,000 1,392,752 984,248 18.7 10.9 7.7 2.19
1936 128,181 2,355,000 1,479,228 875,772 18.4 11.5 6.8 2.15
1937 128,961 2,413,000 1,450,427 962,573 18.7 11.2 7.5 2.17
1938 129,969 2,496,000 1,381,391 1,114,609 19.2 10.6 8.6 2.22
1939 131,028 2,466,000 1,387,897 1,078,103 18.8 10.6 8.2 2.17
1940 132,165 2,559,000 1,417,269 1,142,000 19.4 10.8 8.6 2.23
1941 133,002 2,703,000 1,397,642 1,305,358 20.3 10.5 9.8 2.33
1942 134,464 2,989,000 1,385,187 1,603,813 22.2 10.3 11.9 2.55
1943 136,003 3,104,000 1,459,544 1,644,306 22.8 10.7 12.1 2.64
1944 138,083 2,939,000 1,411,338 1,644,456 21.2 10.2 11.0 2.49
1945 139,994 2,858,000 1,401,719 1,456,281 20.4 10.0 10.4 2.42
1946 140,008 3,411,000 1,395,617 2,015,383 24.1 10.0 14.1 2.86
1947 145,023 3,817,000 1,445,370 2,371,630 26.6 10.0 16.6 3.18
1948 148,013 3,637,000 1,444,337 2,192,663 24.9 9.8 15.1 3.03
1949 149,336 3,649,000 1,443,607 2,205,393 24.5 9.7 14.8 3.04
1950 151,861 3,632,000 1,452,454 2,180,000 24.1 9.6 14.5 3.03
1951 154,056 3,823,000 1,482,099 2,340,901 24.8 9.6 15.2 3.20
1952 156,431 3,913,000 1,496,838 2,416,162 25.0 9.6 15.4 3.30
1953 159,047 3,965,000 1,447,459 2,142,000 25.2 9.1 16.1 3.36
1954 161,948 4,078,000 1,481,091 2,596,909 24.8 9.3 15.5 3.48
1955 163,476 4,097,000 1,528,717 2,568,283 25.0 9.3 14.3 3.52
1956 166,578 4,218,000 1,564,476 2,653,524 25.1 9.3 15.8 3.63
1957 169,637 4,308,000 1,633,128 2,666,872 25.3 9.5 15.8 3.71
1958 172,668 4,255,000 1,647,886 2,607,114 24.4 9.5 14.9 3.65
1959 175,642 4,244,796 1,656,814 2,587,982 24.0 9.4 14.7 3.66
1960 179,979 4,257,850 1,711,982 2,545,868 23.7 9.5 14.1 3.65
1961 182,992 4,268,326 1,701,522 2,566,804 23.3 9.3 14.0 3.62
1962 185,771 4,167,362 1,756,720 2,410,642 22.4 9.5 12.9 3.46
1963 188,483 4,098,020 1,813,549 2,284,471 21.7 9.6 12.1 3.32
1964 191,141 4,027,490 1,798,051 2,229,439 21.1 9.4 11.7 3.19
1965 193,526 3,760,358 1,828,136 1,932,222 19.4 9.5 9.9 2.91
1966 195,576 3,606,274 1,863,149 1,743,125 18.4 9.5 8.9 2.72
1967 197,457 3,520,959 1,851,323 1,669,636 17.8 9.4 8.4 2.56
1968 199,399 3,501,564 1,930,082 1,571,482 17.6 9.7 7.9 2.46
1969 201,385 3,600,206 1,921,990 1,678,216 17.9 9.5 8.4 2.46
1970 203,984 3,731,386 1,921,031 1,810,355 18.4 9.4 9.0 2.480
1971 206,827 3,555,970 1,927,542 1,628,428 17.2 9.3 7.9 2.266
1972 209,284 3,258,411 1,963,944 1,294,467 15.6 9.4 6.2 2.010
1973 211,357 3,136,965 1,973,003 1,163,962 14.8 9.5 5.3 1.879
1974 213,342 3,159,958 1,934,388 1,225,570 14.8 9.1 5.7 1.835
1975 215,465 3,144,198 1,892,879 1,251,319 14.6 8.8 5.8 1.774
1976 217,563 3,167,788 1,909,440 1,258,348 14.6 8.8 5.8 1.738
1977 219,760 3,326,632 1,899,597 1,427,035 15.1 8.6 6.5 1.789
1978 222,095 3,333,279 1,927,788 1,405,491 15.0 8.7 6.3 1.760
1979 224,567 3,494,398 1,913,841 1,580,557 15.6 8.5 7.1 1.808
1980 227,225 3,612,258 1,989,841 1,622,417 15.9 8.8 7.1 1.839
1981 229,466 3,629,238 1,977,981 1,651,257 15.8 8.6 7.2 1.812
1982 231,664 3,680,537 1,974,797 1,705,740 15.9 8.5 7.4 1.827
1983 233,792 3,638,933 2,019,201 1,619,732 15.6 8.6 6.9 1.799
1984 235,825 3,669,141 2,039,369 1,629,772 15.6 8.6 6.9 1.806
1985 237,924 3,760,561 2,086,440 1,674,121 15.8 8.8 7.0 1.844
1986 240,133 3,756,547 2,105,361 1,651,186 15.6 8.8 6.9 1.837
1987 242,289 3,809,394 2,123,323 1,686,071 15.7 8.8 7.0 1.872
1988 244,499 3,909,510 2,167,999 1,741,511 16.0 8.9 7.1 1.934
1989 246,819 4,040,958 2,150,466 1,890,492 16.4 8.7 7.7 2.014
1990 249,623 4,158,212 2,148,463 2,009,749 16.7 8.6 8.1 2.081
1991 252,981 4,110,907 2,169,518 1,941,389 16.2 8.6 7.7 2.062
1992 256,514 4,065,014 2,175,613 1,889,401 15.8 8.5 7.4 2.046
1993 259,919 4,000,240 2,268,553 1,731,687 15.4 8.7 6.7 2.019
1994 263,126 3,952,767 2,278,994 1,673,773 15.0 8.7 6.4 2.001
1995 266,278 3,899,589 2,312,132 1,587,457 14.6 8.7 6.0 1.978
1996 269,394 3,891,494 2,314,690 1,576,804 14.4 8.6 5.9 1.976
1997 272,647 3,880,894 2,314,245 1,566,649 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.971
1998 275,854 3,941,553 2,337,256 1,604,297 14.3 8.5 5.8 1.999
1999 279,040 3,959,417 2,391,399 1,568,018 14.2 8.6 5.6 2.007
2000 282,172 4,058,814 2,403,351 1,655,463 14.4 8.5 5.9 2.056
2001 285,082 4,025,933 2,416,425 1,609,508 14.1 8.5 5.6 2.030
2002 287,804 4,021,726 2,443,387 1,578,339 14.0 8.5 5.5 2.020
2003 290,326 4,089,950 2,448,288 1,641,662 14.1 8.4 5.5 2.047
2004 293,046 4,112,052 2,397,615 1,714,437 14.0 8.2 5.9 2.051
2005 295,753 4,138,349 2,448,017 1,690,332 14.0 8.3 5.7 2.057
2006 298,593 4,265,555 2,426,264 1,839,291 14.3 8.1 6.2 2.108
2007 301,580 4,316,233 2,423,712 1,892,521 14.3 8.0 6.3 2.120
2008 304,375 4,247,694 2,471,984 1,775,710 14.0 8.1 5.9 2.072
2009 307,007 4,130,665 2,437,163 1,693,502 13.5 7.9 5.6 2.002
2010 309,330 3,999,386 2,465,936 1,534,343 13.0 8.0 5.0 1.931
2011 311,583 3,953,593 2,513,171 1,440,422 12.7 8.1 4.6 1.894
2012 [43] 313,874 3,952,937 2,539,000 1,413,937 12.6 8.1 4.5 1.880
2013 316,129 3,932,181 12.5 1.869

Population density[edit]

Map of states showing population density by county (2010)


The most densely populated state is New Jersey (1,121/mi2 or 433/km2). See List of U.S. states by population density for maps and complete statistics.

The United States Census Bureau publishes a popular "dot" or "nighttime" map showing population distribution at a resolution of 7,500 people,[44] as well as complete listings of population density by place name.[45]

Cities[edit]

The United States has dozens of major cities, including 9 of the 66 "global cities"[46] of all types, with 10 in the "alpha" group of global cities: New York City, Los Angeles, Chicago, Washington, DC, Boston, San Francisco, Miami, Atlanta, Dallas, and Philadelphia.[47] As of 2011, the United States had 51 metropolitan areas with a population of over 1,000,000 people each. (See Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas.)

As of 2011, about 250 million Americans live in or around urban areas. That means more than three-quarters of the U.S. population shares just about three percent of the U.S. land area.[48]

The following table shows the populations of the top twenty metropolitan areas, at the time of the 2010 Census.

Leading population centers (see complete list)
Rank Core city (cities) Metro area population Metropolitan Statistical Area Region[49]
New York City
New York City

Los Angeles
Los Angeles

Chicago
Chicago
1 New York City 19,949,502 New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA MSA Mid-Atlantic
2 Los Angeles 13,131,431 Los Angeles–Long Beach–Santa Ana, CA MSA West
3 Chicago 9,537,289 Chicago–Joliet–Naperville, IL–IN–WI MSA Midwest
4 Dallas-Fort Worth 6,810,913 Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX MSA South
5 Houston 6,313,158 Houston–The Woodlands-Sugar Land MSA South
6 Philadelphia 6,034,678 Philadelphia–Camden–Wilmington, PA–NJ–DE–MD MSA Mid-Atlantic
7 Washington, D.C. 5,949,859 Washington, DC–VA–MD–WV MSA Mid-Atlantic
8 Miami 5,828,191 Miami–Fort Lauderdale–Pompano Beach, FL MSA South
9 Atlanta 5,522,942 Atlanta–Sandy Springs–Marietta, GA MSA South
10 Boston 4,684,299 Boston–Cambridge–Quincy, MA–NH MSA New England
11 San Francisco 4,516,276 San Francisco–Oakland–Fremont, CA MSA West
12 Phoenix 4,398,762 Phoenix–Mesa–Glendale, AZ MSA West
13 San Bernardino-Riverside 4,380,878 San Bernandino–Riverside–Ontario, CA MSA West
14 Detroit 4,294,983 Detroit–Warren–Livonia, MI MSA Midwest
15 Seattle 3,610,105 Seattle–Tacoma–Bellevue, WA MSA West
16 Minneapolis–St. Paul 3,459,146 Minneapolis–St. Paul–Bloomington, MN–WI MSA Midwest
17 San Diego 3,211,252 San Diego–Carlsbad–San Marcos, CA MSA West
18 Tampa–St. Petersburg 2,870,569 Tampa–St. Petersburg–Clearwater, FL MSA South
19 St. Louis 2,810,056 St. Louis–St. Charles–Farmington, MO–IL MSA Midwest
20 Baltimore 2,770,738 Baltimore–Towson, MD MSA Mid-Atlantic
based upon 2013 population estimates from the U.S. Census Bureau[50]

Race and ethnicity[edit]

Top ancestries in 2000

The U.S. population's distribution by race and ethnicity in 2010 was as follows; due to rounding, figures may not add up to the totals shown.[51]

Race / Ethnicity Number Percentage of
U.S. population
Americans 308,745,538 100.0 %
White American 223,553,265 72.4 %
African American 38,929,319 12.6 %
Asian American 14,674,252 4.8 %
Native Americans or Alaska Native 2,932,248 0.9 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 540,013 0.2 %
Some other race 19,107,368 6.2 %
Two or more races 9,009,073 2.9 %
Not Hispanic nor Latino 258,267,944 83.6 %
Non-Hispanic White 196,817,552 63.7 %
Non-Hispanic Black or African American 37,685,848 12.2 %
Non-Hispanic Asian 14,465,124 4.7 %
Non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native 2,247,098 0.7 %
Non-Hispanic Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander 481,576 0.2 %
Non-Hispanic some other race 604,265 0.2 %
Non-Hispanic two or more races 5,966,481 1.9 %
Hispanic or Latino 50,477,594 16.4 %
White Hispanic 26,735,713 8.7 %
Black or African American Hispanic 1,243,471 0.4 %
American Indian or Alaska Native Hispanic 685,150 0.2 %
Asian Hispanic 209,128 0.1 %
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Hispanic 58,437 0.0 %
Some other race Hispanic 18,503,103 6.0 %
Two or more races Hispanic 3,042,592 1.0 %
Total 308,745,538 100.0%

Hispanic or Latino origin[edit]

CensusViewer US 2010 Census Latino Population as a heatmap by census tract

Each of the racial categories includes people who identify their ethnicity as Hispanic or Latino.[52] U.S. federal law defines Hispanic or Latino as "those who classify themselves in one of the specific Hispanic or Latino categories listed on the Census 2000 or ACS questionnaire"—Mexican", "Puerto Rican", or "Cuban"—as well as those who indicate that they are "other Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino.""[53]

Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

The total population of Hispanic and Latino Americans comprised 50.5 million or 16.3% of the national total in 2010.

Breakdown by state[edit]

[clarification needed]

State or District Population Non-Hispanic White Hispanic/Latino Black American Indian or Alaskan Native Asian Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander Mixed race
Alabama 4,822,023 67.0 3.9 26.2 0.6 1.1 0 1.5
Alaska 731,449 64.1 5.5 3.3 14.8 5.4 1.0 7.3
Arizona 6,553,255 57.8 29.6 4.1 4.6 2.8 0.2 3.4
Arkansas 2,949,131 74.5 6.4 15.4 0.8 1.2 0.2 2.0
California 38,041,430 40.1 37.6 6.2 1.0 13.0 0.4 4.9
Colorado 5,187,582 70.0 20.7 4.0 1.1 2.8 0.1 3.4
Connecticut 3,590,347 71.2 13.4 10.1 0.3 3.8 0 2.6
Delaware 917,092 65.3 8.2 21.4 0.5 3.2 0 2.7
District of Columbia 632,323 35.5 9.9 50.1 0.6 3.8 0.2 2.5
Florida 19,317,568 57.9 22.5 16.0 0.4 2.4 0.1 2.5
Georgia 9,919,945 55.9 8.8 30.5 0.3 3.2 0.1 2.1
Hawaii 1,392,313 22.7 8.9 1.6 0.3 38.6 10.0 23.6
Idaho 1,595,728 84.0 11.2 0.6 1.4 1.2 0.1 2.5
Illinois 12,875,255 63.7 15.8 14.5 0.3 4.6 0 2.3
Indiana 6,537,334 81.5 6.0 9.1 0.3 1.6 0 2.0
Iowa 3,074,186 88.7 5.0 2.9 0.4 1.7 0.1 1.8
Kansas 2,885,905 78.2 10.5 5.9 1.0 2.4 0.1 3.0
Kentucky 4,380,415 86.3 3.1 7.8 0.2 1.1 0.1 1.7
Louisiana 4,601,893 60.3 4.2 32.0 0.7 1.5 0 1.6
Maine 1,329,192 94.4 1.3 1.2 0.6 1.0 0 1.6
Maryland 5,884,563 54.7 8.2 29.4 0.4 5.5 0.1 2.9
Massachusetts 6,646,144 76.1 9.6 6.6 0.3 5.3 0.0 2.6
Michigan 9,883,360 76.6 4.4 14.2 0.6 2.4 0 2.3
Minnesota 5,379,139 83.1 4.7 5.2 1.1 4.0 0 2.4
Mississippi 2,984,926 58.0 2.7 37.0 0.5 0.9 0 1.1
Missouri 6,021,988 81.0 3.5 11.6 0.5 1.6 0.1 2.1
Montana 1,005,141 87.8 2.9 0.4 6.3 0.6 0.1 2.5
Nebraska 1,855,525 82.1 9.2 4.5 1.0 1.8 0.1 2.2
Nevada 2,758,931 54.1 26.5 8.1 1.2 7.2 0.2 4.7
New Hampshire 1,320,718 92.3 2.8 1.1 0.2 2.2 0 1.6
New Jersey 8,864,590 59.3 17.7 13.7 0.3 8.3 0 2.7
New Mexico 2,085,538 40.5 46.3 2.1 9.4 1.4 0.1 3.7
New York 19,570,261 58.3 17.6 15.9 0.6 7.3 0 3.0
North Carolina 9,656,401 65.3 8.4 21.5 1.3 2.2 0.1 2.2
North Dakota 699,628 88.9 2.0 1.2 5.4 1.0 0 1.8
Ohio 11,544,225 81.1 3.1 12.2 0.2 1.7 0 2.1
Oklahoma 3,814,820 68.7 8.9 7.4 8.6 1.7 0.1 5.9
Oregon 3,899,353 78.5 11.7 1.8 1.4 3.7 0.3 3.8
Pennsylvania 12,763,536 79.5 5.7 10.8 0.2 2.7 0 1.9
Rhode Island 1,050,292 76.4 12.4 5.7 0.6 2.9 0.1 3.3
South Carolina 4,723,723 64.1 5.1 27.9 0.4 1.3 0.1 1.7
South Dakota 833,354 84.7 2.7 1.3 8.8 0.9 0 2.1
Tennessee 6,456,243 75.6 4.6 16.7 0.3 1.4 0.1 1.7
Texas 26,059,203 45.3 37.6 11.8 0.7 3.8 0.1 2.7
Utah 2,855,287 80.4 13.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 0.9 2.7
Vermont 626,011 94.3 1.5 1.0 0.4 1.3 0 1.7
Virginia 8,185,867 64.8 7.9 19.4 0.4 5.5 0.1 2.9
Washington 6,897,012 72.5 11.2 3.6 1.5 7.2 0.6 4.7
West Virginia 1,855,413 93.2 1.2 3.4 0.2 0.7 0 1.5
Wisconsin 5,726,386 83.3 5.9 6.3 1.0 2.3 0 1.8
Wyoming 576,412 85.9 8.9 0.8 2.4 0.8 0.1 2.2
All Data from 2010 U.S. Census Bureau[54]

Other groups[edit]

There were 22.1 million veterans in 2009.[55]

In 2010, the Washington Post estimated that there were 11 million illegal immigrants in the country.[56]

There were about 2 million people in prison in 2010.[57]

The 2000 U.S. Census counted same-sex couples in an oblique way; asking the sex and the relationship to the "main householder", whose sex was also asked. One organization specializing in analyzing gay demographic data reported, based on this count in the 2000 census and in the 2000 supplementary survey, that same-sex couples comprised between 0.99% and 1.13% of U.S. couples in 2000.[58] A 2006 report issued by The Williams Institute on Sexual Orientation concluded that the number of same-sex couples in the U.S. grew from 2000 to 2005, from nearly 600,000 couples in 2000 to almost 777,000 in 2005. 4.1% of Americans aged 18–45 identify as gay, lesbian, or bisexual[59]

A 2011 report by the Institute estimated that 4 million adults identify as gay or lesbian, representing 1.7% of the population over 18. A spokesperson said that, until recently, few studies have tried to eliminate people who had occasionally undertaken homosexual behavior or entertained homosexual thoughts, from people who identified as lesbian or gay.[60] (Older estimates have varied depending on methodology and timing; see Demographics of sexual orientation for a list of studies.) The American Community Survey from the 2000 U.S. Census estimated 776,943 same-sex couple households in the country as a whole, representing about 0.5% of the population.[59]

Less than 1% of Americans serve in the Armed Forces.[61]

Projections[edit]

U.S. Census Population projections (2012)[62]
2015 2060
Whites1 77.4% 68.9%
Non-Hispanic Whites 61.8% 42.6%
African Americans2 13.2% 14.7%
Asian Americans2 5.3% 8.2%
Multiracial Americans2 2.6% 6.4%
Hispanics/Latinos (of any race) 17.8% 30.6%
Non-Hispanics/Latinos (of any race) 82.2% 69.4%
1 Including Hispanics and Some other race
2 Including Hispanics

A report by the U.S. Census Bureau projects a decrease in the ratio of Whites between 2010 and 2050, from 79.5% to 74.0%.[63] At the same time, Non-Hispanic Whites are projected to no longer make up a majority of the population by 2042, but will remain the largest single ethnic group. In 2050 they will compose 46.3% of the population. Non-Hispanic whites made up 85% of the population in 1960.[64]

The report foresees the Hispanic or Latino population rising from 16% today to 30% by 2050, the African American percentage barely rising from 12.9% to 13.1%, and Asian Americans upping their 4.6% share to 7.8%. The United States had a population of 310 million people in October 2010, and is projected to reach 400 million by 2039 and 439 million in 2050.[19][65][66][67] It is further projected that 82% of the increase in population from 2005 to 2050 will be due to immigrants and their children.[68]

Of the nation's children in 2050, 62% are expected to be of a minority ethnicity, up from 44% today. Approximately 39% are projected to be Hispanic or Latino (up from 22% in 2008), and 38% are projected to be single-race, non-Hispanic Whites (down from 56% in 2008).[69]

In 2008, the U.S. Census Bureau projected future censuses as follows:[19]

Year Projection Actual result
2010 310,232,863 308,745,538
2020 341,386,665
2030 373,503,674
2040 405,655,295
2050 439,010,253

Religion[edit]

Membership[edit]

Major religions by overall percentage (2007).

The table below is based mainly on selected data as reported to the United States Census Bureau. It only includes the voluntary self-reported membership of religious bodies with 750,000 or more. The definition of a member is determined by each religious body.[70] In 2004, the US census bureau reported that about 13% of the population did not identify itself as a member of any religion.[71][clarification needed]

Religious body Year reported Places of worship reported Membership
(thousands)
Number of clergy
!a 0000 -9999 -9999 -9999
African Methodist Episcopal Church 1999 no data 2,500 7,741
African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church 2002 3,226 1,431 3,252
American Baptist Association 1998 1,760 275 1,740
Amish, Old Order 1993 898 227 3,592
American Baptist Churches USA 1998 3,800 1,507 4,145
Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America 1998 220 65 263
Armenian Apostolic Church 2010 153 1,000 200
Armenian Catholic Church 2010 36
Assemblies of God 2009 12,371 2,914 34,504
Baptist Bible Fellowship International 1997 4,500 1,200 no data
Baptist General Conference 1998 876 141 no data
Baptist Missionary Association of America 1999 1,334 235 1,525
Buddhism 2001 no data 1,082 no data
Christian and Missionary Alliance, The 1998 1,964 346 1,629
Christian Brethren (Plymouth Brethren) 1997 1,150 100 no data
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) 1997 3,818 879 3,419
Christian churches and churches of Christ 1998 5,579 1,072 5,525
Christian Congregation, Inc., The 1998 1,438 117 1,436
Christian Methodist Episcopal Church 1983 2,340 719 no data
Christian Reformed Church in North America 1998 733 199 655
Church of God in Christ 1991 15,300 5,500 28,988
Church of God of Prophecy 1997 1,908 77 2,000
Church of God (Anderson, IN) 1998 2,353 234 3,034
Church of God (Cleveland, Tennessee) 1995 6,060 753 3,121
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 2005 12,753 5,691 38,259
Church of the Brethren 1997 1,095 141 827
Church of the Nazarene 1998 5,101 627 4,598
Churches of Christ 1999 15,000 1,500 14,500
Conservative Baptist Association of America 1998 1,200 200 no data
Community of Christ 1998 1,236 140 19,319
Coptic Orthodox Church 2003 200 1,000 200
Cumberland Presbyterian Church 1998 774 87 634
Episcopal Church 1996 7,390 2,365 8,131
Evangelical Covenant Church, The 1998 628 97 607
Evangelical Free Church of America, The 1995 1,224 243 1,936
Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 1998 10,862 5,178 9,646
Evangelical Presbyterian Church 1998 187 61 262
Free Methodist Church of North America 1998 990 73 no data
Full Gospel Fellowship 1999 896 275 2,070
General Association of General Baptists 1997 790 72 1,085
General Association of Regular Baptist Churches 1998 1,415 102 no data
U.S. Conference of Mennonite Brethren Churches 1996 368 82 590
Grace Gospel Fellowship 1992 128 60 160
Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America 1998 523 1,955 596
Hinduism 2001 no data 766 no data
Independent Fundamental Churches of America 1999 659 62 no data
International Church of the Foursquare Gospel 1998 1,851 238 4,900
International Council of Community Churches 1998 150 250 182
International Pentecostal Holiness Church 1998 1,716 177 1507
Islam 2011 no data 2,600 no data
Jainism no data no data 50 no data
Jehovah's Witnesses 2011 11,876 1,200 no data
Judaism 2006 3,727 6,588 no data
Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod, The 1998 6,218 2,594 5,227
Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric 2010 19 50 no data
Mennonite Church USA 2005 943 114 no data
National Association of Congregational Christian Churches 1998 416 67 534
National Association of Free Will Baptists 1998 2,297 210 2,800
National Baptist Convention of America, Inc. 1987 2,500 3,500 8,000
National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. 1992 33,000 8,200 32,832
National Missionary Baptist Convention of America 1992 no data 2,500 no data
Orthodox Church in America 1998 625 1,000 700
Pentecostal Assemblies of the World, Inc. 1998 1,750 1,500 4,500
Pentecostal Church of God 1998 1,237 104 no data
Pentecostal Church International, United 2008 28,351 4,037 22,881
Presbyterian Church in America 1997 1,340 280 1,642
Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) 1998 11,260 3,575 9,390
Progressive National Baptist Convention, Inc. 1995 2,000 2,500 no data
Reformed Church in America 1998 902 296 915
Religious Society of Friends 1994 1,200 104 no data
Roman Catholic Church 2002 19,484 66,404 50,017 (1997)[72]
Romanian Orthodox Episcopate 1996 37 65 37
Salvation Army, The 1998 1,388 471 2,920
Scientology 2005 1,300 55[73] 1
Serbian Orthodox Church 1986 68 67 60
Seventh-day Adventist Church 1998 4,405 840 2,454
Sikhism 1999 244 80 no data
Southern Baptist Convention 1998 40,870 16,500 71,520
Unitarian Universalism 2001 no data 629 no data
United Church of Christ 1998 6,017 1,421 4,317
United House of Prayer For All People no data 100 25 no data
United Methodist Church, The 1998 36,170 8,400 no data
Wesleyan Church, The 1998 1,590 120 1,806
Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod 1997 1,240 411 1,222
~z 9999 99999999 99999999 99999999

Religions of American adults[edit]

The United States government does not collect religious data in its census. The survey below, the American Religious Identification Survey (ARIS) 2008, was a random digit-dialed telephone survey of 54,461 American residential households in the contiguous United States. The 1990 sample size was 113,723; 2001 sample size was 50,281.

Adult respondents were asked the open-ended question, "What is your religion, if any?". Interviewers did not prompt or offer a suggested list of potential answers. The religion of the spouse or partner was also asked. If the initial answer was "Protestant" or "Christian" further questions were asked to probe which particular denomination. About one-third of the sample was asked more detailed demographic questions.

Religious Self-Identification of the U.S. Adult Population: 1990, 2001, 2008[74]
Figures are not adjusted for refusals to reply; investigators suspect refusals are possibly more representative of "no religion" than any other group.

Source:ARIS 2008[74]
Group
1990
adults
× 1,000
2001
adults
× 1,000
2008
adults
× 1,000

Numerical
Change
1990–
2008
as %
of 1990
1990
% of
adults
2001
% of
adults
2008
% of
adults
change
in % of
total
adults
1990–
2008
Adult population, total 175,440 207,983 228,182 30.1%
Adult population, Responded 171,409 196,683 216,367 26.2% 97.7% 94.6% 94.8% –2.9%
Total Christian 151,225 159,514 173,402 14.7% 86.2% 76.7% 76.0% –10.2%
Catholic 46,004 50,873 57,199 24.3% 26.2% 24.5% 25.1% –1.2%
Non-Catholic Christian 105,221 108,641 116,203 10.4% 60.0% 52.2% 50.9% –9.0%
Baptist 33,964 33,820 36,148 6.4% 19.4% 16.3% 15.8% –3.5%
Mainline Protestant 32,784 35,788 29,375 –10.4% 18.7% 17.2% 12.9% –5.8%
Methodist 14,174 14,039 11,366 –19.8% 8.1% 6.8% 5.0% –3.1%
Lutheran 9,110 9,580 8,674 –4.8% 5.2% 4.6% 3.8% –1.4%
Presbyterian 4,985 5,596 4,723 –5.3% 2.8% 2.7% 2.1% –0.8%
Episcopalian/Anglican 3,043 3,451 2,405 –21.0% 1.7% 1.7% 1.1% –0.7%
United Church of Christ 438 1,378 736 68.0% 0.2% 0.7% 0.3% 0.1%
Christian Generic 25,980 22,546 32,441 24.9% 14.8% 10.8% 14.2% –0.6%
Jehovah's Witness 1,381 1,331 1,914 38.6% 0.8% 0.6% 0.8% 0.1%
Christian Unspecified 8,073 14,190 16,384 102.9% 4.6% 6.8% 7.2% 2.6%
Non-denominational Christian 194 2,489 8,032 4040.2% 0.1% 1.2% 3.5% 3.4%
Protestant - Unspecified 17,214 4,647 5,187 –69.9% 9.8% 2.2% 2.3% –7.5%
Evangelical/Born Again 546 1,088 2,154 294.5% 0.3% 0.5% 0.9% 0.6%
Pentecostal/Charismatic 5,647 7,831 7,948 40.7% 3.2% 3.8% 3.5% 0.3%
Pentecostal - Unspecified 3,116 4,407 5,416 73.8% 1.8% 2.1% 2.4% 0.6%
Assemblies of God 617 1,105 810 31.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.0%
Church of God 590 943 663 12.4% 0.3% 0.5% 0.3% 0.0%
Other Protestant Denomination 4,630 5,949 7,131 54.0% 2.6% 2.9% 3.1% 0.5%
Seventh-Day Adventist 668 724 938 40.4% 0.4% 0.3% 0.4% 0.0%
Churches of Christ 1,769 2,593 1,921 8.6% 1.0% 1.2% 0.8% –0.2%
Mormon/Latter-Day Saints 2,487 2,697 3,158 27.0% 1.4% 1.3% 1.4% 0.0%
Total non-Christian religions 5,853 7,740 8,796 50.3% 3.3% 3.7% 3.9% 0.5%
Jewish 3,137 2,837 2,680 –14.6% 1.8% 1.4% 1.2% –0.6%
Eastern Religions 687 2,020 1,961 185.4% 0.4% 1.0% 0.9% 0.5%
Buddhist 404 1,082 1,189 194.3% 0.2% 0.5% 0.5% 0.3%
Muslim 527 1,104 1,349 156.0% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 0.3%
New Religious Movements & Others 1,296 1,770 2,804 116.4% 0.7% 0.9% 1.2% 0.5%
None/ No religion, total 14,331 29,481 34,169 138.4% 8.2% 14.2% 15.0% 6.8%
Agnostic+Atheist 1,186 1,893 3,606 204.0% 0.7% 0.9% 1.6% 0.9%
Did Not Know/ Refused to reply 4,031 11,300 11,815 193.1% 2.3% 5.4% 5.2% 2.9%

Marriage[edit]

In 2010, the median age for marriage for men was 27; for women, 26.[75]

Income[edit]

In 2006, the median household income in the United States was around $46,326. Household and personal income depends on variables such as race, number of income earners, educational attainment and marital status.

Median income levels
Households Persons, age 25 or older with earnings Household income by race or ethnicity
All households Dual earner
households
Per household
member
Males Females Both sexes Asian Non-Hispanic White Hispanic
(of any race)
Black
$46,326 $67,348 $23,535 $39,403 $26,507 $32,140 $57,518 $48,977 $34,241 $30,134
Median personal income by educational attainment
Measure Some High School High school graduate Some college Associate's degree Bachelor's degree or higher Bachelor's degree Master's degree Professional degree Doctorate degree
Persons, age 25+ w/ earnings $20,321 $26,505 $31,054 $35,009 $49,303 $43,143 $52,390 $82,473 $70,853
Male, age 25+ w/ earnings $24,192 $32,085 $39,150 $42,382 $60,493 $52,265 $67,123 $100,000 $78,324
Female, age 25+ w/ earnings $15,073 $21,117 $25,185 $29,510 $40,483 $36,532 $45,730 $66,055 $54,666
Persons, age 25+, employed full-time $25,039 $31,539 $37,135 $40,588 $56,078 $50,944 $61,273 $100,000 $79,401
Household $22,718 $36,835 $45,854 $51,970 $73,446 $68,728 $78,541 $100,000 $96,830
Household income distribution
Bottom 10% Bottom 20% Bottom 25% Middle 33% Middle 20% Top 25% Top 20% Top 5% Top 1.5% Top 1%
$0 to $10,500 $0 to $18,500 $0 to $22,500 $30,000 to $62,500 $35,000 to $55,000 $77,500 and up $92,000 and up $167,000 and up $250,000 and up $350,000 and up
Source: US Census Bureau, 2006; income statistics for the year 2005

Economic class[edit]

Social classes in the United States lack distinct boundaries and may overlap. Even their existence (when distinguished from economic strata) is controversial. The following table provides a summary of some prominent academic theories on the stratification of American society:

Academic Class Models
Dennis Gilbert, 2002 William Thompson & Joseph Hickey, 2005 Leonard Beeghley, 2004
Class Typical characteristics Class Typical characteristics Class Typical characteristics
Capitalist class (1%) Top-level executives, high-rung politicians, heirs. Ivy League education common. Upper class (1%) Top-level executives, celebrities, heirs; income of $500,000+ common. Ivy league education common. The super-rich (0.9%) Multi-millionaires whose incomes commonly exceed $350,000; includes celebrities and powerful executives/politicians. Ivy League education common.
Upper middle class[1] (15%) Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees), most commonly salaried, professionals and middle management with large work autonomy. Upper middle class[1] (15%) Highly-educated (often with graduate degrees) professionals & managers with household incomes varying from the high 5-figure range to commonly above $100,000. The Rich (5%) Households with net worth of $1 million or more; largely in the form of home equity. Generally have college degrees.
Middle class (plurality/
majority?; ca. 46%)
College-educated workers with considerably higher-than-average incomes and compensation; a man making $57,000 and a woman making $40,000 may be typical.
Lower middle class (30%) Semi-professionals and craftsmen with a roughly average standard of living. Most have some college education and are white-collar. Lower middle class (32%) Semi-professionals and craftsmen with some work autonomy; household incomes commonly range from $35,000 to $75,000. Typically, some college education.
Working class (30%) Clerical and most blue-collar workers whose work is highly routinized. Standard of living varies depending on number of income earners, but is commonly just adequate. High school education.
Working class (32%) Clerical, pink- and blue-collar workers with often low job security; common household incomes range from $16,000 to $30,000. High school education. Working class
(ca. 40–45%)
Blue-collar workers and those whose jobs are highly routinized with low economic security; a man making $40,000 and a woman making $26,000 may be typical. High school education.
Working poor (13%) Service, low-rung clerical and some blue-collar workers. High economic insecurity and risk of poverty. Some high school education.
Lower class (ca. 14–20%) Those who occupy poorly-paid positions or rely on government transfers. Some high school education.
Underclass (12%) Those with limited or no participation in the labor force. Reliant on government transfers. Some high school education. The poor (ca. 12%) Those living below the poverty line with limited to no participation in the labor force; a household income of $18,000 may be typical. Some high school education.
References: Gilbert, D. (2002) The American Class Structure: In An Age of Growing Inequality. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; Thompson, W. & Hickey, J. (2005). Society in Focus. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon; Beeghley, L. (2004). The Structure of Social Stratification in the United States. Boston, MA: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon.
1 The upper middle class may also be referred to as "Professional class" Ehrenreich, B. (1989). The Inner Life of the Middle Class. NY, NY: Harper-Colins.


Health[edit]

In 2010, the average man weighed 194.7 pounds (88.3 kg); the average woman 164.7 pounds (74.7 kg).[76] The height of an American man was 5 feet 9 inches (1.75 m)[77] and woman 5 feet 3.8 inches (1.621 m)[78] The average BMI is 27.3 for males (overweight) and 28.5 for females (overweight).[79]

As of 2012, an estimated 26% of the population is obese,[80] 21% smoke,[81] and 11% have diabetes.[82]

A nationwide study in 2010 indicated that 19.5% of teens, aged 12–19, have developed "slight" hearing loss. "Slight" was defined as an inability to hear at 16 to 24 decibels.[83]

In 2011, an estimated 1.2 million people were living with HIV/AIDS in the United States.[84]

Generational cohorts[edit]

A study by William Strauss and Neil Howe, in their books Generations and Fourth Turning, looked at generational similarities and differences going back to the 15th century and concluded that over 80-year spans, generations proceed through four stages of about 20 years each.

A definitive recent study of US generational cohorts was done by Schuman and Scott (2012) in which a broad sample of adults of all ages was asked, "What world events are especially important to you?"[85] They found that 33 events were mentioned with great frequency. When the ages of the respondents were correlated with the expressed importance rankings, seven (some put 8 or 9) distinct cohorts became evident.

Today the following descriptors are frequently used for these cohorts (alive in 2000–10):

  • G.I. Generation—born from approximately 1901 to 1924 (depression cohort who fought and won World War II).
    • Distinction: They represent the largest number of nonagenarians and centenarians alive in any time of US history.
    • Memorable events: The Great Depression, high levels of unemployment, poverty, lack of creature comforts, financial uncertainty, peak of European immigration (though started from 1840 to end by 1920), grew up during World War I, prohibitionism, radical politics, not too religious but mostly morally conservative, shorter life spans, and stressed Americanization or acculturation into a common mainstream U.S. culture.
    • Key characteristics: strive for financial security, risk averse, waste-not-want-not attitude, strive for comfort, social cooperative, can be reactionary or hostile towards change, but are idealistic or progressive in improvements of quality of life.
  • Silent Generation—born from approximately 1925 to 1942[86] during the Great Depression and World War II.[87] The label was originally applied to people in North America but has also been applied to those in Western Europe, Australasia and South America. It includes most of those who fought during the Korean War.
    • Distinction: Second-smallest generation born in US history.[citation needed] The birth rate peaked low due to the Depression.
    • Memorable events: sustained economic growth, social tranquility, The Cold War, McCarthyism, anti-communism, drug culture, conformity, the rise and peak of jazz music (1940s), early rock n' roll (1950s), fear of a nuclear war, and avoidance of discomfort with high emphasis on optimism.
    • Key characteristics: conformity, social conservatism, patriotism, comparatively chaste or emphasized traditional values (i.e. manners or taboos) than younger cohorts (who disagreed with them), traditional family values, but had the nuclear family replaced the multi-generational kind, known as the "Silent" majority/generation, and had the appearance of sameness or "cookie cutter" type of sameness.
  • Baby Boomer—cohort number one—born from approximately 1945 to 1954
  • Baby Boomer—cohort number 2—or "Generation Jones" born from approximately 1955 to 1964.[citation needed]
    • Distinction: The Peak years due to being children or teenagers when American power peaked in the global scene.
    • Memorable events: Watergate, Nixon's resignation, the Cold War, the oil embargo, raging inflation, disco, gasoline shortages, the American hostage crisis of Iran (1979–81), the U.S. bicentennial celebrations in the 1970s, and cultural shift from McCarthyist conformity to hippie idealism to yuppie fiscal conservative and/or social liberal phases.[citation needed]
    • Key characteristics: less optimistic, fatalistic, principled, general cynicism, somewhat reactionary, easily bored, impatient, an urgent desire that things must change, born again Christian movement, yuppie social trends, challenged gender roles and racial stereotypes, and used drugs illegal since the early 20th century[88][89][90] thereby precipitating the modern War on Drugs in the 1970s and 1980s; yet often conservative & reactionary in later age.
  • Generation X—commentators use beginning birth dates from 1961 to 1981.[91]
    • In the U.S., some called Generation Xers the "baby bust" generation because of the drop in the birth rate following the baby boom.[92] The drop in fertility rates in America began in the late 1950s. But according to authors and demographers William Strauss and Neil Howe (who use 1961 to 1981 for Gen X birth years), there are approximately 88.5 million Gen Xers in the U.S. today.[93][94]
    • Memorable events: Challenger explosion, Iran-Contra, Reaganomics, AIDS, Star Wars, MTV, home computers, video games, safe sex, divorce, single-parent families, end of Cold War-fall of Berlin Wall, Gulf War, 1992 L.A. Riots, 1995 Oklahoma City Bombing, the 1998 Bill Clinton-Monica Lewinsky sex scandal, and the arrival of the year 2000: new century (21st)/ new millennium (3rd).
    • Key characteristics: pragmatic; independent, informal; entrepreneurial; many grew up in single-parent households.[citation needed]
  • The Millennial Generation also known as Generation Y—commentators use beginning birth dates from the early 1980s to the early 2000s.[95][96]
    • Distinction: Echo Boom they are second highest birth rate generation in US history.[citation needed]
    • Memorable events: rise of the Internet, iPods, social network services, war on crime (reduced crime rates), cultural diversity, September 11 attacks, the Death of Osama Bin Laden, Afghanistan War and Iraq War, and affected by the 2008–09 global financial crisis or "Great Recession".
    • Key characteristics: acceptance of change, technically savvy, environmental issues, globally minded, more socially liberal than previous generations, stricter laws on minors, high tech surveillance of public places, political correctness, no expectation of military service, and increased local volunteerism or community service.
  • Generation Z—also known as the Homeland Generation or "digital natives" are the cohort of people born after the Millennials. There is no agreement on the exact dates birth dates with some sources starting them at the mid or late 1990s[95] or the more widely used period from the mid 2000s[97] to the present day.[97] This is the generation which is currently being born.

U.S. demographic birth cohorts[edit]

Birth rate has dropped since 1957

Subdivided groups are present when peak boom years or inverted peak bust years are present, and may be represented by a normal or inverted bell-shaped curve (rather than a straight curve). The boom subdivided cohorts may be considered as "pre-peak" (including peak year) and "post-peak". The year 1957 was the baby boom peak with 4.3 million births and 122.7 fertility rate. Although post-peak births (such as trailing edge boomers) are in decline, and sometimes referred to as a "bust", there are still a relatively large number of births. The dearth-in-birth bust cohorts include those up to the valley birth year, and those including and beyond, leading up to the subsequent normal birth rate. The Baby boom began around 1943 to 1946.[citation needed]

From the decline in U.S. birth rates starting in 1958 and the introduction of the birth-control pill in 1960, the Baby Boomer normal distribution curve is negatively skewed. The trend in birth rates from 1958 to 1961 show a tendency to end late in the decade at approximately 1969, thus returning to pre-WWII levels, with 12 years of rising and 12 years of declining birth rates. Pre-war birth rates were defined as anywhere between 1939 and 1941 by demographers such as the Taeuber's, Philip M. Hauser and William Fielding Ogburn.[98]

Demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[99]

A population pyramid that shows the age of the population by sex in 2010.
Population of the USA by age and sex (demographic pyramid) as on 01 June, 2014

Ages[edit]

Median ages are 36.8 years; males are 35.5 years; females are 38.1 years estimated as of 2010.

As of 2010, people are distributed by age as follows:

  • 0–14 years: 20.2% (male 31,639,127/female 30,305,704)
  • 15–64 years: 67% (male 102,665,043/female 103,129,321)
  • 65 years and over: 12.8% (male 16,901,232/female 22,571,696) (2010 est.)

Birth, growth, and death rates[edit]

The growth rate is 0.739% as estimated from 2013-2010 by the US Census

Live Births in the United States, 1934–2004.

The birth rate is 13.5 births/1,000 population, estimated as of 2010. This was the lowest in a century. There were 4,136,000 births in 2009.[100]

13.9 births/1,000 population/year (Provisional Data for 2008)
14.3 births/1,000 population/year (Provisional Data for 2007)[101]

In 2009, Time magazine reported that 40% of births were to unmarried women.[102] The following is a breakdown by race for unwed births: 17% Asian, 29% White, 53% Hispanics, 66% Native Americans, and 72% African American.[103]

The drop in the birth rate from 2007 to 2009 is believed to be associated with the Late-2000s recession.[104]

A study by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) found that more than half (51 percent) of live hospital births in 2008 and 2011 were male.[105]

Death rate[edit]

As of July 2010, it was estimated that there were 8.38 deaths/1,000 population.[citation needed]

Immigration and emigration[edit]

Inflow of New Legal Permanent Residents, Top Five Sending Countries, 2011[106]
Country 2011 Region 2011
Mexico 143,446 Asia 451,593
China 87,016 Americas 419,996
India 69,013 Africa 100,336
Philippines 57,011 Europe 83,635
Dominican Rep. 46,019 All immigrants 1,062,040

13% of the population was foreign-born in 2009,[107]including 11.2 million undocumented aliens,[108] 80% of whom come from Latin America.[109] Latin America is the largest region-of-birth group, accounting for over half (53%) of all foreign born population in US,[110] and thus is also the largest source of both legal and illegal immigration to US.[111] In 2011, there are 18.1 million naturalized citizens in USA, accounting for 45% of the foreign-born population (40.4 million) and 6 percent of the total US population at the time,[112] and around 680,000 legal immigrants are naturalized annually.[113]

4.32 people migrate per 1,000 population, estimated in 2010.[citation needed]

Sex ratios[edit]

at birth: 1.048 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2010 est.)

Infant mortality rate[edit]

total: 6.22 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 6.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 78.11 years
male: 75.65 years
female: 80.69 years (2010 est.)
US unemployment by state in September 2009 (official, or U3 rate).[114]

Total fertility rate[edit]

1.87 children born/woman (2013).
Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention - National Vital Statistics System.

Unemployment rate[edit]

As of July 2014, the U.S. unemployment rate was 6.2 percent (U3 Rate).[115]

As of February 2014, the U6 unemployment rate is 14.9 percent.[116] The U6 unemployment rate counts not only people without work seeking full-time employment (the more familiar U-3 rate), but also counts "marginally attached workers and those working part-time for economic reasons." Note that some of these part-time workers counted as employed by U-3 could be working as little as an hour a week. And the "marginally attached workers" include those who have gotten discouraged and stopped looking, but still want to work. The age considered for this calculation is 16 years and over.[117]

Mobility[edit]

In 2013, about 15% of Americans moved. Most of these, 67%, moved within the same county. Of the 33% who moved beyond local county boundaries, 13% of those moved more than 200 miles (320 km).[118]

See also[edit]

Lists:

Income:

Population:

Notes[edit]

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