Share
VIDEOS 1 TO 50
Recognition : International Law
Recognition : International Law
Published: 2015/09/17
Channel: LAW Notes
Diplomatic Recognition of PRC from ROC
Diplomatic Recognition of PRC from ROC
Published: 2016/10/18
Channel: ekorourke
Sao Tome and Principe switches diplomatic recognition from Taiwan to China
Sao Tome and Principe switches diplomatic recognition from Taiwan to China
Published: 2016/12/22
Channel: Formosa EnglishNews
Panama switches diplomatic recognition from Taiwan to China
Panama switches diplomatic recognition from Taiwan to China
Published: 2017/06/13
Channel: Breaking News
VIETNAM: EXCHANGE OF LETTERS OF DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION
VIETNAM: EXCHANGE OF LETTERS OF DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
SYND 14/10/70 CHINA DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION
SYND 14/10/70 CHINA DIPLOMATIC RECOGNITION
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
State Recognition
State Recognition
Published: 2017/01/27
Channel: International Law MOOC
Recongition of State
Recongition of State
Published: 2010/08/28
Channel: Resistance4Liberty
International recognition of Israel
International recognition of Israel
Published: 2015/11/21
Channel: Audiopedia
International recognition of Kosovo
International recognition of Kosovo
Published: 2014/10/14
Channel: Audiopedia
10 Interesting Unrecognized Countries
10 Interesting Unrecognized Countries
Published: 2016/03/29
Channel: Eskify
Recognition
Recognition
Published: 2016/04/16
Channel: RSIL Pakistan
Ramblings 142: Legal Recognition of Statehood
Ramblings 142: Legal Recognition of Statehood
Published: 2014/11/08
Channel: RamblingswithRebecca
States with Limited Recognition (Part 1)
States with Limited Recognition (Part 1)
Published: 2014/10/05
Channel: ☭Suomi★
Why The International Recognition Program (IRP)
Why The International Recognition Program (IRP)
Published: 2014/04/03
Channel: Dan Catto
The Youngest Government/Diplomatic Recognition of 2011 to Gwendell Mercelina II
The Youngest Government/Diplomatic Recognition of 2011 to Gwendell Mercelina II
Published: 2011/12/16
Channel: Gwendell Mercelina
CFI Taiwan Recognition 2006
CFI Taiwan Recognition 2006
Published: 2015/01/28
Channel: Kelvin Kwek CT
LAWS12070 Week 4 Tutorial: Statehood and Recognition in International Law
LAWS12070 Week 4 Tutorial: Statehood and Recognition in International Law
Published: 2016/12/01
Channel: Dr. Manuel Jose Oyson
International Recognition
International Recognition
Published: 2010/06/22
Channel: rlabordecouvillion
(Un)Recognized Space
(Un)Recognized Space
Published: 2013/02/05
Channel: Kathy Diehl
Panama Changes Diplomatic Recognition to China From Taiwan
Panama Changes Diplomatic Recognition to China From Taiwan
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: MustListen - Daily News in Simple English
(Un)Recognized Space
(Un)Recognized Space
Published: 2011/09/07
Channel: macdunify
Some peoples opinions on somaliland recognition
Some peoples opinions on somaliland recognition
Published: 2015/07/28
Channel: Hassan Abokor
‘State recognition isn
‘State recognition isn't required'
Published: 2011/06/24
Channel: Jposttv
International recognition
International recognition
Published: 2014/06/30
Channel: The Star Online
Trent Affair- What If The South Won British Support?
Trent Affair- What If The South Won British Support?
Published: 2016/01/20
Channel: Political Junkie
China-US Relations 35 years on
China-US Relations 35 years on
Published: 2014/01/03
Channel: Odjer015
Africa Today - Should Somaliland win international recognition? (P.1)
Africa Today - Should Somaliland win international recognition? (P.1)
Published: 2014/06/12
Channel: PressTV News Videos
Russia affects unrecognised states worldwide
Russia affects unrecognised states worldwide
Published: 2008/08/27
Channel: RT
Jim Parish State Recognition
Jim Parish State Recognition
Published: 2016/11/25
Channel: Lance Soto
Recognition, Sovereignty Struggles, and Indigenous Rights in the United States A Sourcebook
Recognition, Sovereignty Struggles, and Indigenous Rights in the United States A Sourcebook
Published: 2017/03/12
Channel: Summer Bowling
Taiwan
Taiwan's Strategy to Retain Diplomatic Space
Published: 2013/07/30
Channel: WoodrowWilsonCenter
Panama establishes diplomatic ties with China
Panama establishes diplomatic ties with China
Published: 2017/06/15
Channel: CGTN
Putin
Putin's Warning To Trump/Merkel: Sings Exec Order Recognizing Donetsk and Lugansk People’s Republics
Published: 2017/02/19
Channel: The Fing News
TAIWAN: FOREIGN MINISTER HU SAYS FIGHT FOR RECOGNITION TO CONTINUE
TAIWAN: FOREIGN MINISTER HU SAYS FIGHT FOR RECOGNITION TO CONTINUE
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
US withholds full recognition for Libya rebels
US withholds full recognition for Libya rebels
Published: 2011/05/19
Channel: Al Jazeera English
The Heat discusses European recognition of Palestinian statehood
The Heat discusses European recognition of Palestinian statehood
Published: 2014/10/21
Channel: CGTN America
David Shoebridge MP - Revoke The Holy See
David Shoebridge MP - Revoke The Holy See's Diplomatic Status
Published: 2017/03/02
Channel: Joseph Lollard
France to consider recognizing Palestine
France to consider recognizing Palestine
Published: 2014/10/15
Channel: teleSUR English
Taiwan in Focus─面對中國打壓 台尋求非官方交流才有出路
Taiwan in Focus─面對中國打壓 台尋求非官方交流才有出路
Published: 2017/06/23
Channel: 宏觀新聞 MACTV NEWS
Africa Today - Should Somaliland win international recognition? (P.2)
Africa Today - Should Somaliland win international recognition? (P.2)
Published: 2014/06/12
Channel: PressTV News Videos
VIETNAM: NATION CELEBRATES RENEWAL OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH US
VIETNAM: NATION CELEBRATES RENEWAL OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS WITH US
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
MACEDONIA: UN TROOPS REMAIN ON KOSOVO STANDBY
MACEDONIA: UN TROOPS REMAIN ON KOSOVO STANDBY
Published: 2015/07/21
Channel: AP Archive
United States Diplomat, First Ambassador to Israel: James Grover McDonald Interview
United States Diplomat, First Ambassador to Israel: James Grover McDonald Interview
Published: 2012/05/23
Channel: The Film Archives
All state recognition...finally!
All state recognition...finally!
Published: 2015/05/22
Channel: Holly Boatright
State Recognition 7
State Recognition 7
Published: 2011/05/10
Channel: Srijan Mukherjee
State Recognition
State Recognition
Published: 2015/10/01
Channel: Jay Martinez
St. Vincent
St. Vincent's opposition party announces foreign policy shift
Published: 2016/08/24
Channel: iWitness News
Iqbal Jhazbhay on Somaliland
Iqbal Jhazbhay on Somaliland's quest for international recognition
Published: 2014/12/15
Channel: Africa Research Institute
Libyan Rebels Gain New Diplomatic Allies, Plan to Fight During Ramadan
Libyan Rebels Gain New Diplomatic Allies, Plan to Fight During Ramadan
Published: 2011/07/28
Channel: PBS NewsHour
NEXT
GO TO RESULTS [51 .. 100]

WIKIPEDIA ARTICLE

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state). Recognition can be accorded either de facto or de jure. Recognition can be a declaration to that effect by the recognizing government, or an act of recognition such as entering into a treaty with the other state. A vote by a country in the United Nations in favour of the membership of another country is an implicit recognition of that country by the country so voting, as only states may be members of the UN.

The non-recognition of particular acts of a state does not normally effect the recognition of the state itself. For example, the international rejection of the occupation of particular territory by a recognised state does not imply non-recognition of the state itself, nor a rejection of a change of government by illegal means.

Recognition of states and governments[edit]

Diplomatic recognition must be distinguished from formal recognition of states or their governments.[1] The fact that states do not maintain bilateral diplomatic relations does not mean that they do not recognize or treat one another as states. A state is not required to accord formal bilateral recognition to any other state, and some have a general policy of not doing so, considering that a vote for its membership of an international organisation restricted to states, such as the United Nations, is proof of recognition.

Some consider that a state has a responsibility not to recognize as a state any entity that has attained the qualifications for statehood by a violation of basic principles of the UN Charter: the UN Security Council has in several instances (Resolution 216 (1965) and Resolution 217 (1965), concerning Rhodesia; Resolution 541 (1983), concerning Northern Cyprus; and Resolution 787 (1992), concerning the Republika Srpska) issued Chapter VII resolutions (binding in international law) that denied their statehood and precluded recognition. In the 2010 International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo's declaration of independence, the ICJ ruled that "general international law contains no applicable prohibition of declarations of independence."[2] The Court carefully noted "that in all of those instances the Security Council was making a determination as regards the concrete situation existing at the time that those declarations of independence were made; the illegality attached to the declarations of independence thus stemmed not from the unilateral character of these declarations as such, but from the fact that they were, or would have been, connected with the unlawful use of force or other egregious violations of norms of general international law, in particular those of a peremptory character (jus cogens). In the context of Kosovo, the Security Council has never taken this position. The exceptional character of the resolutions enumerated above appears to the Court to confirm that no general prohibition against unilateral declarations of independence may be inferred from the practice of the Security Council."[3]

States can exercise their recognition powers either explicitly or implicitly.[4] The recognition of a government implies recognition of the state it governs, but even countries which have a policy of formally recognising states may not have a policy of doing the same regarding governments.

De facto recognition of states, rather than de jure, is rare. De jure recognition is stronger, while de facto recognition is more tentative and recognizes only that a government exercises control over a territory. An example of the difference is when the United Kingdom recognized the Soviet state de facto in 1921, but de jure only in 1924. Another example is the state of Israel in 1948, whose government was immediately recognized de facto by the United States and three days later by Soviet de jure recognition. Also, the Republic of China, commonly known as "Taiwan", is generally recognized as de facto independent and sovereign, but is not universally recognized as de jure independent due to the complex political status of Taiwan related to the United Nation's de-recognization of it in favor of the People's Republic of China in 1971.

Renewing recognition of a government is not necessary when it changes in a normal, constitutional way (such as an election or referendum), but is necessary in the case of a coup d'etat or revolution. Recognition of a new government by other states can be important for its long-term survival. For instance, the Taliban government of the Islamic State of Afghanistan, which lasted from 1996 to 2001, was recognized by only Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and Saudi Arabia, while far more had recognized the government of ousted President Burhanuddin Rabbani. The disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir of the Republic of India is not recognized by either Pakistan or the People's Republic of China.

Recognition can be implied by other acts, like the visit of the head of state, or the signing of a bilateral treaty. If implicit recognition is possible, a state may feel the need to explicitly proclaim that its acts do not constitute diplomatic recognition, like when the United States commenced its dialogue with the Palestine Liberation Organization in 1988.

Withdrawal of recognition[edit]

A state may withdraw diplomatic recognition of another state, or simply refuse to deal with that other country, after withdrawing from all diplomatic relations with that country, such as embassies and consulates, and requiring the other country to do the same. The state will appoint a protecting power to represent its interests in the other state.

The doctrine of non-recognition of illegal or immoral situations, like territorial gains achieved by force, is called the Stimson Doctrine, and has become more important since the Second World War, especially in the United Nations where it is a method of ensuring compliance with international law – for instance, in the case of Rhodesia in 1965. Withdrawal of recognition of a government is a more severe act of disapproval than the breaking of diplomatic relations.

Recognition of governments[edit]

Besides recognizing other states, states also can recognize the governments of states. This can be problematic particularly when a new government comes to power by illegal means, such as a coup d'état, or when an existing government stays in power by fixing an election. States once formally recognized both the government of a state and the state itself, but many no longer follow that practice,[5] even though, if diplomatic relations are to be maintained, it is necessary that there be a government with which to engage in diplomatic relations.[6] Countries such as the United States answer queries over the recognition of governments with the statement: "The question of recognition does not arise: we are conducting our relations with the new government."[7]

Unrecognized state[edit]

Several of the world's geo-political entities lack general international recognition, but wish to be recognized as sovereign states. The degree of de facto control these entities exert over the territories they claim varies.

Most are subnational regions with an ethnic or national identity of their own that have separated from the original parent state. Such states are commonly referred to as "break-away" states. Some of these entities are in effect internally self-governing protectorates that enjoy military protection and informal diplomatic representation abroad through another state to prevent forced reincorporation into their original states.

Note that the word "control" in this list refers to control over the area occupied, not occupation of the area claimed. Unrecognized countries may have either full control over their occupied territory, or only partial control (such as Western Sahara). In the former, the de jure governments have little or no influence in the areas they claim to rule, whereas in the latter they have varying degrees of control, and may provide essential services to people living in the areas.

Other types of recognition[edit]

Other elements that may be recognized, include occupation or annexation of territory, or belligerent rights of a party in a conflict. Recognition of the latter does not imply recognition of a state.

Formal recognition of belligerency, which is rare today, signifies that the parties to the civil war or other internal conflict "are entitled to excise belligerent rights, thus accepting that the rebel group possesses sufficient international personality to support the position of such rights and duties."[8] Extension of the rights of belligerency is usually done by other states, rather than by the government fighting the rebel group.[8] (A 1907 report by William E. Fuller for the Spanish Treaty Claims Commission noted that "A parent state never formally recognizes the insurgents as belligerents, although it may in fact treat them as such by carrying on war against them in accordance with the rules and usages of international warfare."[9])

Examples of recognition of belligerent status include:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ See Stefan Talmon, Recognition of Governments in International Law: With Particular Reference to Governments in Exile (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1998) pages 1–4
  2. ^ Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 2010, p. 403, para. 84.
  3. ^ ICJ Advisory Opinion of 22 July 2010, para. 81.
  4. ^ See, e.g., Restatement (Third) Foreign Relations Law of the United States, American Law Institute Publishers, 1990, ISBN 0-314-30138-0, § 202 (Recognition or Acceptance of States), § 203 (Recognition or Acceptance of Governments); and § 204 (Recognition and Maintaining Diplomatic Relations).
  5. ^ See for example, the oral arguments in the International Court of Justice case on Kosovo's declaration of independence. CR 2009/32, page 39 [1]
  6. ^ Since the 1970s the United States Department of State has moved away from the practice of recognizing governments. See: [1977] Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law 19–21.
  7. ^ [1974] Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law at 13; [1975] Digest of U.S. Practice in International Law at 34.
  8. ^ a b Gary D. Solis, The Law of Armed Conflict: International Humanitarian Law in War (2d ed.: Cambridge University Press, 2016), p. 163.
  9. ^ Special Report of William E. Fuller, Assistant Attorney-General: Being a Condensed Statement of the Work Done, the Questions Considered, the Principles Laid Down, and the Most Important Decisions Made by the Spanish Treaty Claims Commission from the Organization of the Commission, April 8, 1901, to April 10, 1907, Spanish Treaty Claims Commission (Government Printing Office, 1907), p. 262.
  10. ^ Roscoe Ralph Oglesby, Internal War and the Search for Normative Order (Martinus Nijhoff, 1971), p. 21.
  11. ^ a b Preventing Diplomatic Recognition of the Confederacy, 1861–1865, Milestones: 1861-1865, U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian.
  12. ^ Burrus M. Carnahan, Act of Justice: Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation and the Law of War (University Press of Kentucky 2007), p. 50.
  13. ^ a b Gerhard von Glahn & James Larry Taulbee, Law Among Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law, 11th ed. (Taylor & Francis, 2017), p. 167.
  14. ^ Robert Kagan, A Twilight Struggle: American Power and Nicaragua, 1977-1990 (The Free Press, 1996), p. 93.
  15. ^ Sewall H. Menzel, Bullets Vs. Ballots: Political Violence and Revolutionary War in El Salvador, 1979-1991 (Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994), p. 22.
  • Tozun Bahcheli, Barry Bartmann, and Henry Srebrnik; De Facto States: The Quest for Sovereignty , Routledge, (2004) online edition
  • Edgars Dunsdorfs (1975). The Baltic Dilemma, The case of the de jure recognition of incorporation of the Baltic States into the Soviet Unions by Australia. Robert Speller & Sons, New York. ISBN 0-8315-0148-0. 
  • Gerhard von Glahn (1992). Law Among Nations: An Introduction to Public International Law. Macmillan. ISBN 0-02-423175-4. 
  • Malcolm N. Shaw (2003). International Law. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53183-7. 
  • Stefan Talmon; Recognition of Governments in International Law: With Particular Reference to Governments in Exile Clarendon Press, (1998) online edition
  • Gregory Weeks; "Almost Jeffersonian: U.S. Recognition Policy toward Latin America," Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 31, 2001 online edition

Disclaimer

None of the audio/visual content is hosted on this site. All media is embedded from other sites such as GoogleVideo, Wikipedia, YouTube etc. Therefore, this site has no control over the copyright issues of the streaming media.

All issues concerning copyright violations should be aimed at the sites hosting the material. This site does not host any of the streaming media and the owner has not uploaded any of the material to the video hosting servers. Anyone can find the same content on Google Video or YouTube by themselves.

The owner of this site cannot know which documentaries are in public domain, which has been uploaded to e.g. YouTube by the owner and which has been uploaded without permission. The copyright owner must contact the source if he wants his material off the Internet completely.

Powered by YouTube
Wikipedia content is licensed under the GFDL and (CC) license