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Der Wörlitzer Park aus der Luft - The Dessau-Woerlitz garden realm from above
Der Wörlitzer Park aus der Luft - The Dessau-Woerlitz garden realm from above
Published: 2013/08/17
Channel: Alexander Baumbach
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz (UNESCO/NHK)
Garden Kingdom of Dessau-Wörlitz (UNESCO/NHK)
Published: 2014/05/20
Channel: UNESCO
Dessau-Wörlitz - Das Gartenreich - Das Nützliche im Schönen - Deutschland
Dessau-Wörlitz - Das Gartenreich - Das Nützliche im Schönen - Deutschland
Published: 2013/09/04
Channel: stibor60
Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz, Weltkulturerbe
Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz, Weltkulturerbe
Published: 2013/03/12
Channel: Friedbert Wissmann
Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz (deutsch)
Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz (deutsch)
Published: 2015/01/20
Channel: Wörlitz-Information
Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm
Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm
Published: 2016/10/13
Channel: WikiWikiup
Dessau-Wörlitz in 60 secs | World Heritage
Dessau-Wörlitz in 60 secs | World Heritage
Published: 2012/08/22
Channel: DW English
Imagefilm | Das Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz
Imagefilm | Das Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz
Published: 2017/03/29
Channel: Stadt Dessau-Roßlau
euromaxx | Große Gärten: Dessau-Wörlitz, Deutschland (1)
euromaxx | Große Gärten: Dessau-Wörlitz, Deutschland (1)
Published: 2008/07/03
Channel: DW Deutsch
Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich 2017
Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich 2017
Published: 2016/09/23
Channel: greenfeed62
Topographie- Das Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich, 1999, Folge 82
Topographie- Das Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich, 1999, Folge 82
Published: 2015/02/15
Channel: Kirchenmaler
Wörlitz 2
Wörlitz 2
Published: 2015/07/29
Channel: Micha Hofmann
Das Dessau Wörlitzer Gartenreich
Das Dessau Wörlitzer Gartenreich
Published: 2014/05/22
Channel: Hans Dorsch
Wallwitzburg -Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz.HD
Wallwitzburg -Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz.HD
Published: 2011/05/13
Channel: Fred Beneke
Köthen, Dessau, Wörlitz
Köthen, Dessau, Wörlitz
Published: 2013/07/16
Channel: Offener Kanal Magdeburg
Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz Landschaftsgarten Weltkulturerbe
Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz Landschaftsgarten Weltkulturerbe
Published: 2012/04/29
Channel: ahaberlin
Wörlitzer Park 20160911
Wörlitzer Park 20160911
Published: 2016/10/08
Channel: Mac.Nature.TV
Park in Wörlitz.mov
Park in Wörlitz.mov
Published: 2010/07/16
Channel: MrPropping
Schloss und Park Wörlitz
Schloss und Park Wörlitz
Published: 2014/04/28
Channel: Radreiseführer Gartenreich
Das Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz (Raphaelas Welt)
Das Gartenreich Dessau-Wörlitz (Raphaelas Welt)
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: Raphaelas Welt
Wörlitzer Park, Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich, Rundgang, 17.09.2015
Wörlitzer Park, Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich, Rundgang, 17.09.2015
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: kaltric
Das Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich
Das Dessau-Wörlitzer Gartenreich
Published: 2016/09/12
Channel: 2 wander
Führerstandsmitfahrt Dessau- Wörlitz (HD)
Führerstandsmitfahrt Dessau- Wörlitz (HD)
Published: 2015/12/05
Channel: Berger Max
German Parks and Public Gardens | Discover Germany
German Parks and Public Gardens | Discover Germany
Published: 2013/06/01
Channel: DW English
Wörlitzer Park / English Grounds of Wörlitz - Gondola tour in HD
Wörlitzer Park / English Grounds of Wörlitz - Gondola tour in HD
Published: 2013/10/15
Channel: magroswelt
Days Inn Dessau, Dessau, Germany - New Deals 2017
Days Inn Dessau, Dessau, Germany - New Deals 2017
Published: 2017/06/22
Channel: Hotels - Trusted Hotel Reviews
Gartenreich Wörlitz: Insel mit künstlichem Vulkan + Villa Hamilton (park with artificial volcano)
Gartenreich Wörlitz: Insel mit künstlichem Vulkan + Villa Hamilton (park with artificial volcano)
Published: 2012/07/09
Channel: wwwkunstundfilmde
Schloss Wörlitz: Pompeji-Ausstellung und Innen-Ausstattung (ancient Roman palace interior)
Schloss Wörlitz: Pompeji-Ausstellung und Innen-Ausstattung (ancient Roman palace interior)
Published: 2012/07/09
Channel: wwwkunstundfilmde
Pension Ausspannhof
Pension Ausspannhof
Published: 2013/02/16
Channel: Maik Bär
Wörlitzer Park - Gartenanlage am Elbestarnd nähe Dessau
Wörlitzer Park - Gartenanlage am Elbestarnd nähe Dessau
Published: 2011/05/01
Channel: weddinghendrik
Wörlitzer Park - paradiesische Idylle - 2D-Fassung
Wörlitzer Park - paradiesische Idylle - 2D-Fassung
Published: 2014/06/02
Channel: ru-p
Heiraten im Dessau Wörlitzer Gartenreich
Heiraten im Dessau Wörlitzer Gartenreich
Published: 2014/03/06
Channel: fotoender
Ringhotel Zum Stein Wörlitz
Ringhotel Zum Stein Wörlitz
Published: 2011/02/08
Channel: Christian Pirl
Ringhotel Hotel Zum Stein, Woerlitz, Germany - New Deals. Just Added. Going Fast.
Ringhotel Hotel Zum Stein, Woerlitz, Germany - New Deals. Just Added. Going Fast.
Published: 2017/02/19
Channel: Germany Hotel Reviews
Frühlingserwachen im Gartenreich Wörlitz 2014
Frühlingserwachen im Gartenreich Wörlitz 2014
Published: 2014/03/22
Channel: Bilderpeter. de
Die Brücken von Wörlitz
Die Brücken von Wörlitz
Published: 2009/10/07
Channel: Klaus Klangclinic
Wörlitz - in und um den Wörlitzer Park
Wörlitz - in und um den Wörlitzer Park
Published: 2012/11/12
Channel: Lokaler Blick Oranienbaum
Wörlitz Vulkanausbruch 2010
Wörlitz Vulkanausbruch 2010
Published: 2010/08/22
Channel: DerWoerlitzer
falknerei-wörlitzer-park
falknerei-wörlitzer-park
Published: 2010/03/19
Channel: greenfeed62
Dessau-Wörlitz - Das Gartenreich - Das Nützliche im Schönen - Deutschland
Dessau-Wörlitz - Das Gartenreich - Das Nützliche im Schönen - Deutschland
Published: 2017/02/19
Channel: Lawrence Powell
Abenteuerspielplatz im Wörlitzer Gartenreich (Raphaelas Welt)
Abenteuerspielplatz im Wörlitzer Gartenreich (Raphaelas Welt)
Published: 2016/07/13
Channel: Raphaelas Welt
Kräuterwanderung mit Dorle in Dessau-Wörlitz
Kräuterwanderung mit Dorle in Dessau-Wörlitz
Published: 2015/06/04
Channel: Faszination Wellten-Raum
Biodiversity in GArtenreich Mayday 2015
Biodiversity in GArtenreich Mayday 2015
Published: 2015/05/17
Channel: GArtenreich
Wörlitzer Park Vulkanausbruch 2012
Wörlitzer Park Vulkanausbruch 2012
Published: 2012/08/28
Channel: DerWoerlitzer
UNESCO Welterbe - deutsche Parks und Gärten | Hin & weg
UNESCO Welterbe - deutsche Parks und Gärten | Hin & weg
Published: 2013/06/02
Channel: DW Deutsch
Wörlitz - in und um den Wörlitzer Park
Wörlitz - in und um den Wörlitzer Park
Published: 2012/11/12
Channel: Lokaler Blick Oranienbaum
Wörlitz im Herbst
Wörlitz im Herbst
Published: 2013/10/26
Channel: Ralf E. Ulrich
The Garden Realm
The Garden Realm
Published: 2012/03/06
Channel: Shannon Walden
Führerstandsmitfahrt Dessau Hbf - Ferropolis
Führerstandsmitfahrt Dessau Hbf - Ferropolis
Published: 2016/10/12
Channel: Frank Schulze
Der Toleranzweg - zur Erinnerung an die Juden in Wörlitz
Der Toleranzweg - zur Erinnerung an die Juden in Wörlitz
Published: 2016/10/24
Channel: Offener Kanal Magdeburg
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm
Woerlitzpark81.jpg
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Location Germany Edit this at Wikidata
Coordinates 51°51′49″N 12°16′53″E / 51.8636°N 12.2814°E / 51.8636; 12.2814
Criteria Cultural: (ii), (iv) Edit this on Wikidata[1]
Reference 534
Inscription 2000 (24th Session)
Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm is located in Germany
Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm
Location of Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm

The Dessau-Wörlitz Garden Realm, also known as the English Grounds of Wörlitz, is one of the first and largest English parks in Germany and continental Europe. It was created in the late 18th century under the regency of Duke Leopold III of Anhalt-Dessau (1740-1817), returning from a Grand Tour to Italy, the Netherlands, England, France and Switzerland he had undertaken together with his friend architect Friedrich Wilhelm von Erdmannsdorff. Both strongly influenced by the ideals of The Enlightenment, they aimed to overcome the formal garden concept of the Baroque era in favour of a naturalistic landscape as they had seen at Stourhead Gardens and Ermenonville. Today the cultural landscape of Dessau-Wörlitz encompasses an area of 142 km2 (55 sq mi) within the Middle Elbe Biosphere Reserve in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt.

Oranienbaum[edit]

Oranienbaum Palace

The Gardens had its origin in the 17th century, when the marriage of Leopold's great-grandfather Prince John George II of Anhalt-Dessau to the Dutch princess Henriette Catharina, daughter of Prince Frederick Henry of Orange (Dutch: Oranje), in 1659 brought a team of engineers and architects from the Low Countries under the supervision of architect Cornelis Ryckwaert to lay out the town, the palace and a Baroque garden in the former settlement of Nischwitz, which was renamed Oranienbaum in 1673. The Dutch influence remained prevalent in the Principality of Anhalt-Dessau for many decades.

Oranienbaum Palace was finished in 1683 as the summer residence of Henriette Catharina, where she retired after the death of her husband in 1693. The rich furnishing includes leather wallpapers and a dining room equipped with Delft tiles. From 1780 on Duke Leopold III had the palace and the park rebuilt in a Chinese style, according to the theories of Sir William Chambers, with several arch bridges, a tea house and a pagoda. In 1811, the orangery was built, with 175 m (574 ft) in length one of the largest in Europe, which still serves to protect a wide collection of citrus plants. Oranienbaum Palace together with the park and the geometrical settlement conception forms one of the few original Dutch Baroque town layouts in Germany. Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, Princess of Orange-Nassau, inspected the restoration works on March 3, 2004.

Wörlitzer Park[edit]

View from a gondola
Wörlitz Palace
The Rock Island and Villa Hamilton
Artificial volcano

The central Wörlitzer Park lies adjacent to the small town of Wörlitz at an anabranch of the Elbe river, making it rich in water and diversity. It was laid out between 1769 and 1773 as one of the first English gardens on the continent. According to the ideals of Duke Leopold III the park would also serve as an educational institution in architecture, gardening and agriculture, therefore large parts were open to the public from the beginning. Most buildings were designed by Erdmannsdorff, while the gardens were laid out by Johann Friedrich Eyserbeck (1734-1818), a garden architect who was indebted to such British antecedents as Claremont, Stourhead and Stowe Landscape Garden. The gardens are protected from floods of the Elbe river in the north by a dam which is also a belt-walk offering numerous views along the park's sight lines.

Wörlitz Palace finished in 1773, residence of Duke Leopold and his wife Louise of Brandenburg-Schwedt, was the first Neoclassical building in present-day Germany. The palace and its interior with valuable cabinets from the studio of Abraham and David Roentgen as well as a large collection of Wedgwood porcelain were publicly accessible. Louise had her private home in the adjacent Graues Haus (Grey House). At the eastern rim of the palace's garden stands the Wörlitz Synagogue built in 1790 as a rotunda modeled after the ancient "Temple of Vesta in Tivoli, Italy. The building expressing Leopold's religious tolerance was saved from demolition in the 1938 "Kristallnacht" pogrom by the custodian of the park, who thereupon lost his employment. The Neo-Gothic St Peter's Church in the west with its 66 m (217 ft) tall steeple was finished in 1809.

The philosophy of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the aesthetic of Johann Joachim Winckelmann underlie the design of the park and will lead to creation of follies. Rousseau saw in agriculture the basis of everyday life and pointed out to educational functions of the natural landscape. Unsurprisingly, the most elegant landscape in the area is Rousseau Island in Neumark's Garden, scored to imitate the island at Ermenonville Park where the philosopher was buried.

An island on the artificial Wörlitz Lake features Europe’s only artificial volcano. When Leopold III went on a grand tour of Europe in the 1760s, he was captivated by a trip to Naples in which he saw a smouldering Mount Vesuvius and would have heard about the newly discovered town of Pompeii.[2] Twenty-two years later, the German royal set about bringing a piece of Naples to Germany; he had his architect build a brick inner building nearly five stories high and cover it with local boulders.[2] At the top, a hollow cone was made and contained a high chamber, complete with three fireplaces and a roof that contained an “artificial crater” that could be filled with water. He then constructed a lake around the volcano and invited his friends to watch an eruption.[2] Only contemporary accounts detail what the 18th century artificial eruption would have been like, but the practice still takes place today, complete with modern effects, after the island was restored to its past glory.[2]

Minor structures of the Garden Realm, stretching for some 25 km, had far-reaching ramifications in architecture of Central Europe. The "Gothic House", started by Erdmannsdorff in 1774, modeled on the villa of Horace Walpole at Strawberry Hill, was one of the first Neo Gothic structures on the continent. The park also features replicas of Roman temples, including the Pantheon built in 1795. In the early years of the following century, the landscape was enriched with the Neo-Gothic churches in the neighbouring villages of Riesigk (1800) and Vockerode (1811).

The grounds, which had been divided into four parts since the constructions of a railway line and the Bundesautobahn 9 in the 1930s, were designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 2000. ICOMOS, however, noted that "the overall structure of the landscape has undergone a good deal of deterioration".[3]

Other[edit]

Luisium Castle
Georgium Castle

Further structures of the Garden Realm include Luisium Castle, located in the Waldersee district of Dessau, was a gift from Duke Leopold III to his wife Louise. It was built from 1774 in a plain Neoclassical style as a country home according to plans by Erdmannsdorff with adjacent gardens, pastures and a stud farm. Leopold died at the castle on August 9, 1817 from the consequences of a riding accident.

John George (1748-1811), a younger brother of Duke Leopold III, had the Georgium Castle erected from 1780 by Erdmannsdorff. Located in a riparian woodland north of Dessau, the palace features an English garden with several monuments. Today the Georgium hosts the Anhalt collection of art, including works by Albrecht Dürer - especially an old master print of his Melencolia I - and Lucas Cranach the Elder.

Mosigkau Castle in the west of Dessau is one of the few Rococo palaces in Central Germany, resembling Sanssouci at Potsdam, which had been designed by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff. It was built between 1752 and 1757 for Anna Wilhelmine of Anhalt-Dessau, the daughter of Prince Leopold I. The ensemble includes an orangery and an art collection of Flemish Baroque painting, stemming from Duke John George's II union with the House of Orange-Nassau, that features works by Peter Paul Rubens and Anthony van Dyck.

Großkühnau Castle marks the western end of the Garden Realm. It was built in 1780 for Albert of Anhalt-Dessau, a younger brother of Duke Leopold III, at Kühnau Lake. The park includes several artificial islands, fruit tree orchards and a vineyard. Today the castle is the seat of the Kulturstiftung Dessau-Wörlitz, the trust running the park. Furthermore, the Garden Realm encompasses the Leiner Berg forester's lodge, built in 1830, now a restaurant near the Elbe Cycle Route, and the Sieglitzer Berg forest park laid out in 1777.

Sources[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/534.
  2. ^ a b c d Andrew Curry (30 August 2012). "That Time a German Prince Built an Artificial Volcano". Smithsonian Magazine. 
  3. ^ [1]

External links[edit]

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