In many countries, a simulcast service is operated where a broadcast is made available to viewers in both analog and digital at the same time. As digital becomes more popular, it is likely that the existing analog services will be removed. In some cases this has already happened, where a broadcaster has offered incentives to viewers to encourage them to switch to digital. In other cases government policies have been introduced to encourage or force the switchover process, especially with regard to terrestrial broadcasts. Government intervention usually involves providing some funding for broadcasters and, in some cases monetary relief to viewers, to enable a switchover to happen by a given deadline.
The switchover for individual countries varies; in some countries it is being implemented in stages as in Australia, India and the United Kingdom, where each region has a separate date to switch off. In others, the whole country switches on one date, such as the Netherlands, which switched off all analog services on 11 December 2006. Some countries have different switch off dates for each channel, such as China where CCTV channels 1-5+ were switched off first.
The Geneva 2006 Agreement set 17 June 2015 as the date after which countries may use frequencies currently assigned for analog television transmission for digital services, without being required to protect the analog services of neighbouring countries against interference. This date was generally viewed as an internationally mandated analog switch-off date, at least along national borders. The European Commission has recommended that digital switchover should be completed by 1 January 2012 - Commission Recommendation 2009/848/EC, of 28 October 2009.
Netherlands moved to digital-only broadcasting on Monday, 11 December 2006, being the first country to do so. The switch-off was helped greatly by the fact that about 80% of Dutch households subscribe to cable systems, which continued to use analog distribution, and thus their old tuners continued to be useful. Like Germany and Sweden, the Netherlands still has a high number of analog cable viewers and therefore a switchover to digital broadcasting is unlikely to happen in the near future.
Analog closedown warning broadcast in Finland.
Finland ceased analog terrestrial transmissions nationwide at 04:00, Saturday, 1 September 2007 (the switch-off was previously planned for midnight on 1 September but a few extra hours were added for technical reasons). This was controversial, as the cost of a digital TV set in Finland at the time was heavily criticised and saw a substantial decrease in how much the television license cost. Cable TV viewers continued to receive analog broadcasts until the end of February 2008.
Andorra completed its switch-off on Tuesday 25 September 2007.
Sweden: The switch-off of the analog terrestrial network progressed region–by–region. It started on the island of Gotland on Monday, 19 September 2005, and was completed on Monday, 15 October 2007, when the last analog SVT1 transmitters in Blekinge and western Scania were shut down. Like the Netherlands, Germany and Japan, cable distributors continued broadcasting analog television. Cable broadcasters continue to broadcast in analog (like the Netherlands and Germany), so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
Switzerland began with the switch-off on Monday 24 July 2006 in Ticino and continued with Engadin on Monday 13 November 2006. The switch-off was completed on Monday 26 November 2007. A very high percentage of Swiss viewers receive their signals via cable distributors. By 2012 40% of cable viewers have switched to digital. Analog cable was switched off on 1 January 2017.
Germany started the switch-off in the Berlin area, beginning on Friday, 1 November 2002 and completing on Monday 4 August 2003. "Simulcast" digital transmissions started in other parts of the country in an effort to prepare for a full switchover. The switch-off of terrestrial analog transmitters was completed on Tuesday 25 November 2008, except one main transmitter in Bad Mergentheim, which was shut down in June 2009. Analog satellite receivers were still used by 6% of households in 2010 - the highest in Europe. The analog satellite transmissions were switched off on Monday 30 April 2012, being the last in Europe. However, analog cable is still used by about 30% of the population and 55% of all cable broadcasts, so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
Denmark switched off all terrestrial analog services at midnight on Sunday 1 November 2009. Analogue cable was switched off at 9 February 2016.
Norway: The switch-off of the analog transmissions started in March 2008 and was completed on Tuesday 1 December 2009. Norway started its DTT service on the Saturday 1 September 2007.
Belgium: Media regulations are under regional legislation. Flanders switched off analog television on Monday 3 November 2008, while in Wallonia, all analog services were switched off on Monday, 1 March 2010, making the country completely serviced by digital signal. However, analog cable is still used by many cable subscribers, so therefore a cable switchover is unlikely to happen in the near future.
Analog closedown warning broadcast in Spain
Spain: The switch-off of the analog terrestrial transmissions was completed on Saturday 3 April 2010. The switch-off was successful, as about 70% of Spanish television transmissions are terrestrial, so it was easy for people to just switch to the digital signal. Spain started its DTT service on Wednesday 30 November 2005.
Latvia's analog television completely converted to digital broadcasting on Tuesday 1 June 2010.
Estonia's analog television was switched off completely on Thursday, 1 July 2010.
Jersey and Guernsey switched off their analog signals on Wednesday 17 November 2010.
Croatia: Analog television broadcasts were switched off for all national TV channels on Tuesday 5 October 2010 at 12:35 and for local TV channels on Saturday 20 November 2010.
Slovenia: The switch-off of main transmitters was completed on Wednesday 1 December 2010. The last local analog transmitters were switched off on Thursday 30 June 2011.
San Marino completed its switch-off on Thursday 2 December 2010.
Luxembourg shut down their last analog transmitter on UHF Channel 21 on Friday 31 December 2010.
Monaco switched off their analog TV broadcasts on Tuesday 24 May 2011.
Austria: Began analog switch-off on Monday, 5 March 2007, progressing from the west to the east. The analog broadcast was shut down nationwide at the end of 2010 regarding the main transmitters. The last analog translators were switched off on 7 June 2011.
Cyprus terminated all analog transmissions on Thursday 30 June 2011 and moved to digital-only transmissions in MPEG-4 on Friday 1 July 2011.
Malta terminated all analog services on Monday, 31 October 2011. The switch-off was originally planned for Wednesday 1 June 2011 but was delayed for unknown reasons.
Portugal: Digital broadcasts started on Wednesday 29 April 2009. Portugal's government hoped to cover 80% of the territory with DTV by the end of 2009, and simulcasts remained until Thursday 26 April 2012, when the analog broadcasting ended. The switchover began on Thursday 12 January 2012.
Czech Republic: The last analog retransmitters in the south-east Moravia and the northern Moravia - Silesia were switched off on Saturday, 30 June 2012.
Italy: The conversion to digital television progressed region–by–region. It started in Sardinia on Wednesday 15 October 2008, and was completed on Wednesday 4 July 2012, when the last analog transmitters in the Province of Palermo were shut down.
United Kingdom: Digital terrestrial broadcasting began in the UK on Sunday 15 November 1998 with the launch of the ONdigital, later renamed ITV Digital and now Freeview. The transition from analog and digital to digital-only terrestrial signals started on Wednesday 17 October 2007 with the Whitehaven transmitter in Cumbria, and followed a transmitter switchover timetable, implemented by region. The first constituent country to switch off all its analog signals was Wales on Wednesday 31 March 2010 and the last region to switch off its analog signals was Northern Ireland on Wednesday 24 October 2012. analog cable broadcasts ended in January 2012, with Milton Keynes still relying on analog cable, which the town will not get an analog switch-off. Analog satellite was discontinued on Thursday 27 September 2001, making the UK and Ireland the first countries in Europe with digital-only satellite.
Ireland: Digital television was launched in Ireland as Saorview on Friday 29 October 2010. At launch it had 5 standard-definition channels and 1 high-definition channel. The analog service was terminated on Wednesday 24 October 2012 and was replaced by a second multiplex for Saorview. A small number of low power independent analog re-broadcast systems remained licensed until the Monday 31 December 2012. There has been no date released for the shutdown of analog cable, and many major cable companies (e.g. UPC Ireland) are still actively offering analog. Analog satellite was discontinued on Thursday 27 September 2001, making the UK and Ireland the first countries in Europe with digital-only satellite.
Lithuania: The switch-off of the analog terrestrial transmissions was completed on Monday, 29 October 2012.
Slovakia: Slovakia finished analog transmission broadcasts on Monday, 31 December 2012.
Gibraltar: Analog transmissions ceased in December 2012.
Macedonia: Analog transmissions were terminated on Saturday, 1 June 2013.
Poland: The switch-off of the analog terrestrial transmissions was completed on Tuesday, 23 July 2013.
Hungary: Hungarian analog terrestrial transmissions stopped on Thursday, 31 October 2013, after completing two phases that ended on 31 July and 31 October, respectively.
Iceland: All analog terrestrial transmissions were switched off on Monday, 2 February 2015.
Greece: The analog terrestrial transmissions were terminated on Friday, 6 February 2015.
Serbia launched its first DTT transmissions in 2005. The first DTT-only channel was made available in 2008. As of 2013, the DVB-T2 network covers Belgrade and much of Vojvodina, several cities in Šumadija and Western Serbia and the southern city of Niš. Digital TV switchover for 98% of citizens started on 1 September 2014. Transition progressed in six stages. First switchoff took place in Vršac on 15 April 2015. Last switchoff took place on 7 June 2015.
Albania: Analog broadcasts were switched off on 17 June 2015.
Azerbaijan: Began analog switch-off on Sunday, 17 October 2010, completed on 17 June 2015.
Kosovo (partially recognized state): Has shutdown analog signals on 17 June 2015.
Romania has switched off analog broadcasting on 17 June 2015. It began phasing out the analog transmission on 30 April 2014, with 5 licences awarded for the DTT multiplexes, and also the main channel switched off at 1 January 2017.
Georgia: Analog broadcasts should have been switched off 17 June 2015, but due to the flooding in Tbilisi, which occurred on the night of 13 to 14 June 2015 analogue switch-off happened on 1 July 2015.
Armenia: Has shut down analog signals on 10 July 2015.
Belarus: Analogue broadcasting was disabled 15 May 2015 in UHF band and 16 June 2015 in the VHF band (channels 6-12). The final analogue switch-off occurred at the end of 2015.
Ukraine: Analog switch-off took place in four stages. The first phase of analog switch-off started on 15 June 2015. Analog broadcasting was completely turned off 31 December 2016.
Namibia: Analog signals were terminated on 13 September 2014.
Algeria: Digital broadcasting started in 2009, analog signals were switched off on 10 November 2014.
Morocco: Analogue transmitters were switched off on 17 June 2015.
Kenya: Analog switch off was supposed to take place in 2013, however media houses challenged the move in court and the switch off has since been moved to 31 December 2014 for the metropolitan areas and their surroundings while in the rest of the country switched to DVB-T2 in March 2015.
Ghana: Analog switch-off occurred in June 2015, switching to DVB-T.
Rwanda: Shut off the last of its analog signals in March 2014. Switched to DVB-T, with plans to upgrade to DVB-T2 in the future.
Mexico: Digital broadcasts commenced in 2000, with the first being Tijuana's XETV – an English-language television station that primarily served San Diego, California between the 1960s and the early 2010s. Analog shutdown was originally scheduled to occur in 2021, but on Thursday, 2 September 2010, Mexican government advanced the analog shutdown from 2021 to 2015. From 2013, areas began to be switched over regionally depending on the presence of digital television stations and a campaign headed by the SCT to distribute free television converters to households on the government welfare rolls. The first digital switchover was to begin on Tuesday, 28 May 2013 in Tijuana, but was postponed to 18 July due to the 2013 Baja California state elections. The switchover was completed nationwide on 31 December 2015, when all remaining analog television stations left the air. There does however remain a very small number of community-based transmitters, which had to switch off before 31 December 2016. Mexico then instituted a nationwide remapping of network stations in late 2016 requiring most of them to map to the channel number in either Mexico City, or for regional networks, the main metro area served by the network's flagship station.
United States: On Monday, 8 September 2008, Wilmington, North Carolina became the first city in the United States to fully switch over from analog to digital broadcasts. All analog signals were terminated at noon. This switchover was a test by FCC to make further improvements to the transition process before the whole nation was switched over to digital. Having moved the deadline from 17 February 2009 (some stations still chose to shut down on that date), all VHF transmissions (stations 2–13) and most full-power UHF analog transmitters were shut down on 12 June 2009, with the exception of low-power stations, and "nightlight" stations which broadcast PSAs on the transition until 12 July 2009. Television transmission on channels 52 to 69 was required to cease by Saturday, 31 December 2011, to allow the FCC to commence with the first phase of spectrum reallocation for other services. Class A low-power stations were required to transition by 1 September 2015. The deadline for low-power and translator stations was suspended on 24 April 2015, due to concerns that the upcoming spectrum auction could "potentially displace a significant number of LPTV and TV translator stations", and would "[require] analog stations to incur the costs of transitioning to digital before completion of the auction and repacking process".
Canada: Canada's DTV transition was completed in 28 mandatory markets on Wednesday, 31 August 2011. Some CBC analog transmitters in mandatory markets were permitted to operate for another year, and transmitters outside mandatory markets were given the option of converting to digital, or remaining in analog. The CBC decided to shut down all (more than 600) of its remaining analog transmitters on Tuesday, 31 July 2012, without replacing them. Also on 31 August 2011, all full-power TV transmitters had to vacate channels 52 to 69. There does however remain a very small number of community-based transmitters; see Digital television in Canada.
Israel started digital transmissions in MPEG-4 on Sunday 2 August 2009 and analog transmissions ended on Thursday 31 March 2011. Israel was the first nation in the Middle East and the first Non-European nation to shut down their analog signals.
Saudi Arabia: The analog terrestrial transmissions were terminated on Monday 13 February 2012 and was replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analog cable by 31 March 2023. Saudi Arabia was transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday 26 August 2012. Saudi Arabia adopted DVB-T2 in March 2013. Analog satellite transmission were switched off on Monday 1 March 2004. Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Arab world on Monday 1 January 2001 (known as Nilesat).
Example of analog broadcast termination notice screen in Japan.
Japan: The analog shutdown began on 24 September 2010 in Suzu, Ishikawa. Analog terrestrial television transmissions in the remainder of Ishikawa Prefecture and 43 other prefectures stopped analog broadcasting at noon on Sunday 24 July 2011, along with the analog satellite services; three remaining prefectures (Fukushima, Iwate, and Miyagi) that were destroyed or heavily damaged in the 11 March 2011 9.0 magnitude Tohoku earthquake and its related nuclear accidents stopped analog broadcasting at noon on Saturday, 31 March 2012.Analog high-definition television broadcasting ended on Sunday, 30 September 2007. Like Netherlands, Germany and Sweden, an analog cable service (known as Dejiana since 1 July 2011) continued to be broadcast, but starting on 1 April 2012, all cable providers in Japan were required to convert from analog to digital within the next three years. The last cable providers shut down their analog services on 30 April 2015. All television stations across the country are now broadcasting only in digital, ending an analog-digital simulcast period that began on Monday 1 December 2003 in the Kantō region (which expanded to all other prefectures over the next four years) and ended between 24 July 2011 and 31 March 2012 (when all analog transmissions were shut down).
Qatar: The analog terrestrial transmissions were terminated on Monday, 13 February 2012 and was replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analog cable by 31 March 2023. Qatar was transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday, 26 August 2012. Qatar adopted DVB-T2 in February 2013. Analog satellite transmission were switched off on Monday 1 March 2004. Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Arab world on Monday 1 January 2001 (known as Nilesat).
Taiwan: Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Taiwan on Friday, 2 July 2004. Analog terrestrial television ended transmission on Saturday, 30 June 2012. The shut down of analog cable television is in progress.
United Arab Emirates: The analog terrestrial transmissions were terminated on Monday, 13 February 2012 and was replaced by a multiplex for Nilesat. The government plans to shut off analog cable by 31 March 2023. United Arab Emirates were transitioning from using MPEG-2 to MPEG-4 for its terrestrial broadcasts, a process which began on Sunday 26 August 2012. United Arab Emirates adopted DVB-T2 in February 2013. Analog satellite transmission were switched off on Monday 1 March 2004. Digital television launched terrestrially throughout Arab world on Monday 1 January 2001 (known as Nilesat).
New Zealand: Digital terrestrial television broadcasts began officially in April 2008. analog PAL switchoff started on 30 September 2012 with the North Island's Hawke's Bay region and the South Island's West Coast region and finished with the Upper North Island which was switched off 1 December 2013.
Australia: Digital television commenced in Australia's five most populous cities on Monday 1 January 2001. The Mildura region was the first to terminate its analog network, on Wednesday 30 June 2010. Digital switchover was originally expected to be complete by Tuesday 31 December 2013, however the last regions to switch over (Melbourne and Remote Eastern/Central Australia) did so slightly earlier, on Tuesday 10 December 2013 at 9:00 am. Until the switch-off in the respective areas, free-to-air stations were simulcast, along with digital-only channels like ABC2. Cable television networks began simulcasting in 2004 and analog cable services were switched off in April 2007. The switchover was co-ordinated by the Digital Switchover Taskforce operating under the federal Department of Broadband, Communications and the Digital Economy.
Argentina: Digital television broadcasts started on Tuesday, 9 September 2008 in Buenos Aires. The analog network will be terminated on 1 January 2019.
Bolivia: Started on Tuesday, 20 July 2010, it will be completed on 1 September 2017.
Brazil: Began free-to-air HD digital transmissions, after a period of test broadcasts, on Sunday, 2 December 2007 in São Paulo, expanding in 2008 to Brasília, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte. Digital broadcasts were phased into the other 23 state capitals in the following years, and to the remaining cities by Tuesday 31 December 2013. The country started on 15 February 2016 in Rio Verde, Goiás as a pilot experiment, followed by the Federal District and main cities and metropolitan regions from 26 October 2016 to 31 December 2023, when it is expected the ending of all analog television broadcasting.
Colombia: The government planned to close down analog broadcast on 31 December 2019.
Costa Rica: Will shut down analog signals permanently in December 2018.
Chile: The transition to digital started in 2012, and will be switched off in 2020.
Dominican Republic: The Dominican Government once set a final analog shut down date of all analog transmissions on 24 September 2015. However, INDOTEL, a telecommunications department of the Dominican Government, postponed it to 9 August 2021.
Paraguay: The transmission of digital television broadcasts started in August 2011, by TV Pública (which belongs to the Paraguayan government) with an initial coverage area of 25 kilometres (about 16 miles) from Asuncion downtown. The analog television system switch-off is estimated to be completed on Friday, 1 September 2017.
Peru: Digital television broadcasts started in Lima in March 2010, and analog broadcasts are scheduled to be terminated on 30 September 2020 as a Peruvian Master Plan.
Hong Kong's The original digital switchover plan was supposed to take place in 2012. The plan has been postponed by the end of 2020.
Indonesia: Analog terrestrial television transmissions will end on Tuesday, 13 March 2018 at 00:00 WIB/01:00 WITA/02:00 WIT. The shut down of analog cable television will happen when the last analog transmitters in Jakarta and Medan end transmissions. Digital terrestrial television was launched on 13 August 2008 (DVB-T) and 16 October 2012 (DVB-T2).
Iran commenced broadcasting digital TV in 2009, using the DVB-T MPEG-4 standard, with 40% of population having access to digital TV by mid-2011. There is no deadline yet for converting analog signals to digital.
Malaysia: The first DTTB services were rolled out on 16 January 2014, starting in a few test areas, while full nationwide coverage to an estimated 98% populated areas is slated by the end of the analog-digital simulcast period.. The official launch of digital broadcasts happened on 6 June 2017 by prime minister. On 1 June 2018, analogue signal will be switched off completely.
North Korea: On 19 January 2015, Korean Central Television, the country's state broadcaster, began broadcasting via digital satellite. However, there is no deadline yet for when the analog terrestrial network will switch over to digital.
Philippines: In June 2010, the National Telecommunications Commission set a deadline of 11:59 p.m. on 31 December 2015 for the discontinuation of analog television. However, since the last quarter of 2014, the digitization deadline has been postponed to 2019 and should be expected that all analog broadcasts will be shut off in 2023.ZOE Broadcasting Network's DZOZ-TV became the first station in the country to permanently cease analog terrestrial operations on 28 February 2017, signaling the start of the country's transition to digital-only broadcasting. Digital television in the Philippines uses the Japanese ISDB standards for its terrestrial broadcast.
Singapore launched digital terrestrial television under MediaCorp in June 2006 (DVB-T) and December 2013 (DVB-T2). The country announced that free-to-air broadcaster MediaCorp will transmit all its free-to-air channels digitally in DVB-T2. Analogue TV channels will be switched off in end 2017 and MediaCorp TV channels will be broadcast in digital only.
Thailand launched digital terrestrial television in May 2014 after postponing it for 12 years. Analog signals will be switched off will start in 2017 for some channel and will complete in 2020.
Bosnia and Herzegovina: One analog transmitter has been shut down in June 2015, by request of neighboring Serbia, affecting one of the public broadcast channels, but the signal was re-established within days. DVB-T test signal on MUX-A was expected by the end of 2015 in some parts of the country, and the tender procedure for completing MUX-A for the whole territory of the country ("second phase") has started.
After the switch from analog to digital broadcasts is complete, analog TVs will be incapable of receiving over-the-air broadcasts without the addition of a set-top converter box. Consequently, a digital converter box – an electronic device that connects to an analog television – must be used in order to allow the television to receive digital broadcasts. In the United States, the government subsidized the purchase of such boxes for consumers via their coupon-eligible converter box program in 2009, funded by a small part of the billions of dollars brought in by a spectrum auction. The program was managed by the Department of Commerce through its National Telecommunications and Information Administration.
^"Announcement". Digea. Dec 2014. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. ANNOUNCEMENT Saturday, December 27, 2014 the morning will begin digital broadcasting (while stopping analogue) of the centers: Agios Athanasios Water Tower Gate Tsotyli Vounasa Royal Polygyros Delvinaki Curse Granitsopoula Igoumenitsa Korfovouni Amfilochia Those viewers covered by these centers will need to have receiver (TV or decoder) that supports MPEG4 technology and coordinate the morning of December 27 the new frequencies. Those viewers already receive terrestrial digital TV signal need not make any action.
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