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Preignition and Detonation
Preignition and Detonation
Published: 2015/05/06
Channel: MNosko2011
Steven Wilson - Detonation
Steven Wilson - Detonation
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Manos Fatisis
Trivium - Detonation [HQ]
Trivium - Detonation [HQ]
Published: 2015/04/18
Channel: Eren Yaşar
DETONATION (KNOCKING,PINGING,SPARK KNOCK) हिन्दी ! LEARN AND GROW
DETONATION (KNOCKING,PINGING,SPARK KNOCK) हिन्दी ! LEARN AND GROW
Published: 2017/03/21
Channel: LEARN AND GROW
slow motion detonation of 950 kilo bomb
slow motion detonation of 950 kilo bomb
Published: 2012/04/25
Channel: Thomas T
What Does Engine Pinging / Detonation Sound Like
What Does Engine Pinging / Detonation Sound Like
Published: 2012/09/22
Channel: Jennies Garage
Detonation
Detonation
Published: 2017/08/18
Channel: Steven Wilson - Topic
Automobile hindi | Detonation in hindi
Automobile hindi | Detonation in hindi
Published: 2017/01/09
Channel: Automobile Hindi
Detonation, Knocking, and Pinging
Detonation, Knocking, and Pinging
Published: 2013/01/25
Channel: The Auto Rules
Knock Detonation and Pre ignition Explained
Knock Detonation and Pre ignition Explained
Published: 2017/02/24
Channel: StratifiedAuto
Explosions: 100 ton test detonation
Explosions: 100 ton test detonation
Published: 2007/04/23
Channel: frankabignaleJR
Mod-01 Lec-23 Detonation: Introduction to Detonations, Initiation of a Detonation
Mod-01 Lec-23 Detonation: Introduction to Detonations, Initiation of a Detonation
Published: 2014/03/20
Channel: nptelhrd
Detonation vs Deflagration - Smarter Every Day 1
Detonation vs Deflagration - Smarter Every Day 1
Published: 2011/04/24
Channel: SmarterEveryDay
Deflagration vs Detonation
Deflagration vs Detonation
Published: 2015/08/26
Channel: Crazy Experience
Nitroglycerine Detonation Filmed in Slo-Mo - Explosions: How We Shook the World, Preview - BBC Four
Nitroglycerine Detonation Filmed in Slo-Mo - Explosions: How We Shook the World, Preview - BBC Four
Published: 2010/10/06
Channel: BBC
Tsar Bomba Detonation
Tsar Bomba Detonation
Published: 2014/10/05
Channel: Tsar bomba
What Does Detonation / Spark Knock Sound Like?
What Does Detonation / Spark Knock Sound Like?
Published: 2016/10/21
Channel: 90GTVert
Russia
Russia's Pulse Detonation Engine - Future of Space Travel
Published: 2016/09/03
Channel: Logical Hindu
What is DETONATION? What does DETONATION mean? DETONATION meaning, definition & explanation
What is DETONATION? What does DETONATION mean? DETONATION meaning, definition & explanation
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: The Audiopedia
detonation building
detonation building
Published: 2011/04/28
Channel: Juraj Viktory
Detonation Kick Compilation - TJ Perkins
Detonation Kick Compilation - TJ Perkins
Published: 2017/09/01
Channel: GrinchsikleIV
Tsar Bomba tsar nuclear bomb detonation
Tsar Bomba tsar nuclear bomb detonation
Published: 2009/04/21
Channel: baric82
Detonation
Detonation
Published: 2017/01/23
Channel: Trivium - Topic
PARASYCHE - DETONATION [Official Video]
PARASYCHE - DETONATION [Official Video]
Published: 2017/03/01
Channel: Parasyche
Steven Wilson - Detonation (Demo)
Steven Wilson - Detonation (Demo)
Published: 2017/08/20
Channel: Quinn Downton
Detonation Knocking Pinging - What is it
Detonation Knocking Pinging - What is it
Published: 2011/05/11
Channel: Moss Motors, Ltd.
Close call IED detonation
Close call IED detonation
Published: 2014/03/28
Channel: GlobalLeaks News
スナイパーでやる vs DetonatioN Gaming BF1試合【KUN】
スナイパーでやる vs DetonatioN Gaming BF1試合【KUN】
Published: 2017/06/08
Channel: KUN
DETONATION (NL) "Washing Away the Blood" (Official)
DETONATION (NL) "Washing Away the Blood" (Official)
Published: 2011/02/10
Channel: Detonationnl
Propagation of detonation
Propagation of detonation
Published: 2015/02/10
Channel: Shimadzu an
Doctor Who - The Day of the Doctor - The Doctors cancel the detonation
Doctor Who - The Day of the Doctor - The Doctors cancel the detonation
Published: 2016/03/10
Channel: TheOncomingStorm
Trivium - Detonation (new song) Live Rock Am Ring 2006
Trivium - Detonation (new song) Live Rock Am Ring 2006
Published: 2006/06/04
Channel: toxikneedle
Sisters of Mercy ~ Detonation Boulevard
Sisters of Mercy ~ Detonation Boulevard
Published: 2010/09/15
Channel: andysgirl0480
India Develops Powerful Pulse Detonation Engine for Cruise, Ant!Tank M!ss!les
India Develops Powerful Pulse Detonation Engine for Cruise, Ant!Tank M!ss!les
Published: 2017/05/19
Channel: India Tube
Detonation - Portals to Uphobia (2005) Full Album
Detonation - Portals to Uphobia (2005) Full Album
Published: 2016/09/25
Channel: Amdusias X
Yin Yang Bangers - Detonation (Original Mix)
Yin Yang Bangers - Detonation (Original Mix)
Published: 2014/04/14
Channel: MANT Records
The Audible Difference between Deflagration and Detonation
The Audible Difference between Deflagration and Detonation
Published: 2008/03/03
Channel: emb8
Annihilator - Detonation- Metal 2007
Annihilator - Detonation- Metal 2007
Published: 2008/10/01
Channel: Ginokun
Azad - Detonation ft. DJ Rafik HQ
Azad - Detonation ft. DJ Rafik HQ
Published: 2010/03/02
Channel: Noggga14
Knock - Is it real or false?  Save your engine from detonation!
Knock - Is it real or false? Save your engine from detonation!
Published: 2015/03/02
Channel: TheTuningSchool
James Bond Spectre - Detonation Soundtrack Ost
James Bond Spectre - Detonation Soundtrack Ost
Published: 2015/10/24
Channel: Calm Music
Air Detonation 2017 [Highlights] // Parkour CDMX
Air Detonation 2017 [Highlights] // Parkour CDMX
Published: 2017/04/12
Channel: Parkour CDMX
Trivium - Detonation (DEMO)
Trivium - Detonation (DEMO)
Published: 2008/11/28
Channel: ASPunisher12
Crud - Meat Detonation
Crud - Meat Detonation
Published: 2009/06/22
Channel: allyskye1
Hiroshima Bomb detonation (Music: Saw Theme)
Hiroshima Bomb detonation (Music: Saw Theme)
Published: 2011/03/06
Channel: Wenee93
Detonate - Mikael Persson [ EPIDEMIC SOUND ]
Detonate - Mikael Persson [ EPIDEMIC SOUND ]
Published: 2016/06/18
Channel: Epidemic Sound
Supersonic detonation of hydrogen and oxygen gas
Supersonic detonation of hydrogen and oxygen gas
Published: 2015/06/08
Channel: ISTscience
Böker Detonation III Messer im Test !
Böker Detonation III Messer im Test !
Published: 2016/02/23
Channel: AdlerssonReview
DETONATION GAMING vs ROX ARMADA GAME 2- Vainglory 8 EA | Split 2 - Week 4
DETONATION GAMING vs ROX ARMADA GAME 2- Vainglory 8 EA | Split 2 - Week 4
Published: 2017/11/16
Channel: Vainglory Records - Tournament VODs
Nitrogen Triiodide Detonation
Nitrogen Triiodide Detonation
Published: 2007/03/25
Channel: sciencevidds
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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Detonation of a 500-ton TNT explosive charge during Operation Sailor Hat. The initial shock wave is visible on the water surface, and a shock condensation cloud is visible overhead.

Detonation (from Latin detonare, meaning 'to thunder down') is a type of combustion involving a supersonic exothermic front accelerating through a medium that eventually drives a shock front propagating directly in front of it. Detonations occur in both conventional solid and liquid explosives,[1] as well as in reactive gases. The velocity of detonation in solid and liquid explosives is much higher than that in gaseous ones, which allows the wave system to be observed with greater detail (higher resolution).

A very wide variety of fuels may occur as gases, droplet fogs, or dust suspensions. Oxidants include halogens, ozone, hydrogen peroxide and oxides of nitrogen. Gaseous detonations are often associated with a mixture of fuel and oxidant in a composition somewhat below conventional flammability ratios. They happen most often in confined systems, but they sometimes occur in large vapor clouds. Other materials, such as acetylene, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide are detonable in the absence of oxygen; a more complete list is given by both Stull[2] and Bretherick.[3]

Processes involved in the transition between deflagration and detonation are covered thoroughly for gases by Nettleton.[4]

Theories[edit]

The simplest theory to predict the behaviour of detonations in gases is known as Chapman-Jouguet (CJ) theory, developed around the turn of the 20th century. This theory, described by a relatively simple set of algebraic equations, models the detonation as a propagating shock wave accompanied by exothermic heat release. Such a theory confines the chemistry and diffusive transport processes to an infinitely thin zone.

A more complex theory was advanced during World War II independently by Zel'dovich, von Neumann, and W. Doering.[5][6][7] This theory, now known as ZND theory, admits finite-rate chemical reactions and thus describes a detonation as an infinitely thin shock wave followed by a zone of exothermic chemical reaction. With a reference frame of a stationary shock, the following flow is subsonic, so that an acoustic reaction zone follows immediately behind the lead front, the Chapman-Jouguet condition.[8][9] There is also some evidence that the reaction zone is semi-metallic in some explosives.[10]

Both theories describe one-dimensional and steady wave fronts. However, in the 1960s, experiments revealed that gas-phase detonations were most often characterized by unsteady, three-dimensional structures, which can only in an averaged sense be predicted by one-dimensional steady theories. Indeed, such waves are quenched as their structure is destroyed.[11][12] The Wood-Kirkwood detonation theory can correct for some of these limitations.[13]

Experimental studies have revealed some of the conditions needed for the propagation of such fronts. In confinement, the range of composition of mixes of fuel and oxidant and self-decomposing substances with inerts are slightly below the flammability limits and for spherically expanding fronts well below them.[14] The influence of increasing the concentration of diluent on expanding individual detonation cells has been elegantly demonstrated.[15] Similarly their size grows as the initial pressure falls.[16] Since cell widths must be matched with minimum dimension of containment, any wave overdriven by the initiator will be quenched.

Mathematical modeling has steadily advanced to predicting the complex flow fields behind shocks inducing reactions.[17][18] To date, none has adequately described how structure is formed and sustained behind unconfined waves.

Applications[edit]

When used in explosive devices, the main cause of damage from a detonation is the supersonic blast front (a powerful shock wave) in the surrounding area. This is a significant distinction from deflagrations where the exothermic wave is subsonic and maximum pressures are at most one eighth[citation needed] as great. Therefore, detonation is most often used for explosives and the acceleration of projectiles. However, detonation waves may also be used for less destructive purposes, including deposition of coatings to a surface[19] or cleaning of equipment (e.g. slag removal[20]) and even explosively welding together metals that would otherwise fail to fuse. Pulse detonation engines use the detonation wave for aerospace propulsion.[21] The first flight of an aircraft powered by a pulse detonation engine took place at the Mojave Air & Space Port on January 31, 2008.[22]

In engines and firearms[edit]

Unintentional detonation when deflagration is desired is a problem in some devices. In internal combustion engines it is called engine knocking or pinging or pinking, and it causes a loss of power and excessive heating of certain components. In firearms, it may cause catastrophic and potentially lethal failure.

Etymology[edit]

In classical Latin, detonare means "to stop thundering", as in weather. The modern meaning developed later.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Fickett; Davis (1979). Detonation. Univ. California Press. ISBN 978-0-486-41456-0. 
  2. ^ Stull (1977). Fundamentals of fire and explosion. Monograph Series. 10. A.I.Chem.E. p. 73. 
  3. ^ Bretherick (1979). Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. London: Butterworths. ISBN 978-0-12-372563-9. 
  4. ^ Nettleton (1987). Gaseous Detonations: Their Nature, Effects and Control. London: Butterworths. ISBN 978-0-412-27040-6. 
  5. ^ Zel'dovich; Kompaneets (1960). Theory of Detonation. New York: Academic Press. ASIN B000WB4XGE. 
  6. ^ von Neumann. Progress report on the theory of detonation waves, OSRD Report No. 549 (Report). 
  7. ^ Doring, W. (1943). "Über den Detonationsvorgang in Gasen". Annalen der Physik. 43 (6–7): 421. Bibcode:1943AnP...435..421D. doi:10.1002/andp.19434350605. 
  8. ^ Chapman, David Leonard (January 1899). "On the rate of explosion in gases". Philosophical Magazine. Series 5. London: Taylor & Francis. 47 (284): 90–104. doi:10.1080/14786449908621243. ISSN 1941-5982. LCCN sn86025845. 
  9. ^ Jouguet, Jacques Charles Emile (1905). "Sur la propagation des réactions chimiques dans les gaz" [On the propagation of chemical reactions in gases] (PDF). Journal des Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées. 6. 1: 347–425.  Continued in Continued in Jouguet, Jacques Charles Emile (1906). "Sur la propagation des réactions chimiques dans les gaz" [On the propagation of chemical reactions in gases] (PDF). Journal des Mathématiques Pures et Appliquées. 6. 2: 5–85. 
  10. ^ Reed, Evan J.; Riad Manaa, M.; Fried, Laurence E.; Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Joannopoulos, J. D. (2007). "A transient semimetallic layer in detonating nitromethane". Nature Physics. 4 (1): 72–76. Bibcode:2008NatPh...4...72R. doi:10.1038/nphys806. 
  11. ^ Edwards, D.H.; Thomas, G.O. & Nettleton, M.A. (1979). "The Diffraction of a Planar Detonation Wave at an Abrupt Area Change". Journal of Fluid Mechanics. 95 (1): 79–96. Bibcode:1979JFM....95...79E. doi:10.1017/S002211207900135X. 
  12. ^ D. H. Edwards; G. O. Thomas; M. A. Nettleton (1981). A. K. Oppenheim; N. Manson; R.I. Soloukhin; J.R. Bowen, eds. "Diffraction of a Planar Detonation in Various Fuel-Oxygen Mixtures at an Area Change". Progress in Astronautics & Aeronautics. 75: 341. doi:10.2514/5.9781600865497.0341.0357. ISBN 978-0-915928-46-0. 
  13. ^ Glaesemann, Kurt R.; Fried, Laurence E. (2007). "Improved wood–kirkwood detonation chemical kinetics". Theoretical Chemistry Accounts. 120 (1–3): 37–43. doi:10.1007/s00214-007-0303-9. 
  14. ^ Nettleton, M. A. (1980). "Detonation and flammability limits of gases in confined and unconfined situations". Fire prevention science and technology. Fire Prevention Society (UK) (23): 29. ISSN 0305-7844. 
  15. ^ Munday, G.; Ubbelohde, A.R. & Wood, I.F. (1968). "Fluctuating Detonation in Gases". Proceedings of the Royal Society A. 306 (1485): 171–178. Bibcode:1968RSPSA.306..171M. doi:10.1098/rspa.1968.0143. 
  16. ^ Barthel, H. O. (1974). "Predicted Spacings in Hydrogen-Oxygen-Argon Detonations". Physics of Fluids. 17 (8): 1547–1553. Bibcode:1974PhFl...17.1547B. doi:10.1063/1.1694932. 
  17. ^ Oran; Boris (1987). Numerical Simulation of Reactive Flows. Elsevier Publishers. 
  18. ^ Sharpe, G.J.; Quirk, J.J. (2008). "Nonlinear cellular dynamics of the idealized detonation model: Regular cells". Combustion Theory and Modelling. 12 (1): 1–21. Bibcode:2007CTM....12....1S. doi:10.1080/13647830701335749. 
  19. ^ Nikolaev, Yu.A.; Vasil'ev, A.A.; Ul'yanitskii & B.Yu. (2003). "Gas Detonation and its Application in Engineering and Technologies (Review)". Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves. 39 (4): 382–410. doi:10.1023/A:1024726619703. 
  20. ^ Huque, Z.; Ali, M.R. & Kommalapati, R. (2009). "Application of pulse detonation technology for boiler slag removal". Fuel Processing Technology. 90 (4): 558–569. doi:10.1016/j.fuproc.2009.01.004. 
  21. ^ Kailasanath, K. (2000). "Review of Propulsion Applications of Detonation Waves". AIAA Journal. 39 (9): 1698–1708. Bibcode:2000AIAAJ..38.1698K. doi:10.2514/2.1156. 
  22. ^ Norris, G. (2008). "Pulse Power: Pulse Detonation Engine-powered Flight Demonstration Marks Milestone in Mojave". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 168 (7): 60. 

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