1
Derpwell
Derpwell's Vault of Napoleonic Knowledge descriptive video
DATE: 2012/08/14::
2
Interactive Video in Creating Descriptive Text
Interactive Video in Creating Descriptive Text
DATE: 2014/06/27::
3
Cleaning Your Slate
Cleaning Your Slate
DATE: 2013/05/17::
4
Exploring Seasons: Using Interactive Discussion to Support Descriptive Writing
Exploring Seasons: Using Interactive Discussion to Support Descriptive Writing
DATE: 2011/12/06::
5
How to add eBusiness Suite DFFs (descriptive flex fields) to BI Apps (OBIA)?
How to add eBusiness Suite DFFs (descriptive flex fields) to BI Apps (OBIA)?
DATE: 2014/05/25::
6
Le sujet de l
Le sujet de l'excuse en raison de l'ignorance n'est amené que pour diviser les Gens de la Sunnah
DATE: 2014/04/14::
7
Digital Impacts 2013: The Your Paintings Tagger: crowdsourcing descriptive metadata
Digital Impacts 2013: The Your Paintings Tagger: crowdsourcing descriptive metadata
DATE: 2015/02/05::
8
Music Marketing & Music Advertising - Make it descriptive for today
Music Marketing & Music Advertising - Make it descriptive for today
DATE: 2012/04/02::
9
Base SAS Programming - Lesson 7 - Descriptive Statistics in SAS
Base SAS Programming - Lesson 7 - Descriptive Statistics in SAS
DATE: 2014/10/07::
10
1 00 Introduction   Descriptive Statistics
1 00 Introduction Descriptive Statistics
DATE: 2014/04/28::
11
Medical Statistics II: Descriptive Statistics and Standard Scores
Medical Statistics II: Descriptive Statistics and Standard Scores
DATE: 2014/07/03::
12
Descriptive Statistics in SPSS by statsdojo.com
Descriptive Statistics in SPSS by statsdojo.com
DATE: 2014/12/01::
13
People descriptive. vol.2. Glenn Doman Card. Vocabulary Flash Card. English teach young children.
People descriptive. vol.2. Glenn Doman Card. Vocabulary Flash Card. English teach young children.
DATE: 2015/04/15::
14
People descriptive. vol.1. Glenn Doman Card. Vocabulary Flash Card. English teach young children.
People descriptive. vol.1. Glenn Doman Card. Vocabulary Flash Card. English teach young children.
DATE: 2015/04/14::
15
The Bringers of Knowledge Remake
The Bringers of Knowledge Remake
DATE: 2014/10/26::
16
How to use SAS   Lesson 3   Descriptive Statistics
How to use SAS Lesson 3 Descriptive Statistics
DATE: 2015/02/17::
17
How to use SAS - Lesson 3 - Descriptive Statistics
How to use SAS - Lesson 3 - Descriptive Statistics
DATE: 2014/10/07::
18
The Bringers of Knowledge Remake
The Bringers of Knowledge Remake
DATE: 2014/12/16::
19
Action Research and the Transformation of Knowledge Creation by Hilary Bradbury-Huang
Action Research and the Transformation of Knowledge Creation by Hilary Bradbury-Huang
DATE: 2014/10/03::
20
Free General Studies Online Classes
Free General Studies Online Classes
DATE: 2014/12/01::
21
Vicente Ordonez: Language and Perceptual Categorization in Computer Vision
Vicente Ordonez: Language and Perceptual Categorization in Computer Vision
DATE: 2015/03/14::
22
Tips to crack State Bank of India SBI PO Exam 2014
Tips to crack State Bank of India SBI PO Exam 2014
DATE: 2014/04/26::
23
Quantitative Lec 5, CFA L1, 2013, Descriptive Statistics, FREE Videos, Notes & Practice Ques
Quantitative Lec 5, CFA L1, 2013, Descriptive Statistics, FREE Videos, Notes & Practice Ques
DATE: 2012/10/29::
24
Ch3 a. Certainty
Ch3 a. Certainty
DATE: 2014/02/08::
25
How to create Minecraft PE online multiplayer server using Android/iOS smartphone!
How to create Minecraft PE online multiplayer server using Android/iOS smartphone!
DATE: 2014/04/26::
26
Quant Lecture 6, CFA L1, 2013, Descriptive Statistics contd., FREE Videos, Notes & Practice Ques
Quant Lecture 6, CFA L1, 2013, Descriptive Statistics contd., FREE Videos, Notes & Practice Ques
DATE: 2012/10/30::
27
Greenland Norse Knowledge of the North Atlantic
Greenland Norse Knowledge of the North Atlantic
DATE: 2014/07/23::
28
Free Energy Documentary - Surpressed Tecgnologies
Free Energy Documentary - Surpressed Tecgnologies
DATE: 2014/01/10::
29
Enter a descriptive keyword-loaded title here!
Enter a descriptive keyword-loaded title here!
DATE: 2009/01/30::
30
SAS Base Programming   Lesson 7   Descriptive Statistics in SAS
SAS Base Programming Lesson 7 Descriptive Statistics in SAS
DATE: 2015/02/17::
31
Schoolhouse Rock: Grammar - Unpack Your Adjectives Music Video
Schoolhouse Rock: Grammar - Unpack Your Adjectives Music Video
DATE: 2011/12/06::
32
Using Workforce Data To Improve Child Welfare Programs (audio description)
Using Workforce Data To Improve Child Welfare Programs (audio description)
DATE: 2014/07/16::
33
Analytics Education Series - Lesson 3: Basic Statistics: Descriptive & Comparative Statistics
Analytics Education Series - Lesson 3: Basic Statistics: Descriptive & Comparative Statistics
DATE: 2013/10/22::
34
Stats 4 Descriptive Statistics
Stats 4 Descriptive Statistics
DATE: 2014/05/26::
35
Why Are People Good or Evil? Cheating, Gossiping, Caring, Sharing & Following the Golden Rule (2004)
Why Are People Good or Evil? Cheating, Gossiping, Caring, Sharing & Following the Golden Rule (2004)
DATE: 2013/09/08::
36
Evaluating: Voki Book Review
Evaluating: Voki Book Review
DATE: 2011/10/29::
37
QUANTUM LANGUAGE OF LAW by JUDGE :David-Wynn: Miller
QUANTUM LANGUAGE OF LAW by JUDGE :David-Wynn: Miller
DATE: 2013/02/16::
38
Graphesis Visual Forms of Knowledge Production metaLABprojects PDF
Graphesis Visual Forms of Knowledge Production metaLABprojects PDF
DATE: 2014/10/17::
39
Howto: Create HTML5 Slideshow with HTML5 Slideshow Maker
Howto: Create HTML5 Slideshow with HTML5 Slideshow Maker
DATE: 2013/01/28::
40
Dupont Ningtyas LTM 1
Dupont Ningtyas LTM 1
DATE: 2014/06/18::
41
The Gender and Autistic Spectra: Crossroads and Unresolved Mystery
The Gender and Autistic Spectra: Crossroads and Unresolved Mystery
DATE: 2014/06/04::
42
Biological Sciences (Bachelor of Science Degree)
Biological Sciences (Bachelor of Science Degree)
DATE: 2013/08/28::
43
Venture Into Chemistry - Episode 1: Alkaline Earth Metals
Venture Into Chemistry - Episode 1: Alkaline Earth Metals
DATE: 2015/01/07::
44
About Metadata
About Metadata
DATE: 2014/10/15::
45
9. Substantial Scholarly Knowledge Base
9. Substantial Scholarly Knowledge Base
DATE: 2013/11/06::
46
Spark Knowledge Through Teaching: Study Agricultural Education
Spark Knowledge Through Teaching: Study Agricultural Education
DATE: 2011/02/07::
47
MacGregor Venture 21 Keel Repair
MacGregor Venture 21 Keel Repair
DATE: 2014/02/24::
48
Statistics 101: The Binomial Distribution
Statistics 101: The Binomial Distribution
DATE: 2012/11/28::
49
2014-10-06 Ray Mooney, Generating Natural-Language Video Descriptions Using Text-Mined Knowledge
2014-10-06 Ray Mooney, Generating Natural-Language Video Descriptions Using Text-Mined Knowledge
DATE: 2014/10/13::
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UAB-ODWIRA - The Ancestral Judgment
UAB-ODWIRA - The Ancestral Judgment
DATE: 2013/06/25::
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Descriptive knowledge, also declarative knowledge or propositional knowledge, is the type of knowledge that is, by its very nature, expressed in declarative sentences or indicative propositions. This distinguishes descriptive knowledge from what is commonly known as "know-how", or procedural knowledge (the knowledge of how, and especially how best, to perform some task), and "knowing of", or knowledge by acquaintance (the knowledge of something's existence).

The difference between knowledge and beliefs is as follows: A belief is an internal thought or memory which exists in one's mind. Most people accept that for a belief to be knowledge it must be, at least, true and justified. The Gettier problem in philosophy is the question of whether there are any other requirements before a belief can be accepted as knowledge.

The article epistemology discusses the opinion of philosophers on how one can tell which beliefs constitute actual knowledge.

Acquiring knowledge[edit]

People have used many methods to try to gain knowledge.

  1. By participation.
  2. By acquisition.
  3. By reason and logic (perhaps in cooperation with others, using logical argument).
  4. By mathematical proof.
  5. By the scientific method.
  6. By the trial and error method.
  7. By applying an algorithm.
  8. By learning from experience.
  9. By intuition (getting them from the subconscious).
  10. By an argument from authority, which could be from religious, literary, political, philosophical or scientific authorities.
  11. By listening to the testimony of witnesses.
  12. By observing the world in its "natural state"; seeing how the world operates without performing any experiments.
  13. By acquiring knowledge that is embedded in one's language, culture, or traditions.
  14. By dialogical enquiry (conversation). See Gadamer, Bohm, Habermas, Freire, on dialogue, learning and knowledge acquisition/negotiation: http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-dialog.htm
  15. By some claimed form of enlightenment following a period of meditation. (For example, the Buddhist enlightenment known as bodhi)
  16. By some claimed form of divine illumination, prayer or revelation from a divine agency.

Types of knowledge[edit]

Knowledge can be classified upon a priori knowledge, which is obtained without needing to observe the world, and a posteriori or empirical knowledge, which is only obtained after observing the world or interacting with it in some way.

Often knowledge is gained by combining or extending other knowledge in various ways. Isaac Newton famously wrote: "If I have seen further... it is by standing on the shoulders of giants".

Inferential knowledge is based on reasoning from facts or from other inferential knowledge such as a theory. Such knowledge may or may not be verifiable by observation or testing. The distinction between factual knowledge and inferential knowledge has been explored by the discipline of general semantics.

Knowledge in various disciplines[edit]

There are many different disciplines that generate beliefs that can be regarded as knowledge. They include science (which generates scientific theories), law (which generates verdicts), history (which generates historical narratives), and mathematics (which generates proofs).

Knowledge in science and engineering[edit]

Scientists attempt to gain knowledge through the scientific method. In this method, scientists start by finding a phenomenon of interest, which generates questions. A scientist then picks a question of interest, and based on previous knowledge, develops a hypothesis. The scientist then designs a controlled experiment which will allow him to test the hypothesis against the real world. He then makes predictions about the outcome of the test, based on the hypothesis.

At this point, the scientist carries out the experiment and compares his predictions with his observations. Assuming that there were no flaws in the experiment, then if they match, this is evidence in favour of the hypothesis. do not match, then the hypothesis has been falsified.

A hypothesis that has been shown to accurately and reliably predict and characterize some physical phenomenon, and has been sufficiently tested, may become a scientific theory. Scientific theories are widely regarded as knowledge, and they are always subject to further revision or review should new data come to light.

To use scientific theories, they must be applied to the specific situation in hand. For example, a civil engineer might use the theory of statics (a branch of physics) to determine whether a bridge will hold up. This is one case where new knowledge is generated from scientific knowledge by specializing it to an individual instance.

The nature of human reasoning dictates that even a sound piece of scientific work might be regarded as incorrect by the scientific community at large. This is exemplified by Dan Shechtman's discovery in solid states for which he was criticised for some time.

Knowledge in history[edit]

The scientific method is essentially the application of the inductive approach to investigation. This approach is entirely appropriate for exploration of the causal world of nature (physics, chemistry, etc.) but not valid for the teleological social sciences, which includes history. There are no constants in human relations,[citation needed] only unmeasurable and inconstant subjective valuations.[citation needed] Electrons always behave the same way under the same conditions,[citation needed] but humans do not—different people seem to react differently and the same person seems to or might react differently at different moments in time. Thus, it appears that only spurious inferences can be drawn from repeated observations of human behavior. It might be observed that most humans prefer wealth to poverty or life to death, but it might be invalid to infer any universal law of human behavior from this.

Historians often generate different interpretations of the same event, even when reading the same primary sources, and these interpretations are always subject to revision by other historians. This is because, as a social scientist, the historian must constantly make subjective judgements of relevance in trying to interpret historical events.

Situated knowledge[edit]

From Knowledge.

Situated knowledge is knowledge specific to a particular situation. Imagine two very similar breeds of mushroom, which grow on either side of a mountain, one nutritious, one poisonous. Relying on knowledge from one side of an ecological boundary, after crossing to the other, may lead to starving rather than eating perfectly healthy food near at hand, or to poisoning oneself by mistake.

Some methods of generating knowledge, such as trial and error, or learning from experience, tend to create highly situational knowledge. One of the main benefits of the scientific method is that the theories it generates are much less situational than knowledge gained by other methods.

Situational knowledge is often embedded in language, culture, or traditions. Critics of cultural imperialism argue that the rise of a global monoculture causes a loss of local knowledge.

Issues[edit]

What constitutes knowledge, certainty and truth are controversial issues. These issues are debated by philosophers, social scientists, and historians. Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote "On Certainty" – aphorisms on these concepts – exploring relationships between knowledge and certainty. A thread of his concern has become an entire field, the philosophy of action.

A number of problems exist, that arise when defining knowledge or truth, including issues with objectivity, adequacy and limits to justification. Beliefs are also very problematic not least because they are either true or false, and therefore cannot be adequately described by conventional logic. An action likewise can be taken or not, but there is the troubling idea of an "event" is, an action taken by nobody, or nobody whom one can blame.

Non-scientific methods[edit]

Several groups, most notably the postmodernists and social constructivists, hold that science does not actually tell us about the physical world in which they live. They hold that the world cannot be understood by science, but rather by religious revelations, mystical experience, or literary deconstructionism.[citation needed]

Practical limits for obtaining knowledge[edit]

What we hold to be knowledge is often derived by a combination of reason from either traditional, authoritative, or scientific sources. Many times such knowledge is not verifiable; sometimes the process of testing is prohibitively dangerous or expensive. For instance, some physics theories about the nature of the universe, such as string-theory, require the construction of testing equipment currently beyond our technology. Since such theories are in principle subject to verification or refutation, they are scientific; since they are not proven experimentally, they are not considered certain knowledge. Rather, in such cases we have certain knowledge only of the theory, but not of what the theory describes.

"Of the three ways in which men think that they acquire knowledge of things—authority, reasoning, and experience—only the last is effective and able to bring peace to the intellect." (Roger Bacon, English alchemist, astrologer, philosopher and a major progenitor of modern science.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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