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What is a digital identity?
What is a digital identity?
Published: 2015/06/25
Channel: Teaching & Learning Innovations CSUCI
Identity in a digital world | Alec Couros | TEDxLangleyED
Identity in a digital world | Alec Couros | TEDxLangleyED
Published: 2015/03/17
Channel: TEDx Talks
Eric Stoller - What is Digital Identity?
Eric Stoller - What is Digital Identity?
Published: 2016/11/25
Channel: University of Derby
The Digital Identity Graph
The Digital Identity Graph
Published: 2016/03/02
Channel: ThreatMetrix
Trusted Digital Identity Networks and Self-Sovereign Identity
Trusted Digital Identity Networks and Self-Sovereign Identity
Published: 2017/05/30
Channel: IBMBlockchain
Fake It - to control your digital identity: Pernille Tranberg at TEDxOxford
Fake It - to control your digital identity: Pernille Tranberg at TEDxOxford
Published: 2013/04/10
Channel: TEDx Talks
DEVCON1: Digital Identity - Christian Lundkvist
DEVCON1: Digital Identity - Christian Lundkvist
Published: 2015/12/14
Channel: Ethereum
Digital Identity 3.0 Amy Johnson
Digital Identity 3.0 Amy Johnson
Published: 2015/09/10
Channel: PwC Chair in Digital Economy
Digital Life, Digital Identity - A conversation about the internet, fiction, and the future
Digital Life, Digital Identity - A conversation about the internet, fiction, and the future
Published: 2015/04/13
Channel: Concordia University
TEDxGeorgetown - Michael Wang - The Digital Identity
TEDxGeorgetown - Michael Wang - The Digital Identity
Published: 2011/04/27
Channel: TEDx Talks
Creating A Digital Identity in the 21st Century | Bruce Duncan & BINA 48 | TEDxOrlando
Creating A Digital Identity in the 21st Century | Bruce Duncan & BINA 48 | TEDxOrlando
Published: 2017/09/05
Channel: TEDx Talks
Deloitte’s Smart Identity platform
Deloitte’s Smart Identity platform
Published: 2016/08/08
Channel: Deloitte UK
Introduction To Digital Identity
Introduction To Digital Identity
Published: 2007/10/09
Channel: GoogleTechTalks
SecureKey is helping bring together a leading digital identity ecosystem ... join us.
SecureKey is helping bring together a leading digital identity ecosystem ... join us.
Published: 2016/11/03
Channel: SecureKeyTech
Your digital identity & how it works
Your digital identity & how it works
Published: 2016/12/14
Channel: specopssoftware
Global Platforms, Digital Identity & e-Citizenship
Global Platforms, Digital Identity & e-Citizenship
Published: 2016/03/22
Channel: Stanford
Your Digital Identity Matters - Keep it safe (and simple)!
Your Digital Identity Matters - Keep it safe (and simple)!
Published: 2017/01/26
Channel: OT-Morpho
World Bank on India
World Bank on India's digital identity system - A billion people story
Published: 2017/07/27
Channel: Johnnys Desk
What is DIGITAL IDENTITY? What does DIGITAL IDENTITY mean? DIGITAL IDENTITY meaning & explanation
What is DIGITAL IDENTITY? What does DIGITAL IDENTITY mean? DIGITAL IDENTITY meaning & explanation
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: The Audiopedia
Managing your digital identity
Managing your digital identity
Published: 2014/12/08
Channel: CNN
Digital Identity Management
Digital Identity Management
Published: 2013/05/08
Channel: David Gadarian
The Future of Digital Identity
The Future of Digital Identity
Published: 2015/08/13
Channel: Neustar, Inc.
Slavoj Žižek + Paul Holdengräber "Voyeurism and digital identity" - International Authors
Slavoj Žižek + Paul Holdengräber "Voyeurism and digital identity" - International Authors' Stage
Published: 2014/05/20
Channel: Det Kgl. Bibliotek
Our Digital Identity - Documentary in-depth interview
Our Digital Identity - Documentary in-depth interview
Published: 2015/02/21
Channel: Federico Pistono
Demonetization, Digital Identity and Universal Basic Income
Demonetization, Digital Identity and Universal Basic Income
Published: 2017/04/18
Channel: Center for Global Development
Introduction To Digital Identity
Introduction To Digital Identity
Published: 2007/07/24
Channel: Google
Transforming Government: Digital Identity in India
Transforming Government: Digital Identity in India
Published: 2016/01/13
Channel: World Bank
A Universal Digital Identity | Prophecy Update
A Universal Digital Identity | Prophecy Update
Published: 2016/12/20
Channel: endtimeministries
Using Digital Identity to Create Personalized Smart Customer Experiences
Using Digital Identity to Create Personalized Smart Customer Experiences
Published: 2015/06/05
Channel: ForgeRock
Chris Hankin: Digital identity
Chris Hankin: Digital identity
Published: 2014/04/11
Channel: Imperial College London
Digital Identity Explained with Examples
Digital Identity Explained with Examples
Published: 2016/07/31
Channel: The Get Computers & Internet
Digital Identities | Stan Stalnaker | TEDxAmericanUniversity
Digital Identities | Stan Stalnaker | TEDxAmericanUniversity
Published: 2016/06/13
Channel: TEDx Talks
Digital identity
Digital identity
Published: 2015/05/05
Channel: Asel Amatova
Deloitte Advisory Digital Identity Services
Deloitte Advisory Digital Identity Services
Published: 2017/02/08
Channel: Deloitte US
Panel: Digital Identity in Action - London Identity Summit 2016
Panel: Digital Identity in Action - London Identity Summit 2016
Published: 2016/11/18
Channel: ForgeRock
Introduction to Digital Identities
Introduction to Digital Identities
Published: 2014/12/30
Channel: CA Technologies
Managing Your Digital Identity
Managing Your Digital Identity
Published: 2015/10/02
Channel: MSU Graduate School
Digital Identity
Digital Identity
Published: 2017/06/30
Channel: USFchannel
Your Digital Identity by Chris O
Your Digital Identity by Chris O'Reilly and Jim Pettiward
Published: 2013/12/03
Channel: Chris O'Reilly
Mobile Digital Identity
Mobile Digital Identity
Published: 2013/11/19
Channel: Barcelona.cat
Digital Identity In Social Media #Tieit2013 \موضي الجامع / الهوية الالكترونية في المواقع الاجتماعية
Digital Identity In Social Media #Tieit2013 \موضي الجامع / الهوية الالكترونية في المواقع الاجتماعية
Published: 2013/12/05
Channel: Moudhi AL-Jamea
eSigna ID - The new Digital Identity
eSigna ID - The new Digital Identity
Published: 2016/12/07
Channel: Indenova Indenova
Accenture Digital Identity Innovation
Accenture Digital Identity Innovation
Published: 2017/06/09
Channel: Accenture Security
Digital iDentity
Digital iDentity
Published: 2011/11/27
Channel: tomandbrooks
Introduction To Digital Identity
Introduction To Digital Identity
Published: 2012/08/22
Channel: GoogleTalksArchive
Digital identity
Digital identity
Published: 2011/04/26
Channel: Arjana Blazic
Digital Identity For A Billion People? Inside India
Digital Identity For A Billion People? Inside India's Incredible UID Initiative
Published: 2012/05/04
Channel: NYU Stern
Digital Identity Insights: PKI Implementation Best Practices
Digital Identity Insights: PKI Implementation Best Practices
Published: 2016/10/26
Channel: cssITsecurity
Digital Identity and Privacy in Healthcare
Digital Identity and Privacy in Healthcare
Published: 2015/10/13
Channel: ForgeRock
Digital Identity and Security
Digital Identity and Security
Published: 2016/10/20
Channel: Victoria Johnson
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WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

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A digital identity is information on an entity used by computer systems to represent an external agent. That agent may be a person, organisation, application, or device. ISO/IEC 24760-1 defines identity as "set of attributes related to an entity".[1]

The information contained in a digital identity allows these questions[which?] to be answered without the involvement of human operators. Digital identities allow our access to computers and the services they provide to be automated, and make it possible for computers to mediate relationships.

The term "digital identity" has also come to denote aspects of civil and personal identity that have resulted from the widespread use of identity information to represent people in computer systems.

Digital identity is now often used in ways that require data about persons stored in computer systems to be linked to their civil, or national, identities. Furthermore, the use of digital identities is now so widespread that many discussions refer to "digital identity" as the entire collection of information generated by a person’s online activity. This includes usernames and passwords, online search activities, birth date, social security, and purchasing history.[2] Especially where that information is publicly available, and can be used by others to discover that person's civil identity. In this wider sense, a digital identity is a version, or facet, of a person's social identity. This may also be referred to as an online identity.

The legal and social effects of digital identity are complex and challenging. However, they are simply a consequence of the increasing use of computers, and the need to provide computers with information that can be used to identify external agents.

Background[edit]

A critical problem in cyberspace is knowing with whom one is interacting. Currently there are no ways to precisely determine the identity of a person in digital space. Even though there are attributes associated to a person's digital identity, these attributes or even identities can be changed, masked or dumped and new ones created. Despite the fact that there are many authentication systems and digital identifiers that try to address these problems, there is still a need for a unified and verified identification system.[3][not in citation given] Thus, there are issues of privacy and security related to digital identity.

Related terms[edit]

Subject and entity[edit]

A digital identity may also be referred to as a Digital Subject or Digital entity and is the digital representation of a set of claims made by one party about itself or another person, group, thing or concept.[4]

Attributes, preferences and traits[edit]

Every digital identity has zero or more identity attributes. Attributes are acquired and contain information about a subject, such as medical history, purchasing behaviour, bank balance, age and so on.[5] Preferences retain a subject's choices such as favourite brand of shoes, preferred currency. Traits are features of the subject that are inherent, such as eye colour, nationality, place of birth. While attributes of a subject can change easily, traits change slowly, if at all.

Technical aspects[edit]

Trust, authentication and authorization[edit]

In order to assign a digital representation to an entity, the attributing party must trust that the claim of an attribute (such as name, location, role as an employee, or age) is correct and associated with the person or thing presenting the attribute (see Authentication below). Conversely, the individual claiming an attribute may only grant selective access to its information, e.g. when one proves identity in a bar or PayPal authentication for payment at a web site. In this way, digital identity is better understood as a particular viewpoint within a mutually-agreed relationship than as an objective property. This contextual nature of digital identity is referred to as contextual identity.[citation needed]

Authentication[edit]

Authentication is a key aspect of trust-based identity attribution, providing a codified assurance of the identity of one entity to another. Authentication methodologies include the presentation of a unique object such as a bank credit card, the provision of confidential information such as a password or the answer to a pre-arranged question, the confirmation of ownership of an e-mail address, and more robust but relatively costly solutions utilising encryption methodologies. In general, business-to-business authentication prioritises security while user to business authentication tends towards simplicity. Physical authentication techniques such as iris scanning, handprinting, and voiceprinting are currently being developed and in the hope of providing improved protection against identity theft. Those techniques fall into the area of Biometry (biometrics).

Whilst technological progress in authentication continues to evolve, these systems do not prevent aliases being used. The introduction of strong authentication[citation needed] for online payment transactions within the European Union now links a verified person to an account, where such person has been identified in accordance with statutory requirements prior to account being opened. The concept of reliance authentication makes use of pre-existing accounts, to piggy back further services upon those accounts, providing that the original source is reliable. The concept of reliability comes from various anti-money laundering and counter-terrorism funding legislation in the USA,[6] EU28,[7] Australia,[8] Singapore and New Zealand[9] where second parties may place reliance on the customer due diligence process of the first party, where the first party is say a financial institution. An example of reliance authentication is PayPal's verification method.

Authorization[edit]

Authorization is the determination of any entity that controls resources that the authenticated can access those resources. Authorization depends on authentication, because authorization requires that the critical attribute (i.e., the attribute that determines the authorizer's decision) must be verified. For example, authorization on a credit card gives access to the resources owned by Amazon, e.g., Amazon sends one a product. Authorization of an employee will provide that employee with access to network resources, such as printers, files, or software. For example, a database management system might be designed so as to provide certain specified individuals with the ability to retrieve information from a database but not the ability to change data stored in the database, while giving other individuals the ability to change data.[citation needed]

Consider the person who rents a car and checks into a hotel with a credit card. The car rental and hotel company may request authentication that there is credit enough for an accident, or profligate spending on room service. Thus a card may be refused when trying to book the balloon trip, though there is adequate credit to pay for the rental, the hotel, and the balloon trip. Then when the person leaves the hotel and returns the car, the actual charges are authorized (ironically of course too late for the balloon trip).

Digital identifiers[edit]

Digital identity fundamentally requires digital identifiers—strings or tokens that are unique within a given scope (globally or locally within a specific domain, community, directory, application, etc.). Identifiers are the key used by the parties to an identification relationship to agree on the entity being represented. Identifiers may be classified as omnidirectional and unidirectional.[10] Omnidirectional identifiers are intended to be public and easily discoverable, while unidirectional identifiers are intended to be private and used only in the context of a specific identity relationship.

Identifiers may also be classified as resolvable or non-resolvable. Resolvable identifiers, such as a domain name or e-mail address, may be dereferenced into the entity they represent, or some current state data providing relevant attributes of that entity. Non-resolvable identifiers, such as a person's real-world name, or a subject or topic name, can be compared for equivalence but are not otherwise machine-understandable.

There are many different schemes and formats for digital identifiers. The most widely used is Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and its internationalized version Internationalized Resource Identifier (IRI)—the standard for identifiers on the World Wide Web. OpenID and Light-Weight Identity (LID) are two web authentication protocols that use standard HTTP URIs (often called URLs), for example.

Digital Object Architecture[edit]

Digital Object Architecture (DOA)[11] provides a means of managing digital information in a network environment. A digital object has a machine and platform independent structure that allows it to be identified, accessed and protected, as appropriate. A digital object may incorporate not only informational elements, i.e., a digitized version of a paper, movie or sound recording, but also the unique identifier of the digital object and other metadata about the digital object. The metadata may include restrictions on access to digital objects, notices of ownership, and identifiers for licensing agreements, if appropriate.

Handle System[edit]

The Handle System is a general purpose distributed information system that provides efficient, extensible, and secure identifier and resolution services for use on networks such as the internet. It includes an open set of protocols, a namespace, and a reference implementation of the protocols. The protocols enable a distributed computer system to store identifiers, known as handles, of arbitrary resources and resolve those handles into the information necessary to locate, access, contact, authenticate, or otherwise make use of the resources. This information can be changed as needed to reflect the current state of the identified resource without changing its identifier, thus allowing the name of the item to persist over changes of location and other related state information. The original version of the Handle System technology was developed with support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA).

Extensible Resource Identifiers[edit]

A new OASIS standard for abstract, structured identifiers, XRI (Extensible Resource Identifiers), adds new features to URIs and IRIs that are especially useful for digital identity systems. OpenID also supports XRIs, and XRIs are the basis for i-names.

Policy aspects[edit]

There are proponents of treating self-determination and freedom of expression of digital identity as a new human right.[citation needed] Some have speculated that digital identities could become a new form of legal entity.[12]

Taxonomies of identity[edit]

Digital identity attributes—or data—exist within the context of ontologies. A simple example of a taxonomy is "A cat is a kind of animal." An entity represented in this ontology as a "cat" is therefore invariably also considered an "animal." In establishing the contextual relationship of identity attributes to one another, taxonomies are able to represent identity in terms of pre-defined structures. This in turn allows computer applications to process identity attributes in a reliable and useful manner. XML (eXtensible Markup Language) has become a de facto standard for the abstract description of structured data.

Taxonomies inevitably reflect culturally and personally relative world views. Consider two possible elaborations of the above example:

  1. "A cat is a kind of animal. A domestic cat is a kind of cat and is a pet."
  2. "A cat is a kind of animal. A domestic cat is a kind of cat and is edible by humans."

Someone searching the first taxonomy for pets would find "domestic cat," whereas a search of the second taxonomy for foodstuffs would yield the same result! We can see that while each taxonomy is useful within a particular cultural context or set of contexts, neither represents a universally valid point of view on domestic cats.

The development of digital identity network solutions that can interoperate taxonomically-diverse representations of digital identity is a contemporary challenge. Free-tagging has emerged recently as an effective way of circumventing this challenge (to date, primarily with application to the identity of digital entities such as bookmarks and photos) by effectively flattening identity attributes into a single, unstructured layer. However, the organic integration of the benefits of both structured and fluid approaches to identity attribute management remains elusive.

Networked identity[edit]

Identity relationships within a digital network may include multiple identity entities. However, in a decentralised network like the Internet, such extended identity relationships effectively require both (a) the existence of independent trust relationships between each pair of entities in the relationship and (b) a means of reliably integrating the paired relationships into larger relational units. And if identity relationships are to reach beyond the context of a single, federated ontology of identity (see Taxonomies of identity above), identity attributes must somehow be matched across diverse ontologies. The development of network approaches that can embody such integrated "compound" trust relationships is currently a topic of much debate in the blogosphere.

Integrated compound trust relationships allow, for example, entity A to accept an assertion or claim about entity B by entity C. C thus vouches for an aspect of B's identity to A.

A key feature of "compound" trust relationships is the possibility of selective disclosure from one entity to another of locally relevant information. As an illustration of the potential application of selective disclosure, let us suppose a certain Diana wished to book a hire car without disclosing irrelevant personal information (utilising a notional digital identity network that supports compound trust relationships). As an adult, UK resident with a current driving license, Diana might have the UK's Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency vouch for her driving qualification, age and nationality to a car-rental company without having her name or contact details disclosed. Similarly, Diana's bank might assert just her banking details to the rental company. Selective disclosure allows for appropriate privacy of information within a network of identity relationships.

A classic form of networked digital identity based on international standards is the "White Pages".

An electronic white pages links various devices, like computers and telephones, to an individual or organization. Various attributes such as X.509v3 digital certificates for secure cryptographic communications are captured under a schema, and published in an LDAP or X.500 directory. Changes to the LDAP standard are managed by working groups in the IETF, and changes in X.500 are managed by the ISO. The ITU did significant analysis of gaps in digital identity interoperability via the FGidm, focus group on identity management.

Implementations of X.500[2005] and LDAPv3 have occurred worldwide but are primarily located in major data centers with administrative policy boundaries regarding sharing of personal information. Since combined X.500 [2005] and LDAPv3 directories can hold millions of unique objects for rapid access, it is expected to play a continued role for large scale secure identity access services. LDAPv3 can act as a lightweight standalone server, or in the original design as a TCP-IP based Lightweight Directory Access Protocol compatible with making queries to a X.500 mesh of servers which can run the native OSI protocol.

This will be done by scaling individual servers into larger groupings that represent defined "administrative domains", (such as the country level digital object) which can add value not present in the original "White Pages" that was used to look up phone numbers and email addresses, largely now available through non-authoritative search engines.

The ability to leverage and extend a networked digital identity is made more practicable by the expression of the level of trust associated with the given identity through a common Identity Assurance Framework.

Security issues and privacy[edit]

With automated face recognition, tagging, location tracking and widespread digital authentication systems many actions of a person become easily associated with identity,[3] as a cause, sometimes privacy is lost and security is subverted. An identity system that builds on confirmed pseudonyms can provide privacy and enhance security for digital services and transactions. Cyberspace creates opportunities for identity theft. Exact copies of everything sent over a digital communications channel can be recorded. Thus, cyberspace needs a system that allows individuals to verify their identities to others without revealing to them the digital representation of their identities.

Anonymous/pseudonymous attribute systems[edit]

An anonym is an authenticated attribute that is not linked to an identifier.[3] An anonymous identifier identifies the person once. If it is used more than once, becomes a pseudonym. A pseudonym is an identifier associated with attributes but with no permanent identifier.

Legal issues[edit]

Clare Sullivan presents the grounds for digital identity as an emerging legal concept.[13] The Identity Cards Act confirms Sullivan's argument and unfolds the new legal concept involving database identity and transaction identity. Database identity refers to the collection of data that is registered about an individual within the databases of the scheme and transaction identity is a set of information that defines the individual's identity for transactional purposes. Although there is reliance on the verification of identity, none of the processes used are entirely trustworthy. The consequences of digital identity abuse and fraud are potentially serious, since in possible implications the person is held legally responsible.[13]

Business aspects[edit]

Corporations have begun to recognize the Internet's potential to facilitate the tailoring of the online storefront to each individual customer. Purchase suggestions, personalised adverts and other tailored marketing strategies are a great success to businesses. Such tailoring however, depends on the ability to connect attributes and preferences to the identity of the visitor.[14]

Variance by jurisdiction[edit]

While many facets of digital identity are universal owing in part to the ubiquity of the Internet, some regional variations exist due to specific laws, practices and government services that are in place. For example, Digital identity in Australia can utilize services that validate Driving licences, Passports and other physical documents online to help improve the quality of a digital identity, also strict Anti-money laundering policies mean that some services, such as money transfers need a stricter level of validation of digital identity.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ISO/IEC 24760-1: A framework for identity management - Part 1: Terminology and concepts". ISO. 2011. Retrieved 2015-12-05. 
  2. ^ "What is a Digital Identity? - Definition from Techopedia". Retrieved 2016-10-01. 
  3. ^ a b c Camp, L. Jean (2004). "Digital Identity". IEEE Technology and Society Magazine. IEEE. (subscription required)
  4. ^ "Digital Identity - Eclipsepedia". wiki.eclipse.org. 
  5. ^ Windley, Phillip J. (2005). Digital Identity. O'Reilly Media, Inc. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0596008789. 
  6. ^ http://www.ffiec.gov/pdf/bsa_aml_examination_manual2006.pdf
  7. ^ "EUR-Lex - 52013PC0045 - EN - EUR-Lex". eur-lex.europa.eu. 
  8. ^ http://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/C2013C00371
  9. ^ Affairs, The Department of Internal. "AML/CFT Act and Regulations". www.dia.govt.nz. 
  10. ^ Cameron, Kim (May 2005). "The Laws of Identity". msdn.microsoft.com. Microsoft. 
  11. ^ Kahn, Robert; Wilensky, Robert (May 13, 1995). "A Framework for Distributed Digital Object Services". Corporation for National Research Initiatives. 
  12. ^ Sullivan, Clare (2012). "Digital Identity and Mistake". International Journal of Law and Technology.  Check date values in: |access-date= (help);
  13. ^ a b Sullivan, Clare (2010). Digital Identity. The University of Adelaide. ISBN 978-0-9807230-0-7. 
  14. ^ Ableson, Hal; Lessig, Lawrence (10 September 1998). "Digital Identity in Cyberspace". MIT.edu. 

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